Letter from Rachel Jackson to Robert Hays

March the 5th. 1815
N Orleans

My respected Friendships
    This being the first moment I could call my own since my arrival at this place I gladly snatch the opportunity of writing you a few lines-- In the first place we had a tollerable passage in 25 days we arrived at this place in time for the ball and celebration of Washington’s Birth Night to give you a description is beyond the power of my pen the splendor the brilliant assemblage the magnificence of the supper and ornaments of the room with all our great characters in large letters of gold on a long sheet of glass about four Inches wide with lamps behind that they might be read as we sat at supper I was placed opposite the Motto Jackson and victory an one on the table a most Elegant pyramid on the top was vive Jackson in large letters on the other side the Immortal Washington-- there was a godly ham on the table suffice to say, nothing could Excell the ornaments and spare neither tea nor coffee was on the table-- in fact I have seen more already then in all my life past it is the finest country for the Eye of a stranger but a little while he stirs of the dissipation of this place so much amusement balls concerts Plays theaters && but we don’t attend the half of them I herd the full band of music a few Evenings since-- we are living in a very comfortable house near the genls Head quarters which is a large Elegant Building we din'd with General Gaines yesterday he lives very stylish to morrow with Genl Carroll say to her she must not grieve so much he Enjoys himself is well we have Eliza Butlar with us I wish the girls was here all the nobility French & Spaniards navel officers councils Nites with their stars on their breasts-- I have given you some of the flowers now the thorns Major Read tells me this morning nearly one thousand have died lately. Doctor fore is no more Genl Coffee had him decently interd in the burying ground Mr Web our Near Neighbor is dead married Mrs F Saunders relation-- we entertain great hopes of peace and that our troops may be once more at rest Coffees men has don so much and has sufferd more then all the army Mr J says his troops should never be forgotten by their country I am not very well Collo Butlar is well and Rachel Hays Butler little Robert Butler has been unwell the General looks better in health then when I came here of all men on Earth he does the most business from day light to ten at night devotes little time to pleasure-- we have not seen the battle ground as yet but intend in a few days-- give my love to all the family I expect to be on our return shortly for home your attention and kindness to me when in tribulation I never will forget-- my respects to Mr and Mrs Saunders Graney Hayes and believe me your sincere Friend

Rachel Jackson


Letter from Andrew Jackson to Philemon Thomas

Head Quarters 7h. M. District
New Orleans March 4h. 1815

    Your letter was handed me yesterday, and without loss of time, I sent it with the messenger who delivered it, to the Quarter master General; who I had long since ordered to send one of his agents to receive and receipt. For the Corn-- If the Qr. Master had not before, he would immediately take some order upon it.
    Upon the Rect. Of this you will permit such part of the militia of your Division, as can be spared from the protection of the exposed points within your District, to retire to their Homes, holding them in a state of readiness to march at a moments warning.
    Your Discretion and sound Judgt. Will govern you in the number retained for the defense of the exposed points, as you are held responsible for their defense-- A Treaty has been signed at Gent on the 24h. Decr. Last, by the commissioners appointed. Accounts form the city of Washington as late as the 6h. Ulto. Makes no mention of the treaty having arrived-- and when it does, doubts exist, whether it will be ratified or not-- A state of suspence is not only the most Disagreeable but the most dangerous in a state of war-- Particularly where the defense is composed of militia-- they become uneasy and dissatisfied, and will be vigilent and ready to act on the shortest notice—Or our brave expulsion of the Enemy may ultimate in disgrace and surprise-- you will therefore direct your Officers at the out posts, to be on the alert & keep those in the interior prepared to move to any point, at the shortest notice I am Sir very respectfully Yr. Mo. Obt. Servt.

Andw. Jackson
Majr. Genl. Comdg.


Letter to Andrew Jackson from John Wright

Camp Navy Yard March 3d. 1815

    agreeable to orders originating from you: and: by you transmitted to his Excelency the governor of the State of Louisiana: and by him to Major General Philemon Thomas: of the 2nd Divission of Militia of the State aforesaid and by the sd. General to Col. Abner Wammock Senior commander of this post bearing date 15th feby. 1815 for organizing the militia into complete companies Batalions and Regiments the R commanded by Cols.[Thomas C.] Warner and Wammock which order was red'ed. By Col. Wammock on the 26th. Feby. 1815  and on the 27th of the same month the said order of the 15th together with an additional order of major General Thomas ordering that the orders of the 15th. Feby. Be speedily carried into affect--
    In consideration of which the 12th & 13th. Regiment of L-M commanded as aforesaid: was Consolodated into one batalion of three companies agreeable to the order of the 15th and the command of the Battalion committed to the care of L[awrence] H[arrison] Moore major of the 13th. Regiment as consolodated by Brigd. General McCauslin: & on the 28th feby. Major Moor being arrested I red'ed. An order from Col. Abner Wammock directing me to proceed immediately to the above post to supply the vacancy occasioned by the arrest of major moor and also an order to carry into affect an order from your Excelency accompanying the arrest of the Major aforesaid by bringing in and confineing for trial: all those absent without leave as diserters--
    Permit me to state to your Excelency that before your orders calling for a report of the command of col Wammock and the confining of those absent without leave: that order had been issued by Col. Wammock Majr. Moor and myself for that Express purpose: and in positive turms some days before the arrival of the orders of your Excelency--
    I am sorry to state to your Excelency that at the time I took the command of the Camp it was almost abandoned the cause originated from various sources and amongst the number that of a malignant disease that raged throughout the camp in a manner  unheard of before: and which completely Baffled the utmost skill of the physician in consequence of which many of our brethren in arm are consigned to the solitary mansions of the grave--
    but I am happy to state to your Excelency that the men are daily flocking in on their receiving notice and would come in much faster: but for the high waters in every direction occationed by the foods of rain that have fell of late which prevented them from returning in times of their furlow--
    there are many who have asented themselves without leave and deserted I am pursuaded in consiquence of the disease that visited us in so unfriendly a manner with other Causces--
    however I am making use of every means in my power to carry the order of your Excelency into affect by having parties in every direction under suitable commands; and will report as soon as it is in my power to do it with any degree of correctness--
    the situation of our Country and families is such that ading the difficulties of high water & the great number of sick at home and sickness of many families renders it very difficult for me to accomplish my wishes in complying strictly with the tenor of your order--
    I am sorry also to state to your Excelency that the greater part of the pork & flour designed for the use of the 12th regiment delivered to Judge [James] Tate lies condemned as unfit to issue in the quartermaster store and on Examoning the provisions issuable find there is but 4 Days provisions on hand the enclosed requisitions is for one months provision as set forth in the return and order thereunto anexed but your Excelency will Judge whether provisions will be wanting for that length of time or not--
    Dear General if the troops say farmers of the country are kept in service for one month from this date a berry general faliour of crops must issue-- I forbear dwelling on this subject as you are better acquainted with the situation of the enemy than I am or possibly can be--
    and more particular so as the great responsibility of our safety depends on your Excelency—With Sentiments of the highest Respt I am Dear General you very humble Servt

Jno. Wright  Major Commandg. the above Camp


Letter to Andrew Jackson from John Howe et al.

Boston 28th. Feby. 1815.

    The Republicans of the Senate of Massachusetts take the liberty to address you on a subject highly interesting to themselves, the United States and the world.  The conspicuous station you have lately occupied, & the important part you have acted, with so much honor to yourself and benefit to your Country, must, we are aware, have perplexed you with the grateful effusions of a people, proud of your achievements and astonished at your successes.
      Yet it is hoped, that even the “small voice” of the minority of the Senate of a state, remote from the theatre of your illustrious deeds, of little repute, in arms, and, perhaps less in patriotism, will not be unacceptable to one, who well knows how to discriminate between a temporary, dominant party, and those, who, in the midst of discouragement and, in spite of opposition, have endeavored to support the union and liberty of their Country.
    Had your last and greatest exploit stood alone, had it not been preceded by deeds of military enterprise, bravery and skill, achieved by yourself and others which shed a luster round our country, established its reputation and insured its glory, it might be apprehended that our exultations was excessive and our gratitude enthusiastic.
    But when we consider your defense of the lines near New Orleans on the 8th of January, it excites our admiration, as the most illustrious among illustrious deeds, and, like the chief of the andes, rising in majesty, above the surrounding mountains.
    We should not, at this time, have obtruded, on you, our individual feelings, had not a resolution, offered by the Hon. Mr. [John] Holmes, to this Senate, expressive of thanks & approbation, experienced an extraordinary fate. It was committed, and, after much delay and embarrassment, was reported, with a very offensive preamble, denouncing the war, as unjust, and the Government, as improvident and wicked in a stile of extreme virulence and invective, and concluding, with an expression of approbation to yourself & companions in whatever related to defensive warfare. This, after an unsuccessful attempt to strike out the offensive part, we were constrained to oppose, as containing a censure under the pretext of approbation.
    Our feelings, Sir, are unequivocal, unreserved, grateful and ardent—We look upon our naval and military officers and men, as the brave and patriotic defenders of their Countrys rights. As such we address them—as such we respect them, and as such ,permit us Sir, to tender you and your brave companions in arms, the sincere homage of our thanks and gratitude for your unparalleled victories & triumphs over a very brave and powerful enemy-- You preserved Louisiana from incalculable distress, delivered our western brethren from a powerful and predatory foe and earned for yourselves & your Country imperishable Glory.
    Our Country has terminated a glorious war by an honorable peace-- We look with pleasure and pride upon our present situation and future prospects—a situation which you have contributed so much to render happy, honorable & glorious-- Prospects which your valour and patriotism have made most interesting and flattering.
    You and your companions will soon separate and return to the bosom of your friends and your Country-- May you long enjoy the high confidence, respect and love, which your valour, skill and patriotism have so richly, earned, and the smiles of that almighty Being, who has led you to splendid deeds, and has crowned your efforts with victorys and glory.
John Howe        John Holmes
Mark Langdon Hill     Martin Kinsley
Walter Folger Jnr.    Edmund Foster
Joseph Bemis     Timothy Fuller
Saml. Hoar   Albion K. Parris
Wm. Moody     Daniel Kilham

Order to the French Citizens of New Orleans

General Orders                                                                                           Head Quarters 7th. Mil. District
Adjutant General's Office
New Orleans Feby 28th. 1815

    Daniel & Samuel Lints privates of the 1st regiment of rifle Corps by the consent of Colo [George Washington] Sevier expressed in a letter to Captain [Ferdinand Louis] Amelund, of date 14th. November 1814 is hereby transferred to said Amelung's company in the 44th. Regt. U.S. Infty.
    All french subjects having the certificate of the French Consul Countersigned by the order of the commanding General will repair to the interior not short of Baton rouge until the enemy shall have left our waters, or the restoration of peace, this measure has become indispensable from the numerious applications of this kind, and will be carried into immediate effect; notice will be taken of all such persons that may remain after the 3d. Of next month and all officers are ordered to give information of every person remaining after that period, that may come within their knowledge. By Command

Robert Butler
Adjt. General


Letter to Andrew Jackson from Citizens of Louisiana

New-Orleans, February 27, 1815

The undersigned citizens of the state of  Louisiana or residents in the country, solicit the attention of Major-general Andrew Jackson, commanding the forces of the United States, in favour of Solomon Broomfield and James Harding, of the 4th regiment of militia, condemned to death by a court-martial. They do not palliate the enormity of the crime of desertion, of which these individuals have been convicted; and they are aware that as the delinquencies of the militia in time of war may be as fatal to the state as those of the regular troops, it is often necessary to punish them with the same severity.
    The undersigned believe however that the late news leaving no doubt but that peace will put an end to the calamities of war, examp[les have become less necessary. They therefore intreat the general to consider if existing circumstances do not reclaim the clemency of the country in favour of two unfortunate men, when their condemnation has answered all the ends which could be desired.
    General, permit the undersigned to remind you that at your voice the militia of this state flew to arms; that all the inhabitants, whatever their origin, united under your standards; you found them ready to sacrifice every thing in defense of Louisiana. On men capable of such generous efforts, the clemency of their chief, rest assured, will have a much more certain effect than severity. They therefore flatter themselves that you will deem it expedient to order that the sentence of the court-martial shall not be executed

Letter to Andrew Jackson from John Lambert

Head Quarters Ile Dauphine
Febr. 27. 1815

    I have this moment received your letter dated the 20th and I have taken every step to bring the exchange to a speedy conclusion.
    On the subject of the concluding paragraph, I have only to remark that honorable & feeling conduct which has characterized every transaction in which I have had the Honor to be concerned in with you You may rely upon it, I shall take no retrospective view of the conduct of any of the men returned and shall find reasons for discountenancing and enquiry, should it be brought before me or come to my knowledge thro' any other channel.
    With regard to the negroes that have left their masters and are with this force, any proprietor or person deputed, that chooses to present himself to me, will be received & every facility afforded him to communicate with these People and I shall be very happy, if they can be persuaded all to return, but to compel them is what I cannot do--
    With respect (which I enclose) to an address form M. Genl. Villere' to the Commandant of this Force, I am at a loss to understand the Purport. The Comissary Genls.' orders, are to purchase Cattle where ever he can meet with it.  Amongst receipts in that neighborhood for beasts procured is that for those belonging to the M. Genl. I should have been glad to have known the M. genls. Sentiments previously as I certainly should not have troubled myself about his concerns or endeavored to render as little painful as I was able, not living in his House, the unavoidable circumstances attending the immediate Theatre of War towards his Son, whom he had attending the immediate Theatre of War towards his Son, whom he had left unprotected. I have the Honor to be sir your obedient Humble servant

John Lambert
M. General Com.

Letter to Andrew Jackson from Benjamin Hawkins

Camp near the confluence of Flint and Chattohoche
27 Feby. 1815

   I received from the governor of Georgia on the 19 ult a promise to send 500 mounted men to cooperate with me against the Seminolies, and other hostiles below. Since which, I have not heard form him, altho' I have written him weekly. On the 24th I determined to wait only three days to hear from him, if I did not, I should take such measures relying on my own means, as would best secure the frontiers from Indian hostility, during the pressure of the Enemy on the Southern Atlantic Seacoast. There is just below the confluence on the East side of apalatchacola a British post entrenched and picketed, with one Howitzar and one Cohorn; they had 200 troops white and Black and 400 Indians mostly seminolies and Okete'yoconne Fowltown and Che'au'hau from our Limits. I determined to surround and cut off their supplies, which were ascertained to be not more than for a few days. Part of their Blacks were from Pensacola.
    As soon as we began to descend the river from F. Mitchell, runners on the lookout, went after the Indians going towards F. negro to join Woodbine and brought them and him to their heard quarters below, which completely secured Georgia fro the time. The Indians fled before our approach into the Floridas, and we got 50 muskets and 650 flints from their houses, and have heared of more; Those chastised by you were very humble, and the others appeared under serious alarm for their safety, This country, destitute of food, in three days march not a horse hog or cow to be seen. More than 1000 of the distressed have surrendered and beged for bread. I supplied what I could, and ordered them to their towns
    On the 25th. I received express, an account of the arrival of peace on the 14th.  at the seat of Government. I immediately sent two runners with the Information to the British commandant below, they met a Lieut. Of the navy and army with a flag of truce, bring information of the same import from their admiral near Mobile, with the 9th art only which includes the Indians in the treaty. The oficers remained one night with me, in the morning I paraded the Regmt. In one line the oficers reviewed it with me, and we fired a feu de joie.
    I have ordered the Regmt. to prepare to return by detachments, in various directions, to communicate the information to all they may meet with; and I shall discharge them as soon as I hear of the ratification of the treaty.  I have for more than a month been uneasy about your situation to such a degree often as to deprive me of sleep. I saw a pressure of force and a torrent of difficulties assailing your district, on the Wings of the wind; and the aid you expected to make head against it, very slow in its movements from some quarters. Being charged by you with the protection of this frontier I knew it was my duty to act in conformity, but I have repeatedly been on the point of selecting 500 of my men and going on to your assistance, Majr. McIntosh and many of our best men would of course composed it; I was satisfied they would have been of Vital importance in their deadly attacks on the flanks of the Enemy. In this state of mind I received an account of your unparalleled victory of the 8th ult. And a few days after E'cun'chat Emaut'lau of the Hickory ground a distinguished “Red stick” came and communicated his eye view of the action to me, and has I find done justice to it; he began his narrative with “the British officers say they have beaten Jackson, and will soon take him prisoner. I saw at the fights, he beat them in every one. The British had more men than Jackson on the 8th. They said they would fight him before his men arrived, and take the town. They attacked him and after four hours fighting got back leaving the field of battle to the american breast works covered with killed and wounded, they lost three great Generals among them the head one I saw dead.” No occurrence every afforded me more real joy.
    From our success by sea and land, and the character of our negotiators, I am satisfied the treaty of peace is hnorable for us, and the after scene by you at New Orleans winds up the whole gloriously for our National character throughout Europe. You have my dear friend immortalized yourself and army. You have proved that the first and best disciplined troops in Europe flushed with and accustomed to Victory there are but secondary in America.
    Mr. [Christian] Limbaugh informed me a letter of mine and one from Genl. Pinckney to you in decr. Was burnt by accident, a runners cloths taken fire in the night, and probably an other from me had been destroyed between F. Jackson and Claiborn, the wrapord had been discovered.
    Accept for yourself and brothers in arms my congratulations on the parts you have accomplished for the destiny of our country , my sincere wishes for your health and happiness, and believe me sincerely and Truly your friend And ob ser

Benjamin Hawkins


Postscript of letter from Thomas Jefferson to William Crawford

February 26, 1815

(note: this is the postscript of a letter originally written on February 11, 1815)

On the day of the date of this letter the news of peace reached Washington, and this place two days after. I am glad of it, although no provision being made against the impressment of our seamen, it is in fact but an armistice, to be terminated by the first act of impressment committed on an American citizen. It may be thought that useless blood was spilt at New Orleans, after the treaty of peace had been actually signed and ratified. I think it had many valuable uses. It proved the fidelity of the Orleanese to the United States. It proved that New Orleans can be defended both by land and water; that the western country will fly to its relief (of which ourselves had doubted before); that our militia are heroes when they have heroes to lead them on; and that, when unembarrassed by field evolutions, which they do not understand, their skill in the fire-arm, and deadly aim, give them great advantages over regulars. What nonsense for the manakin Prince Regent to talk of their conquest of the country east of the Penobscot river! Then, as in the revolutionary war, their conquests were never more than of the spot on which their army stood, never extended beyond the range of their cannon shot. If England is now wise or just enough to settle peaceably the question of impressment, the late treaty may become one of peace, and of long peace. We owe to their past follies and wrongs the incalculable advantage of being made independent of them for every material manufacture. These have taken such root, in our private families especially, that nothing now can ever extirpate them.

Source: Library of Congress


Letter to Andrew Jackson from Robert McCauland

Pass of Chef Menteur 
Feby. 24. [25] 1815

    Enclosed you have Major [Louis] Daquins report of desertions last night from his Batallion, stationed at Camp Chef Menteur; he states to me that unless some rigid steps are taken with those, he expects from the apparent disposition, in a few days to be left without a private to command. Notwithstanding my orders were given (a few days after I took command of this Post) to the Commanding Officer at the Fortification LaBertonere, to secure and send back to me every person attempting to pass from this Post towards the City, without my written permission , yet the Deserters from this place succeed in getting to Town. Since the arrival of the Guns for the Battery I have generally remained at the pass myself. Lieut. [Joseph] Bosque having on the 20th. Represented to me the lack of materials for the Battery, which could only be procured in Orleans, was permitted to proceed there to obtain them, since which I have heard nothing of him. Nothing observable from the look out, on either of the Lakes. I have the Honor to be Dr Sir your Obt Servt.

Robt. McCausland
Brigd Genl Comg.

Courtesy of the Andrew Jackson Papers

Letter to Andrew Jackson from William Charles Cole Claiborne

New Orleans 24th. February 1815.

    The undersigned, the Governor of the State of Louisiana, presents his respects to major General Jackson Commanding the 7th. Military District, and informs him, how desirable it is, that such of the militia of this State, whose services can safely be dispensed with, be early discharged.  Independent of the Convenience of such discharge to Fathers of families (for the call of the militia en masse has brought many into the field) on whose personal Labour the present year, will depend the Cultivation of their little Farms, the undersigned brings to the view of the Major General the neglected Condition of the Levees on the Mississippi, & which if not soon attended to, there will, on the rise of the River, be no security against the Inundation of the lower part of the State. The undersigned hopes that the ratification by the President & Senate of the United States, of the Treaty of Peace said to have been concluded at Ghent, (& of which Ratification we may expect advices in a few days) will do away the necessity of detaining in service any portion of the  Militia of Louisiana; But in the meantime, he persuades himself, that the several Detachments of the militia en masse, now stationed in the several Interior Parishes of the State, may immediately be dispensed with without endangering the public Security. The undersigned expresses on this occasion, the wishes of his fellow Citizens, and he knows how much their Interest, will be promoted, by the adoption of the measure, which he suggests.
    The undersigned tenders to Major General Jackson, the assurances of his high Consideration.

William C.C. Claiborne