General Brown's victory on the plains of Chippawa

General Brown’s victory on the plains of Chippawa: with a mixed force of regulars, volunteers and a few Indians, over a superior force of the enemy, is we hope, the presage of a series of successes in that quarter. Gen. Brown in his letter looks forward to the sailing of our Fleet to co operate with him; and by the paragraphs in the Northern plains it is more than probably Chauncey is now on the Lake, if not on the point where Gen. B. expected to meet him. The same papers inform us that the destination of our fleet is supposed to be the head of the Lake for the purpose of co operation with our military force now in Canada; and also, that the British ship now building without which the British squadron will probably not come out to engage us, will not be finished in less than six weeks. We have every reason to hope that the joining exertions of our military and naval force will before that time, have effected very important objects.

Nat. Intel.


Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-July 22, 1814.



From the Georgia Arugs, Extra, July 21.

From the Georgia Argus, Extra, July 21.

From the following intelligence communicated by Col. Hawkins to our Executive, it will obviously appear, that it is the design of the enemy to renew the Creek war, and bring the Big Warrior and his followers into the measures. The information is from a source entitled to the fullest credit.
Bay St. Louis, June 17, 1814.
“On the 8th inst. the schooner Captain, Tender to the British frigate Orpheus, Captain Pigot, arrived at this place with information that he had just landed 5000 stand of arms and cartridges in proportion for the supply of the Indians’ at Apalachicola, where he left the frigate Orpheus landing on St. George’s island 300 and odd troops, a colonel and nine commissioned officers, where they intended erecting a fortification, and which was actually commenced. Couriers were daily going to and from Apalachicola from Pensacola, reporting, the actual arrival of said vessels, and that they had landed 22,000 stand of arms and cartridges in proportion. A store has been erected for the reception of said arms and ammunition. Report of couriers had been sent to the Big Warrior, holding out inducements and propositions for his taking an interest in the war party. The Big Warrior, as was reported, replied, that he had been so often deceived in their engagements that he could no longer place reliance in words-that he must have further proofs of their sincerity, before he could place any reliance on their professions or listen in any way to their entreaties.
Despatches have been sent by express to Mobile, Tensaw and Fort Claiborne.


Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-August 5, 1814.

Letter to William Charles Cole Claiborne from Andrew Jackson

Head Quarters 7th. M: District Fort Jackson,
21st. July 1814.


               This morning I was presented with a new British musket, given to a friendly Indian by those at Apalachicola Bay. Information has been received by this fellow, tending to confirm the rumor of a considerable British force having landed there with a large quantity of arms and other munitions of war and of intentions to strike a decisive blow against the lower country. Mobile and orleans are of such importance as to hold out strong inducements to them; and I have no doubt these will be their objects, combined with that of exciting the black population to insurrection & massacre. At such a crisis, I must look to the constituted authorities of the state of orleans for such support as will be effective in any emergency--and I trust this support will be afforded with promptitude whenever required. Therefore, to render the lower country defencible you will forthwith cause to be organized of the Militia of the state of orleans fifteen companies, each containing one hundred men, officered and equipped in the best possible manner, which are to be held in readiness to take the field at a moments warning.
            From the London prints it appears that Spain  will attempt to reposses herself of Louisianna; and as far as British influence can be urged, it will be employed I have no doubt, to this effect. I have the honor to be respectfully your Mo. Obt. Servt.

                                                                                            Andrew Jackson
                                                                                            Major Genl. Comdg.

Courtesy of the Andrew Jackson Papers


Letter from John Armstrong to Andrew Jackson

War Dept.
18 July 1814.


              I have the honor to acknowlege the receit of your letter of the 27th of June last. The case you put is a very strong one & if all the circumstances stated by you unite, the conclusion is inevitable. It becomes our duty to carry our arms where we find our enemies. It is believed, and I am so directed by the President to say,  that there is a disposition on the part of the Spanish Government not to break with the U.S. nor to encourage any conduct on the part of her subordinate Agents, having a tendancy to such rupture. We must therefore in this case be careful to ascertain facts & even to distinguish between what, on the part of the Spanish authorities, may be the effect of menace & compulsion, or of choice & policy. The result of this enquiry must govern. If they admit, feed, arm and cooperate with the British and hostile Indians, we must strike on the broad principle of self-preservation. Under other & different circumstances, we must forebear. Mr. Read is appointed a Capt. & Mr. Call a 1st. Lt. in the 44th. Regt. I am Sir very respectfully your most obed. servant

                                                                             J. Armstrong


Letter from Andrew Jackson to Rachel Jackson

Head quarters 7th. M. District--Fort Jackson
July 16th. 1814

My Love--

          I reached this place on the 10th. instant, found the Indians through whom we passed apparently friendly--Rumor states, that the followers of the Prophet, Hillishaga or Francis, and the leader of the war party McQueen--has gone to pensacola with their families, and have been recd. with great attention by the Spanish Governor, and has been furnished with arms and amunition by the British {Goverment}. I have taken the best means in my power to assertain the truth of these reports in the shortest time--
        Should not the hostile attitude of they war party, supported by British Troops, detain me in the nation--I shall be able to leave this on the 10th proximo, for Tennessee--The chiefs are to meet me here on the first of next month--and the convention with them cannot take up more time than five days, in five more I can make the necessary erangements for the support & defence of the chain of garrisons, from Georgia to the alabama heights--This being done unless war rages, I shall immediately set out for Nashville--I hope my Brown filly & the sorrell horse that I was compelled to leave on the way has reached home--I have to ask you my love to charge the overseer to have them in good order when I return--I am induced to believe that this is a healthy country--the soldiers here are unusually healthy--and my Escort commanded by  Lt. Donelson all enjoy health--you can inform Mrs. Caffery that her son is well--
        with my prays for your health, and that of my little andrew, and compliments to all friends I am with sincere respect your affectionate Husband

Andrew Jackson

P.S. It is anough to make Humanity shuddar to see the distressed situation of the Indians, Eight thousand are kept alive, being fed by the Goverment daily--and I fear, should they be supported by foreign aid, we will have half of the men we are feeding to keep from starvation to fight--
       The bearer of this letter is Lt. Colonel Carson, who I beg leave to introduce to your acquaintance, and polite attention--the Colo. if he calls can give you a full account of the prospects here--adieu--A.J.

Courtesy of the Andrew Jackson Papers Project 

Oath of allegiance to King George III

Extract of a letter from Dennisville, July 16, 1814, to the Editors of the Boston Gazette.

"The principal particulars of the capture of Eastport, I presume you have already obtained. It is said the enemy intend fortifying the Island, and building a Dry Dock, at a place called Driver's Cove--It is now a place of rendezvous for their shipping.-- There is now a great quantity of Dry Goods on the Island, belonging to merchants in Boston, New York, &c. brought over by neutrals; and amounting, it is said; to $300,00.--200 of the 99th regiment arrived at East Port yesterday, and were sent to St. Andrews; every precaution having been made to secure the peace and safety of the town. I send you a copy of the
ROYAL PROCLAMATION. By Capt. Sir Thomas Haady, Bart. commanding the Naval Droces, and Lt. Col. Andrew Pilkington, commanding the Land Forces of his Britannick Majesty, in the Bay of Passamaquoddy.

 WHEREAS, His Royal Highness the Prince Regent of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, has been pleased to signify his pleasure, that the Islands in the Bay of Passamaquoddy should be occupied in the name of his Britannick Majesty, and the said Island having been surrendered to the forces under orders by Vice Admiral the Hon. Sir Alexander Cochrane, K.B. and his Excellency Lieut. Gen. Sir Jno. Sherbrooke, K B. :--
This is to give notice to all whom it may concern, that the Municipal Laws established by the American Government, for the peace and tranquility of these Islands, are to remain in force until further orders.
All persons at present in these Islands are to appear before us on Saturday next, at 10 o'clock in the forenoon, on the ground near the School-House, and declare their intentions, whether they will take the oath, will be required to depart from the Islands in the course of seven days from the date hereof, unless special permission be granted to them to remain for a longer period.
I,___, so swear that I will bear true faith and allegiance to his B.M. King George the Third, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, his heirs and successors, and that I will not directly, or indirectly serve or carry arms against them or their allies by sea or land. So help me God,
God Save the King.
Eastport, July 15, 1814.

"...the odious practice hitherto assumed in our army"

From the Plattsburgh Northern Herald.

Mr. Printer,
I herewith present to you, and through the medium of your paper, to the public, extracts of a General order, prohibiting, in future, the odious practice hitherto assumed in our army by individual subordinate officers, of beating and maltreating the soldiers under their command, for the slightest offence or misconduct. This Order, issued to the army under the command of Maj. Gen. Izard, reflects the highest hnor on the humanity and patriotism of the General. It breathes a spirit of consolation to me and my fellow soldiers. This inhuman and unfeeling practices, which has been two long indulged, has a direct tendency to damp the ardor and depress the spirit of the soldier, and is persisted in would inevitably destroy that confidence and respect which is due from a soldier to a worthy commander-and which is so necessary to the complete organization of an army.
The Americans have been nurtured in the lap of liberty and equality. They now consider themselves engaged in protecting that liberty, which the valor of their fathers won, and which is so dear to every American-they are ready, at the expence of their lives, to resist, with manly firmness and fortitude, the attempt of every enemy to their country--but they behold, with indignant scorn, the officer, who, regardless of his duty, attempts to assume the rights not his own, and to castigate them for crimes only imaginary. A. SOLDIER.

The following is an extract of the order alluded to.
"Adj. Gen. Officer, Plattsburgh, July 16, 1814.
"The General has learnt with surprise, that instances have of late occured of punishments being privately inflicted by stripes on soldiers of the army.
"The names of those persons who have rendered themselves guilty of this breach of the laws of our country, are not yet reported.
"It is strictly enjoined on all officers to exert themselves, to put an immediate stop to so flagrant an outrage against the pride and dignity of American soldiers.
"The officer of every grade, is not the only leader of men, intrusted to his charge in the hour of battle- but should be their protector, guardian and friend, in the repose of camp or quarters.
"The assumption of authority on the part of individual officers, frequently youths of the lowest grades, to inflict ingnominious blows on the memebers of a profession, whose essence is honor, must be marked with the strongest reprobation, by every feeling man.
"The Inspector's department will immediately report the names of those who shall violate the laws and orders on this subject."


Defensive Measures


We understand, are already arranged by the War department to guard against and repel the depredations of the enemy on the shores of the waters adjacent to this district. It is said that a camp of about two thousand regular troops of whom 200 are to be dragoons, is to be established at some point between the Patuxent & Potomac, so as to be able to send out, at the shortest notice, detachments to any point invaded or menaced on either river. Requisitions of militia, it is also said, are to be held in readiness to aid this force in repelling any attack on this city of a more formidable character, if attempted. These measures cannot but afford much satisfaction to the people of this district and of the adjoining country as it will relieve them from the liability to perform military service except on really urgent occasions.


Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-July 15, 1814.

Letter from John Williams to Andrew Jackson

July 15th 1814.

Dear Genl.

           When at Washington the Secretary of War informed me that the 39th was one of the four Regiments to compose your division--It is all important that the 39th should be filled as soon as possible--The recruiting service in Tennessee is at present gloomy indeed--I suggested to Genl. Armstrong the propriety of permitting all the soldiers of the 39th to return on furlough on condition that they would reinlist for five years or during the War--He agreed to the policy of such a measure and said if the interest of the public service would admit of such an arrangement it might take place--And that he would write you on the subject and submit it to your discretion--Understanding since my return from Washington that the 39th is ordered back from Fort Stoddert to Fort Jackson I have ordered Lieut Hindman & Sergeant Dearing to proceed with funds to the Regt. and make an experiment of what can be done in that quarter--Since writing the above I have recd. several blank recruiting returns from my recruiting officers--Unless more success attends the recruiting officers, the 39th will not have one hundred men in it next January--In a few days I will leave home and endeavor to recindle every spark of patriotism in the country-- The officers who have been recruiting in Tennessee during the summer have had little or no success--Unless something can be done I shall have a Regement of officers without men--And your division will have in it but few soldiers. My pride is wounded at the prospect of having no soldiers--If you will permit all who will reenlist to return on furlough I will send them all thro' the country recruiting Almost every soldier can get some one of his acquaintances to enlist--Our State has more reputation to the Northward than I am afraid we shall be able to maintain--Government has furnished the 39th with $50,000 for recruiting--and has ordered on to this place cloths arms accoutrements &c for one thousand men--Pray do among the militia what you can for the 39th I have the honor to be with great respect your obt Servt

                                                                                                             John Williams


"I have every prospect of success"


HMS. Tonnant Bermuda 14 July 1814

My Lord
…… (Cochrane sends a gift from America to the Earl’s wife) it will give me the Greatest pleasure if I can be made Useful in forwarding any of the productions of this Western World, … unfortunately the fate of France was not determined in sufficient time for reinforcements to Arrive before the hot weather set in…. Lord Melville will show Your Lordship what I have done with respect to the Indians Two Thousand Men would Give to Gt. Britain the Command of that Country—and New Orleans,— Major Nicolls of the Marines will I hope be able to bring all the Indian Tribes to act in Concert together, I have sent about Nine Hundred Marines to the Chesapeake to act under Admiral Cockburn—who has been Annoying the Americans A good deal of late— with this force making partial Attacks and Shifting from place to place I trust to be Able to find the Enemy full employment for all his troops in Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania.—without detaching to the Canada Frontier.

If Troops Arrive soon and the point of Attack is directed towards Baltimore I have every prospect of Success and Washington Will be equally Accessible They may be either destroyed or laid under Contribution, as the Occasion may require, and I have not a doubt of raising any Number of Black troops for the prosecution of the War, but I am not equally Certain that they Will Volunteer their Services to the West India Regiments, Their bent is to Obtain Settlements in the British Colonies in N America—where they will be most Useful Subjects; from their Hatred to the citizens of the United States I have already a small Corps in Arms and now that the Marines are gone to Virginia they will rapidly increase.

Conceiving that it is in view to attack the enemy in that Quarter I have directed Horses to be Collected and placed upon Islands that are under our Control. I beg to recommend that some Thousand sets of dragoon Accoutrements be sent out, and the Same Number of Riffles— the Blacks are all Good Horsemen and thousands will Join upon their Masters Horses—and they will only require to be Clothed and Accoutered, (with the Assistance of Officers, to bring them into a little regularity) to be as good Cossacks as any in the Russian Army—and I believe more terrific to the Americans than any troops that could be brought forward. I have it much at heart to give them a complete drubbing before Peace is made—when I trust their Northern limits will be circumscribed and the Command of the Mississippi wrested from them. 

I have the Honor to be with the greatest respect Your Lordships Most Obedient and Humble Servant

Alexander Cochrane

Ltr. Blaming Barney's Presence for Destruction on the Patuxent

July 14, 1814

Letter from Thos. E. King to Benjamin King
 Dear Sir:
         I received your letter on Sunday last and was very glad to hear you are well but I am sorry to see you are so much influenced by Dr. Blake as to change your political sentiments and have such a mean opinion of the citizens of Calvert the place that gave you birth to think that the militia could not fight for looking at the mean marines that came down for the defense of old Barney who has been the means of ruining Calvert for if he had never of come in the Patuxent the British would never have thought nor had an idea that they could come as high as Lower Marlboro in the world but by his going down the Bay and giving them a challenge as it were he could not think they would let him return without following him up and he pitched on the Patuxent as a place of safety and as he knew Calvert, St. Mary’s, Charles and Prince George’s County were all Federalist, he thought it would be the means of making them all advocates of old Jim Madison but it has enraged them so that a great many that were in favor of him now are abusing him every day but I think when I tell the mischief the British have done it will be enough to make you and every man abuse Jim Madison and old Barney in Hell if you could.

 Now I will I will go on to tell you the damage that has been done since old Barney has been blockaded in St. Leonard’s Creek.  in the first place they took R. Parran, S. Parran, and Richard Parran overseas as prisoners while they were getting their stock off the river;  in the second place they burned John Patterson’s dwelling house, Barn and destroyed much of his stock; in the third place they burned John Broome’s house; in the fourth place they burned every house John Mackall had except the overseer house;  in the fifth place they came to lower Marlboro tore and broke everybody’s house to pieces and burned the ware house and all the tobacco took nearly all the poultry in town away took seventy sheep from Mr. Graham took nearly all Mrs. Ballard’s negroes and two of Mr. T. Blake’s Wat and Ned since Wat has made his escape and returned home took Reynolds as prisoner of war and took every book he had in his library but I made a mistake in telling you everybody’s house was destroyed in Marlboro Old Boyd’s house nor nothing he had was touched but what he was paid for and on their return down they stopped at Cliffts and burned Mr. Morris’s barns and some tobacco in it stopped at Benedict took nearly all of the tobacco out of the ware house and did not burn nothing but destroyed everybody’s by tearing them to pieces stopped at Holland Point and burned Mrs. Mackall’s barn burned a great many houses in St. Mary’s burned Dr. Summersville’s’ house and destroyed all his harvest fields by cutting his wheat things for the stock they have aboard since burned the ware house and two or three more houses I have never heard to who they belong. In St. Leonard’s Creek and now have ----- of this country up as far as Mrs. Rawling just below the Chapel and I must tell you that the marines you think so much of on their return up from the Creek encamped in our church and some of them came to my mothers and on their return---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------now after all this if you can yet think them right I must bid you adieu all the family send their love to you Mr. Reynolds and the Parrans got home again I am yours
                                                                                                      Thomas B. King

P.S.  I will send your things up by Miss Blake, excuse this I wrote it in a hurry.  

Letter to John Armstrong from Andrew Jackson

Head Quarters 7th. M: District. Fort Jackson,
14th. July 1814


        Reference to my last will advise you of the date of my departure from Tennessee. On the 10th. I arrived at this post, and regreted to remark the defenceless condition of the fortifications, as well as the sentiment of security pervading the officers and men, which might have proved fatal unless counteracted by the institution of a rigid discipline. The disposition of the Indians, as discoverable on my journey to this place, seemed to be pacific; but, in consequence of information having lately been received of the occupation of the Black Warrior by a considerable number who may be hostile, I have caused spies to be sent on discovery as to their disposition situation and numbers. From the best sources of intelligence in my power, some of which are not official, there are about eight thousand three hundred of the friendly and formerly hostile creeks drawing rations from the United States at the different posts and depots in the vicinity; but, so soon as such an arrangement can be made to comport with circumstances, those not occupied in raising corn shall be ordered to forts Strother and Deposit, and the residue prohibited crossing the Alabama. Sound policy dictates the adoption of these measures, as well to prevent their being tampered with by the hostile party, as to counteract the effect of British and Spanish influence apprehended from Pensacola. For reasons founded on information, conjoined with considerations of duty and security, I have thought proper to dispatch Capt. Gordon with a communication, of which the enclosed is a copy, to the Governor of Pensacola, requiring an official notification of the truth or falsehood of the reports in circulation here, that I may be enabled as well to forward the earliest intelligence to government, as to provide means for my own security; and I trust sir the measure will meet the approbation of the Executive. I have summoned the chiefs of the Creek Nation to a convention, to be holden at this post on the first of August next, for the purpose of terminating if possible, pursuant to instructions the differences between their nation and the United States: whether all the cheifs of the hostile party will attend cannot be ascertained until the lapse of that period; but the event shall be announced as early as possible.
          Lieut. John Watson of the 3d. Inf. was ordered by Maj Genl. Pinckney to perform the duties of A.D.Q.M General at this post-- at the Lieuts. request, he has been ordered to his duty on the line, and on the 13th. Inst. I appointed Mr. Thomas Camp to that office until the pleasure of the President of the United States shall be known. If the number assigned this District be not already appointed, I hope it will be confirmed. I have the honor to be, respectfully, Your Mo. Obt. Servt.

                                                                                                         Andrew Jackson
                                                                                                         Major Genl Comdg.


Letter to Mateo Gonzalez Manrique from Andrew Jackson

Head Quarters 7th. M: District Fort Jackson
July 12th 1814.


         Considerations connected with the duties of a responsible situation induce me to address you. Information has been received since my arrival here, which if founded in fact may lead to disagreeable consequences, touching the amity subsisting between the government of Spain and the United States of America, founded on existing treaties. To obviate the necessity for any measure, on the part of the United States, hostile to the interests of Spain, and at the same time stedfastly to regard the welfare of my own country, seem to be duties incidental to and inseparable from my prestent situation. I am informed, that the enemies of the United States who have been murdering our unoffending women and children, have sought and obtained an assylum from justice within the territory of Spain, and are fed by order of the governor of Pensacola. Information has also been received, that permission was given to our open enemy, an officer commanding his Britanic Majesty's frigate the Orpheus, to land within the territory of Spain 25,000 stand of arms with 300 barrels of amunition, for the avowed purpose of enabling the vanquished Creeks to renew a sanguinary war with the United States. I trust sir, that no foundations for these reports exist; I trust, that the officers of the Spanish government at Pensacola and its vicinity have had more regard for the interests of Spain and the rights of the United States, than to permit the violation of a neutrality important to the American people. Will you be so good sir as to transmit by the bearer, or through any other medium, immediate information touching these subjects; and, should Francis, McQueen, or any other chiefs of the Creek nation hostile to the United States be within the jurisdictional territory of the governor of Pensacola, to cause them to be immediately confined that they may be brought to atone to this government for violations of the rights of humanity and the principles of treaties heretofore existing between the two nations. I have the honor to be, respectfully, Your Mo. Obt. Servt.

                                                                                                           Andrew Jackson
                                                                                                           Major Genl Comdg.

Courtesy of the Andrew Jackson Papers