Letter from Rear Adm. Cockburn to Vice Adm. Cochrane

July 31, 1814
Report from the London Gazette:
July 31 Report from Rear Admiral Cockburn to Vice Admiral Cochrane:
…having on the 26th proceeded to the head of the Machodick river, in Virginia, where he burnt  six schooners, whilst the marines marched without opposition, over the country, on the banks of that river, and there not remaining any other place on the Virginia or St. Mary’s side of his last anchorage that he had not visited…on the 28th caused the ships to move … on the 29th proceeded with the boats and marines up the Wicomico river; he landed at Hamburgh and Chaptico , from which latter place he shipped a considerable quantity of tobacco, and visited several houses in different parts of the country, the owners of which living quietly with their families and seeming to consider themselves and the neighborhood at his disposal, he caused no farther inconvenience to them, than obliging them to furnish supplies of cattle and stock for the use of his forces.

Letter to John Armstrong from Andrew Jackson

Head Quarters 7th M: District. Fort Jackson,
31st. July 1814


          I have just received intelligence of the abandonment of Fort Mitchill by the Militia left for its defence; also that it is now garrisoned by friendly Indians, under the officer left in command of that post; and that the militia will leave Bainbridge, Hull, and Decatur, their time of service having expired. I have but the 3d. Inf. here, 451. effectives non commissioned officers and musicians included--have ordered from Forts Williams & Strother 300 Tennessee Militia. Measures have been taken to effectuate the transportation of the provisions and public stores to this place, but for want of the requisite means, there will be difficulty in getting them to fort Decatur. The medium through which we formerly received supplies broken up, and Indians in this quarter must be fed from supplies brought up the Alabama; fed and clothed they must be, or we will have the whole strength of the creek nation to fight under the banners of Spain & Britain. By Judge Toulmin, and from other sources not official, I am advised that Lieut. Col. Benton, with the 39th. and Col: Nixon Comdg. the Territorial Militia, before I arrived at this post, placed an expedition against the creeks on the Escambia. That on the march, Leut. Col: Benton being taken sick returned, and the command devolved on Col: Nixon. In prosecuting this expedition, the Col: pursued the Indians over the spanish lines. The Indians were at Pensacola, when Capt. Gordon arrived there.
       If the war continues, expence must not be taken into consideration. Energetic measures for defence, with ample means will soon put a period to it in this quarter. Without these success cannot be calculated on. As far as I am advised, the 2d. 3d. 39th. and 44th. Regts. for the defence of this District are not more than half full; the Garrisons in a very poor state of defence notwithstanding the sums which have been expended on them; but, with the above force added to the 7th. Inf and the artilerists, I trust the district can be defended, and the american character maintained.
      I shall, as soon as practicable, visit the Posts in the lower country, ordering on the 3d. Inf--and leaving this post and Decatur possessed by the Militia and friendly Indians, until the public Stores can be transported to alabama hights, when I shall, unless otherwise directed, discharge the Militia, agreeably to the wishes of the President, as expressed in yours of the 25th. June, and leave the friendly indians in the best possible condition to defend themselves and their nation. I have the honor to be, respectfully, Sir, your obt. Servt.

                                                                                                        Andrew Jackson
                                                                                                        Major Genl. Comdg.

Letter to Rachel Jackson from Andrew Jackson

Head quarters 7th. M. District Fort Jackson
July 31rst. 1814

       When I left you, I calculated with certainty to return to Nashville immediately after the Treaty, which begins tomorrow--I met on my way thither Various rumors relative to a large British force hovering on our coast, and the Spanish Governor, receiving the hostile creeks with Mcqueen & Francis at their head, with open arms & supplying them with arms and amunition, to enable them to renew the war against the united States and friendly creeks. To ascertain the truth of the Various rumors I sent Capt. John Gordon to Pensacola with a letter to the Governor--he returned evening before last and confirms, the reports, that a large British forse has landed on St. George Island, and are furnishing the Indians, with arms and amunition, and building a garrison there and intend shortly to make an attack on our frontier--The Spanish Governor, told Captain Gordon that he would feed and arm the Indians--from a confidential source Capt. Gordon was informed that in a few days a large reinforcement was expected from the Havanna--from my responsible situation--combined with this information duty compels me to hasten to Mobile to place it in a proper state of Defence, to repel any invasion that may be attempted--to which place I will set out as soon as the treaty is over, and from which place, If the duties of my office will permit I will return to Nashville, and immediately, descend the river for Neworleans, taking you & my darling little son with me--you will please therefore on the recpt of this if my wheat is not ground have it attended to by Mr. Fields, and the flower carefully put up in well seasoned barrels--and have all things in a state of readiness, that we may not be long detained--should an invasion be attempted, which will prevent me from returning to Nashville before I Vissit Neworleans I will send some confidential friend for you, who will bring you to Natchez, where I will meet you. I send a note for $183 dollars by Lt. Donelson, which I expect he will be able to collect, which I have directed him to pay over to you, and I wish a good Boat immediately prepared, for you to descend the river in, agreeable to a form sent by Colo. Butler--I have not heard from you since I left Nashville, but once, and that was a few days after I left home--I hope you & my little son and family are in good health--and that little Lyncoya has recovered his health--Tell Andrew I fear he will think I am runaway from him--but kiss him for me and say to him truly, that in all my life I never wanted more to see you & him than I do at present--and the unexpected delay of my return has heightened I believe the anxiety to see you & him--
     accept my prayers & good wishes for your healths and believe me to be affectionately yours &c &c &c

                                                                                                     Andrew Jackson
P.S. I have wrote you several letters--whether the have reached you or not I cannot say--I hope my horses have got safe back--Tell Fields to have them well fed and fattened--I have sold my young Bay and will want them in good order when I come or send for them--adieu--A.J.


Letter to John Armstrong from Andrew Jackson

Head Quarters 7th. M: District. Fort Jackson,
30th. July 1814.


        Captain Gordon, mentioned particularly in my communication of the 14th. Inst. returned last evening from Pensacola. His character for veracity intitles his report enclosed to the serious consideration, and utmost confidence of the Government.
        I also enclose the Governors answer to my communication to him by Capt. Gordon. Perhaps the laconic ambiguity in which the sentiments are couched, connected with the allusion to a subsequent answer, were dictated by the anticipation of being better prepared in a short time to avow the real intentions entertained by Spain with regard to the United States.
        I also enclose an extract from a letter transmitted under cover, from Col: R Sparks, 2d. Inf, of date 16th. July 1812. I forward it to the Department, as well on account of the source from whence it originally came, as of the novelty of the matter. The true date, from the subjects embraced, must instead of 1812, be 1814.
       I also forward a copy of a report from Capt. Jones of the 39th. Inf to Lieut. Col: Benton. It will prove, that previously to the arrival there of Capt Gordon, the Govr. had hired the hostile Indians to defend Pensacola.
      These pieces of intelligence, connected with those from various sources heretofore communicated, will determine the Government on on the wisdom and policy of the measure alluded to in my letter of the 27th. June to the Department of war. Pensacola is more important to the British arms than any other point on our south or southwest. This being guaranteed to the possession of american valour, by a bold exertion of right, Britain would be deprived of supplies constantly obtained from thence; in addition to which, a convenient harbour would be afforded our privateers, and her commerce to the West Indies vitally injured without much risk. If any measures are to be taken touching this point, expedition will be all important to complete success, as powerful reinforcements are expected to be thrown in for its defence. I have the honor to be, respectfully, Sir, Your Mo. Obt. Hum. Servt.

                                                                                                                 Andrew Jackson
                                                                                                                 Major Gel Comdg.


British soldier's acccount of the British fleet

29 July 1814
British soldier recounting the linking of British fleet ships:
“On the evening of the 29th a squadron of four frigates and several transports appeared in the offing…proved to be from the Mediterranean, having the 21st, 29th and 62nd Regiments on board, of which the two latter were proceeding to …Canada, whilst the former attached itself to that under the command of General Ross. By this very acceptable reinforcement, our numbers were increased to upwards of three thousand effective men…
Stores of provisions, fresh water, ammunition, clothing etc. were provided and magazines for the future supply of the expedition established...”

Copy of a letter from Capt. L. Austin, aid to General Brown, to the Secretary of War

Copy of a letter from Capt. L. Austin, aid to General Brown, to the Secretary of War, dated,

Head Quarters, Buffalo,
29th July 1814.
I have the honor of addressing you by desire of Gen. Brown, who is now confined by wounds received in a severe & desperate engagement with the enemy, on the afternoon and night of the 25th inst.
Our army had fallen back to Chippeway. The enemy collecting every regiment form Burlington and York, and meeting with no opposition on Lake Ontario, transported by water to Fort George, troops from Kingston and even Prescott, which enabled them to bring against us a force vastly superior, under the command of Lieut. Gen. Drummond and Major Gen. Riall. They were met by us near the falls of Niagara, where a most severe conflict ensued. The enemy disputed the ground with resolution yet were driven from every position they attempted to hold. We stormed his batteries directly in front and took possession of all his artillery. Notwithstanding his immense superiority both in numbers and position, he was completely defeated and our troops remained on the battle ground without any interruption. As however both General Brown and Gen. Scott had received several wounds, almost very chief of battalion disabled, and our men quite exhausted, it was thought prudent to retire to our encampment, which was done in good order, without any molestation from the enemy-our wounded having first been removed.
Major General Riall with the Aid de Camp of Lieut. Gen. Drummond and about 20 other officers, with 200 privates are prisoners.
The loss on both sides is immense-but no account has yet been returned. The Aid and Brigade Major of General Scott are both severely wounded, and Captain Spence, an aid of Gen. Brown most probably dead, having received 2 balls thro’ his body. Both Gens. Brown and Scott are on this side confined by their wounds. Gen. Ripley commands on the other.

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, your most obedient servant,
L. AUSTIN, A.D. Camp.
Hon. Wm. Jones, Washington.

Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-August 12, 1814.


Report by John Gordon on conditions in Pensacola

Fort Jackson,
29th. July 1814--

           Agreeably to your order, I left Fort Jackson on the 14th and reached Pensacola on the 20th. July 1814, and delivered your letter to his Excellency the Governor of Pensacola, who called for me on the evening of the same day, and observed that the Generals letter was impertinant and contained a demand of two Indian Chiefs, namely Peter McQueen and Josiah Francis, which he conceived as an insult to the Government, and that the Spaniards would die before they would comply with such demand; on the contrary the nature of the demand, and the circumstance of some americans committing depredations on the Indians within the Territorial limits of Spain without the consent of the Government, would authorise him to arm the Indians, and furnish them with provisions and amunition, which I understood him he ment doing. On the next day I saw the Indians assembled on the public Square, and hold a council for about four hours. The day following, I saw the Indians again assembled and draw provisions. I was told by some persons that they also drew amunition, but did not see it myself. Others in whom I had confidence said that they were to receive arms and amuntition as soon as I left the place, and that the Governors answer to your letter was not to be confided to me. That he wished to gain time by the delay, that he expected a considerable Military force from the Havanah, and a large British force to take possession of all the Military posts on the Gulph in the month of September, and with the assistance of their Indian allies to be able to commence active hostilities against the United States. I was also informed by several confidential persons, that some time past two British armed vessels (a Frigate and Schooner) had landed at or near the mouth of Apalachicola and had delivered to the Indians between two and three thousand stands of arms and a large quantity of amunition, and assisted in taking them some distance up the river to be distributed, and then put to Sea--since which there had arrived three other armed vessels (two Brigs and a Schooner) and landed somewhere in the neighborhood of that place with a considerable number of troops--were building a fort and planing an expedition against some of our military posts on the Alabama, to be carried on by six hundred British and what Indians can be collected in that quarter. I was informed, that in a few days after Col: Carson left Pensacola, that Peter McQueen left that place for Apalachicola and had not returned, also that a British armed schooner had left that place for Apalachicola the day before I reached it and had taken Josiah Francis on board. It was stated by all I conversed with, that the Indians were much in the habit of killing and driving the cattle belonging to the citizens of the United States, and I saw a party come in my self with beef which they said they had taken from the inhabitants at the Tensaw. A rumor reached Pensacola the evening before I left it-- that there was a Declaration of war by Spain against the United States, but not certain.

                                                                                                             John Gordon


British comments re: peace treaty negotiations in Maryland Gazette

July 28, 1814
May 25, 1814
“The latest private accounts which we have received from Paris lead us to believe , that the great work of pacific negotiation will not be brought to an end so soon as has for some time past been expected. The chief basis, and indeed all the principal points in the treaty, is understood to have been long since agreed upon, and the outline to be nearly the same……It is now understood that these matters will not be settled at a Congress, but by commissioners named by the … belligerents. Our correspondent writes that between and 30 and 40,000 of the British troops are to be embarked in the Garoane for Ireland and a large body for America. We trust that the latter will be sufficiently numerous to terminate the war properly.
There is in this country such a contempt for the American government, that we cannot bring ourselves to think them of consequence enough to require any effort; and thus the reptiles escape, because we will not take the trouble to crush them. It should be remembered however, that their venom is more that proportionate to their bulk, or to their courage; and besides, by a feeble and protracted warfare, we shall teach them discipline to our own cost. We have now a formidable army, accustomed to conquer…..

Letter re: Maryland's defenses vs. expections of govenrment from Maryland Gazette

July 28, 1814


“A writer in a late National Intelligencer, who signs himself “Veritas” in attempting to show that the executives of Maryland have in some recent instances been neglectful of their duty, has disclosed his ignorance….Little attention is due to the effusions of a mind thus trammeled by ignorance and stupidity but lest the assertions that Veritas has made in his communication should gain ground among…our citizens…we have thought proper to refute them…When the general government has so often refused that aid to the individual states which they were justified by the constitution of the union in demanding, it could hardly be expected that governor Winder or any other governor of a sovereign and independent state, would assemble the military force under his command and march to the district of Columbia, as a body guard to the president, when he has been authorized by congress to make a requisition of one hundred thousand militia and raise an army of sixty five thousand  men.  Yet he (Veritas) seems to think that if the enemy should cut his way through the country to the seat of government, Winder would be responsible for the consequences; and that neither president Madison nor his prime minister of war, Armstrong, could be possibly brought in for a share of the blame. In estimating the physical strength of the three lower counties of this state, St. Mary’s, Charles, and Calvert, ….he has run up their numbers….
Because the general government has refused to Maryland that protection which she had a right to demand, curses are to be heaped on the head of our commander in chief (meaning governor of Maryland) who has done far more than duty ever required of him in making arrangements for our defense. ….this writer pretend(ed) to show that one half of the effective militia of Calvert, Charles and St. Mary’s ….. might have checked the depredatory incursions of the British had they been properly organized by …Winder….Whatever force could be collected in these counties has been embodied; besides they have received assistance…yet the enemy, possessing the means of moving with so much greater facility than our own troops, it is impossible that they should be met in time to prevent the ravage and depredations they are disposed to make….. Had the president of the United States shown an equal readiness to comply with the duties imposed on him by the constitution and laws of this great commonwealth, so many families would not now have to deplore the ruin of their fortunes, and the afflictions which they now suffer.
“Nothing can be more idle,” says he (Veritas), “than that Barney’s flotilla invited the aggressions of the adversary” because when it was not in existence, he committed depredations at Havre de Grace, Fredericktown and Kent, but it is as evident to every one as that two and two make four, that this flotilla was the cause of all the sufferings which our fellow-citizens in the above mentioned counties have been made to feel. The want of arms has never yet been made a complaint against the executive….and the military of Maryland at this time are perhaps as well furnished in that respect as most states in the union….When the enemy were destroying the property of individuals along the banks of the Patuxent, several companies of militia from Anne Arundel were sent to their assistance…..impressed on the public mind a belief, that they are “in a great degree superfluous” and that every state must look out for the means of its own defense that wishes to maintain its independence and sovereignty, without trusting to the national resources for relief.”

Liege Subjects

Portland, Maine
July 28, 1814

At the capture of Eastport, we understand that 7 days were allowed the inhabitants to depart, at its expiration to come forward and swear allegiance to the base and perfidious government of Britain. As might be expected, but few came off-- like ancient Sodom, there were scarcely 7 sufficiently righteous to prefer the priveleges of our Republic to the allurements of corrupted Britain-- to the intrigues of that Political Sodom.
J.D. Weston, Esq, a Federal Representative in our States Legislature, has also confirmed his British principles, and is appointed Chief Magistrate of the Town.


Battle of Chippewa


Copy of a letter from J.B. Varnum, Jr. to Abraham Bradley, jr, dated
Buffaloe, July 27, 1814.
I have but just time to inform you that amost sanguinary battle was fought on the evening of 25th inst. near Chippeway. Maj. Gen. Drummond came up with a large reinforcement from Kingston, and immediately moved up against our army with a force nearly double our numbers. The battle commenced about 7 o’clock in evening, and continued until eleven at night. Our army behaved most gallantly-fought to desperation-but the enemy were too numerous from them. The whole of the enemy’s artillery was twice taken and retaken. The slaughter on both sides was dreadful. Our first brigade was almost annihilated; but one field officer in the whole brigade escaped death of severe wounds. Gen. Brown & Gen. Scott were both severely wounded. One of Gen. Brown’s aids was mortally wounded, and both of General Scott’s severely. Maj. M’Farland of the 1st was killed. Col.Brady, Majors M’Neill, Levenworth, Brooke, Jessup and many other worthy officers wounded. It is impossible to say what is the full extent of our loss. A small proportion of our wounded fell into the hands of the enemy; besides, I fear, some prisoners. The enemy was so severely cut to pieces that they did not pursue our army. Several most brilliant charges were made by Gen. Scott’s brigade. The enemy’s lines completely broken, and upwards of 200 prisoners made, among whom are Maj. Gen. RIALL and suite, one of Gen. Drammond’s aids, and fifteen other officers. The prisoners are now here-Riall badly wounded. I cannot say for certainty, but presume the remnant of our army will immediately re-cross the Niagara.

I will give you other particulars next mail. We shall lose the services of Gen. Brown and Gen. Scott the rest of the campaign.

Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-August 12, 1814.

Alexandria, July 27

Alexandria, July 27.

A check.-A gentleman who was attached to the militia under Gen. Stewart, arrived in town yesterday and informed that on Sunday the British advanced with one schooner and a number of barges to Cedar Point warehouse, in Charles county, Md. And had commenced removing the tobacco, when they were attacked by a body of men under Gen. Stewart with two six pounders and musquery, and repulsed after seeing fire to the warehouse, without the loss of a man on our side. The enemy fired round shot, shells and rockets; but the militia soon found that they were not so terrible as they had at first supposed, and advanced boldly up to the shore, and made them retreat precipitately and leave their plunder behind. Our informant thinks the enemy suffered considerably, as they had to tow off the schooner, and some shot appeared to hit the barges.
On the 25th instant, Gen. Winder and his suite, with Major Stewart, of the 36th Infantry, visited and surveyed Fort Washington, and the contemplated works on the Warburton Hill, covering that strong position and the river channel, leaving orders to stop all vessels passing it.


Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-August 5, 1814.


Update From Plattsburgh

Extract of a letter to the Editor of the Argus, dated.
Plattsburgh, July 27, 1814

"On Saturday last; two of our gunboats captured a raft near the lines, on its way to the enemy, consisting of an immense quantity of plank, several spars, and 27 barrels of tar. Eight persons were taken on the raft, who are citizens of the United States- they were detained on board the fleet. The enemy's new vessel, it is ascertained, is not in so great forwardness as hererofore represented. Our troops remain unmolested at Champlain. The enemy have drawn off their forces, it is believed, to the upper country.
"A Montreal paper of Saturday last, 23d inst. states that Gen. Riall had garrisoned Forts George and Niagra, and fallen back to Twenty Mile Creek, where he was collecting reinforcements to attack Gen. Brown, &c. that Major Evans was sent out to observe the movements of the enemy, where he was abuscaded by Gen. Scott, (Swift) but broke through the American forces, killed Gen. Scott (Swift) and 17 of his men and escaped. It states that Maj. Evans was at one time a prisoner. The British fleet was not out. Several small vessels had left Kingston with reinforcements, &c. for Gen. Riall. Several detachments of troops have lately arrived at Quebec.


Narrative of movements of the enemy in St. Mary's county from Maryland Gazette

July 26, 1814
From the Federal Republican of July 26 as reproduced in the MARYLAND GAZETTE AND POLITICAL INTELLIGENCER of August 4, 1814:
The following narrative of military operations on the Patuxent, from the (indecipherable) to the 23rd instant, will be read with interest…It was communicated by a gentleman to whom we have been repeatedly indebted for correct information from that quarter:
On last Wednesday week at detachment from the enemy’s shipping in the Patuxent, in pursuit of stock, landed at Mr. Benedict Heard’s in St. Mary’s. Lieutenant Ashton immediately detached in pursuit of them - Capt Blacks___ rifle corps and Capt. Brown’s company of infantry. The enemy discovered them and retreated with great precipitation to their barges. On the next day they burnt every house on the land, all of which had been recently repaired – this loss is estimated at upwards of four thousand dollars – On Saturday the Severn, a new ship built last year of fir, carrying 36 guns, a bomb ship carrying__ guns with four small captured sloops, ascending the Patuxent as high as Sheridan’s Point, about eight miles below Benedict. On Sunday they ascended as high as God’s Grace (Sp?), the property of the late George Mackall, when they debarked nearly 500 men, and demanded about 20 hogshead of tobacco belonging to Mr. Bittingsly, the late tenant, and which they carried off, except three hogsheads, which they gave to an overseer or tenant of Doctor Dell’s. From thence they marched about 650 marines to Huntington, nearly seven miles, where they burnt the warehouse. Upon their return some of their men were so much exhausted as to render it necessary for them to be moved in ox carts.
On Tuesday they landed a very considerable force (not sixteen only as reported in the National Intelligencer) and marched to the Calvert Court House which, with the gaol, they destroyed. On Monday the shipping (except the detachment in the Patuxent) disappeared from the mouth of the Patuxent and a heavy force appeared off Breton’s Bay on Monday night. On Tuesday morning they landed near Newtown, a heavy force which marched to the right of Leonardtown. The two flanking parties, it is stated, reached the rear of the town a few minutes after the barges reached the landing.- Their whole force in this expedition was estimated to be about 1,500 men. – During their stay in the village, which was till about 2 o’clock, they behaved with great politeness to the ladies, respected private property wherever the proprietors remained at home, destroyed about 100 bbls. of supplies belonging to col. Carberry regiment, the whole of Mr. Haislip’s store, and the furniture, clothing and bedding of captains Forrest and Millard, all of whom had left town. They got possession of some muskets belonging to the state, which they broke to pieces saying they were only fit to stick frogs with. Mrs. Thomson and Miss Eliza Key were very instrumental in saving the court house, stating that it was sometimes a place for divine worship. On Thursday a detachment of about 500, inclusive of sailors, landed from the Patuxent shipping near Trent Hall. The sailors were armed with boarding pikes and cutlasses (for the cavalry). They ascended into the country in quest of a quantity of tobacco and other property belonging to Mr. W. Kilgour, which he had removed about three miles to a Mr. Alvey’s as a place of safety. The property was in a barn and covered with Alvey’s wheat. This they deliberately removed for some time; they at length became tired and rolled out 4 hogshead of tobacco which they gave Alvey as an equivalent for the remaining wheat and a saddle they took from him – the barn was then burnt with all the tobacco. They then under the direction of a negro of Mr. Kilgour’s who had gone to them, patiently selected the bacon and other things belonging to him, and denied to Mrs. Kilgour, who was there, except a small portion of necessaries for her immediate use, saying that they had determined to destroy everything which they should find which had been removed by the proprietors; that they would act otherwise where they remained at home. They found eight hogsheads of tobacco concealed in the woods near the water, which they carried off with a great deal of stock. Mr. Kilgour’s loss is ruinous. He has a large family of young children, (and with) that humanity for which he has always been distinguished, he had taken into his family the infant and unprovided children of the late Rev. Mr. Smoot. As soon as General Stuart received intelligence that the enemy were landing he moved with his whole force in pursuit of them. He arrived at High Hill where he saw the enemy’s barges prepared to cover the retreat of their men over the plain, and a frigate with her broadside ready for the same object. He could not receive any intelligence of the course they had taken till it was disclosed by the smoke ascending from Alvey’s barn. To get between them and their shipping he must necessarily have exposed his force to a galling fire from their shipping and give their infantry the advantage of a high commanding situation; to get in their front, so as to  (indecipherable) them in their retreat , he must have taken a circuitous route of seven miles. Independent of all this, his force was much inferior to that of theirs; he therefore returned to his encampment and he has ordered out all of his brigade. On Friday the enemy’s vessels left their station at Benedict. A deserter states their object to be Annapolis; that Admiral Cochrane has arrived; that they have neither barges nor vessels; that at present Barney’s force is too formidable for them; that the Severn only draws thirteen feet of water, was built for the American station; that a very heavy land force is expected – that the bomb vessel only draws ten feet. – No part  of St. Mary’s county is deemed secure; the inhabitants are removing their cattle and negroes into the interior, their crops are abandoned and the frequent exaggerated statements of the force and movements of the enemy, produce such dismay and consternation, as would melt the soul of every man, except of our wicked and callous rulers, who have plunged us into hostilities and invited the British shipping into the heart of our country, withheld from us that aid, which we have a constitutional right to ask, and impose upon us heavy taxes, to support a war from foreign conquest, while they suffer the enemy to deprive us of our agriculture, the only source from which these taxes can be paid. Bad as these sufferings are they do not restrain the calumnies of democracy. Toryism and cowardice are charged to those men who repair to the field and do everything their limited means can do – Charles county at this moment has in the service almost every man capable of bearing arms. St. Mary’s has also out a great many. We are told of those thirteen autocratic gentlemen, who in 1808 by an address to the president, urged the national government to a declaration of war, and pledged them their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honor, in support of any measures which he might adopt – not one of them save Major Mathews has ever done one hour’s service!!! This for Charles; very different is the case in St. Mary’s. There they have redeemed their pledge that is a great many of them! Nothing but a very speedy peace can save this peninsula from irretrievable ruin. Their government has abandoned them for their heresies, they are not deemed worthy of a shilling’s expenditure; but still they are called on to assist in a war to the prevention of which they used every constitutional means. Let them call county meetings and take the sense of the inhabitants as to the course which their perilous situation calls for. While the youth of their counties, under their gallant and beloved general, are doing every thing enjoined by patriotism, let the old men convene and do what is practicable to avert our impending ruin.

Letter to the Editor of the Maryland Gazette

July 26, 1814
From the Federal Republican of July 26 as reproduced in the MARYLAND GAZETTE AND POLITICAL INTELLIGENCER of August 4, 1814:
Extract of a letter to the Editor,
“On Saturday Admiral Cockburn, with 1200 marines, and about 400 sailors, landed on the farm of John Kilgour, Esq. at the mouth of St. Clement’s Bay. Mr. Kilgour had repaired to camp, leaving a young infant with his sisters. (Mrs. Kilgour is lately dead.) Anxious about the fate of his sisters and children, he obtained a furlough and hurried home. In a few minutes after his arrival the enemy debarked at his landing, treated him with respect, declaring they must have stock. They took from him 20 head of cattle, 21 sheep, much poultry, and some vegetables. During their stay Admiral Cockburn remarked that he should respect private buildings, unless fired on by the militia from them; that he should take no (indecipherable) unless found in arms; that reinforcements had arrived that morning; and that he should immediate pay Washington a visit. He left I the room occupied by the officers, a () 300 in silver. Mr. Kilgour immediately informed Gen. Stuart of these occurrences- Mr. Kilgour asked permission to count the marines. It was granted him.”

Letter from Mateo Gonzalez Manrique

26th. July 1814.


            I have received by Captain John Gordon the communication you addressed me from your head-quarters at Fort Jackson, bearing date the 12th. Inst.
            The delay which has taken place, has arisen from no other source, than the perplexity in which I found myself, in deciding whether I should return your letter without reply in imitation of the conduct of Genl. Flournoy in conformity to the order of President Madison, or make a frank reply to the two points which are the subject of it. The respect and attention which your person, and employment exact, have decided me to the more generous part, and that which is peculiar to the Spanish character, waving the consideration that the conduct of the President, merits imitation in this instance.
          The information you have received is it is presumed without foundation, as it is evident that no act direct, or indirect has eminated from this Government, from which the disagreeable consequences can result, as will presently appear
           Two reports have reach you, the one that those Indians who are inimical to the United States, and at peace with Spain, have sought, and contrary to justice, have obtained an asylum within our Territory, where they are maintained by order of the Governor of Pensacola, and upon these grounds you require that Francis, McQueen, and whatever other Creek-cheifs there may be, be immediately arrested an sent to you for punishment.
         These cheifs not being, at this time, in this place it would be impossible to accede to such a request as you make, even admitting that Spain forgetful of that humanity with which she has ever afforded a shelter to the Indians that border in these possessions, and of the treaties made with the Creek-Indians when we conquered Florida, as well as those concluded with the English, could comply with your wishes, so opposite to the {mere} simple hospitality which the Indians in their present miserable condition, have a right to claim at our hands; And even were those cheifs now, in this place, Spain could never forget the laws of Nations of her observance of which,  she has given ample proofs to the United-States, in not having demanded of them the traitors, insurgents, incendiaries, and even the assassins of her cheifs, namely [Jose Bernardo Maximiliano] Gutierrez [de Lara], [Jose Alvarez de] Toledo, and many others whom the American Government protects, and maintains, in committing hostilities, in fomenting the revolution, and lighting up the flames of discord in the internal provinces of the Kingdom of Mexico.
           The other report you have received is that the officer who commands his Britanic Majesty's frigate the Orpheus, has been suffered to land in our territory 25000 stand of arms, and 300 barrels of ammunition with the manifest design of enabling the Creeks to renew a sanguinary war against the United States.
           I would be glad to know what authority you have for saying that the river Apalachacola belongs to us. The Government of the United States, by whose orders, I suppose you act, cannot be ignorant of the treaty existing between Great Britain and the Creek-Indians when Spain took possession of Florida, and that this is the same treaty that now exists between Spain, and those Indians.
           Turn your eyes to the Isle of Barataria, and you will there perceive that within the very Territory of the United States, Pirates are sheltered and protected with the manifest design of committing hostilities by sea, upon the Merchant-vessels of Spain, and with such scandalous notoriety that the cargoes of our vessels taken by those Pirates, have been sold in Louisiana as was the case with the Pastora (shepardess) and other vessels.
           This is sufficient to convince, you, Sir, that Spain always conforming to principles of friendship & harmony and to that religious scrupulousness, with which, at all times, and with all nations, she has observed her treaties, will not alter her conduct, unless compelled by the most extreme necessity (which it is hoped will not be the case) while the motives which could induce it, are so insufficient.
           The necessity of fulfilling my duty does not diminish my desire of obliging you in whatever may contribute to your personal gratification. God preserve you many years; Yr. Obt. Servt.

                                                                                  Mateo Gonzalez Manrique

"There was a dreadful battle fought yesterday evening"

The steam-boat Fulton, Capt. Bunker, arrived here at 6 this morning from Albany,
Extract of a letter to a gentleman in Albany, dated Buffalo, July 26.
"There was a dreadful battle fought yesterday evening, between Chippewa and Queenstown. It commenced at six o'clock and continued till half after ten. There then lay on the battle field 2400 men killed and wounded. We had in our whole army 4000 men. The enemy received during the action a reinforcement of 2500 men. They lost all their artillery (say nine pieces) and three hundred prisoners, among whom are the famous, General Riall with all his suite. The General said to be badly wounded. gens. Brown and Scott are both wounded, the former in two places."

Federal salutes were this morning fired from the arsenal in the Colonie, and from the depot at Greenbush- said to be in honor of the above victory, and for the pre-capture of Mackinaw by a detachment of our troops from Detroit.

Published in the Argus - August 9, 1814


Head Quarters Chippewa, July 25, 1814.

Head Quarters Chippewa, July 25, 1814.

DEAR SIR,-On that 23d inst. I received a letter by express from Gen. Gaines, advising me that on the 20th the heavy guns I had ordered from the harbor, to enable one to operate against Forts George and Niagara, were blockaded in that port, together with the rifle regiment I had ordered up with them. I had ordered these guns and troops in boats, provided the Commodore should deem it prudent or proper to convey them in his fleet not doubting but that he would have been upon the Lake for their protection, and that the enemy would have been driven into port or captured. As General Gaines informed me that the Commodore was confined to his bed with a fever, and that he did not know when the fleet would sail, or when the guns and forces that I had been expecting would even leave Sackett’s Harbor, I have thought it proper to change my position, with a view to other objects. You know how greatly I am disappointed and therefore will not dwell upon that painful subject. And you can best perceive, how much has been lost by the delay,-and the command of Lake Ontario being with the enemy-reliances being placed upon a different state of things. The Indians all left me some time since. It is said that they will return, but this you will perceive depends upon circumstances. The reinforcements ordered on from the West have not arrived.

Yours, respectly and truly,
Hon. Secretary of War,


Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-August 12, 1814.