7.31.2012

There is some reason to believe, that orders were last night sent to the out-ports to bring in American vessels.

The utmost activity is said to have been observed yesterday on the close of the Cabinet Council, which sat upon the American affairs; and there is some reason to believe, that orders were last night sent to the out-ports to bring in American vessels.  This is a measure of security as well as retaliation; as, if America should ultimately go to war with us, it is but right that we should commence hostilities as nearly as possible at the same time with her; and should peace follow the revocation of our Orders, the reciprocal restitution of vessels captured, is almost as easy as the simple restitution by one party.  Government is likewise said to have suspended all licenses for vessels to proceed to America.

 Published in The Times (London) - July 31, 1812

Every thing I have seen introduced in our military affairs is European.

Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette
July 31, 1812, Page 4, Column A

Military.
For the Raleigh Register.

Seeing so much published of late about the arrangements and discipline of the American Army, I cannot forbear offering you the opinion of an old soldier on the subject.  The sage advice and example of that great, that good man, General Washington, seem to be entirely lost sight of – Washington was not only great for his military talents in conducting our Army, but for his general wisdom and the goodness of his heart.  We hear every demagogue making use of his name, frequently for the purpose of deception; but most of his precepts & practices are buried with himself.  It brings to mind the old adage,

God and the Soldier no mortals adore,
Except during times of sickness and war.
When sickness is o’er and ev’ry thing righted,
Then God is forgotten – the soldier is slighted.

Every thing I have seen introduced in our military affairs is European.  And for what?  Did not Washington leave us models to go by?  Did he not, under Divine Providence, free us from thralldom; form for us a government, and put it in operation – of course establish us a character, an American character; a Nation and Government, the first in the civilized world; an asylum for the distressed of all nations!  Why is a preference given over the directions left us by this great American character, to any European custom or practice?  It is painful to the few Revolutionary characters that are left, to see the memory of that great Soldier and Statesman treated with such contempt, by resorting to any foreign nation for examples, while we have his before us.  Every man must allow, that from his long services, he must be the best judge of the Military Tactics suited to this country.  Every man who knew him, knew that he preferred his country to every thing else.  I will give you, for the information of our young soldiers, the arrangement of the Grand Army at Valley Forge in 1778; where a committee of Congress waited on General Washington for the purpose.

FORMATION OF A COMPANY.
1 Captain,
1 First Lieutenant.
1 Second Lieutenant.
4 Sergeants, (Non-commission’d officer)
1 Drummer, (Non-commission’d officer)
1 Fifer, (Non-commission’d officer)
64 Rank & file [corporals are rank & file.]

Eight of these companies form one Regiment, composed of
1 Lieut. Colonel Commandant.
1 Major,
                8 Captains,
                16 Lieutenants.
                1 Surgeon,
                1 Surgeon’s Mate.
                32 Sergeants.
                16 Drummers & Fifers.
                512 Rank & File.
                --
                588 in number.

                Four Regiments form a Brigade, or Brigadier General’s command.
                Four Brigades form a division, or Major General’s command.

Explanation of the Staff of an Army.
1.       Regimental Staff,
1 Paymaster
1 Quarter-Master.
1 Adjutant.
2 Surgeons.
2.       General Staff.
Adjutant General.
Quartermaster Gen.
Brigade Majors,
Aids de Camp,
Hospital Surgeons.
               
                The Commander in Chief is allowed two Aids-de-camp and one Secretary – Major General is allowed one Aid-de-camp – Brigadier General, a Brigade Major.

Explanation of the duty of a Regimental Staff.
                The Paymaster of the Regiment is usually of the rank of a Captain; the Quarter-master and Adjutant of the rank of Lieuts.  The Paymaster receives the money from the Paymaster General, for the Regiment.  The Quartermaster receives from the Quartermaster General, for the use of the Regiment, arms, accoutrements, ammunition, clothing, knapsacks, haversacks, camp kettles, canteens, tents, &c. and distributes to the different companies; takes the Captain’s receipt for every different article; and makes his return to the Quartermaster General, monthly.  His monthly returns specify his distribution, what is on hand or difference.
                The Regimental Quarter Master is entitled to a sergeant of his own chusing, from one of the companies; he is called Quartermaster Sergeant.
                Of the Adjutant’s duty – He is the assistant of the Major in the discipline of the Regiment.  The Adjutant usually chuses an active sergeant from one of the companies; he is called Sergeant Major.  The Adjutant and Sergeant Major form the Regiment.  Companies fall in according to their grade: 1st the right, 2nd the left – and so on, to the centre.  Once formed, each company always knows its place.  The date of commissions settles the grade.  If the first Captain is promoted, the company loses its place on the right, which causes a new arrangement, the oldest Lieut. On the right takes the company, of course, it comes on the left of the centre.  The Regiment formed, the Adjutant in front, the Sergeant Major in the rear, complete the files and count them.  I will suppose the Regiment complete, making 256 files: The Adjutant divides them into four grand divisions, eight sub-divisions, sixteen platoons,
                Grand Divisions                 64 files.
Sub-divisions                     32 ditto
Platoons,                             16 ditto
The Adjutant posts his officers agreeable to grade: – The four first Captains command the grand divisions – the other four Captains command sub-divisions; First Lieutenants command platoons; the other supernumeraries fall in the rear to keep up order; and in case of an officer falling, one steps into his place – the colors in the centre – the Colonel three paces in front of the colors.  The Adjutant then acquaints the Major that the Regiment is ready for exercise.  In case of action, the Major takes post on the right of the rear, the Adjutant on the left, both on horseback.
I shall take further notice of the Adjutant’s duty when I speak of the General Staff.  At present I am speaking of the formation of companies to form Regiments, for the benefit of young and inexperienced officers who are now preparing for the field.  It is disciplined companies that make a disciplined Regiment – disciplined Regiments form disciplined Brigades – Discipline has an extensive meaning – order and implicit obedience are the first points of discipline; therefore, it is the duty of company officers, as fast as they collect men, to form their company.  Their men ought to be practiced at least evening and morning, to hold themselves erect, their bodies firm and steady. – When the word March is given, no part of a man moves but his feet – head steady, to the right or left as ordered – turn to the right or left, or to the right about or left about, – all without losing step – in close order, elbow to elbow, feeling one another.  Begin with a few men; as they become more numerous, they assist each other in becoming perfect.  Men may be kept moving an hour without giving the word halt.  If any of them should lose the step, they feel it, being jostled, and catch it again.
When a company becomes numerous, select four of your likeliest young men for Sergeants, and number them 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th Sergeant – and the next most likely for Corporals; they are in the ranks, usually on the flanks of your company.  The Sergeants and Corporals are serviceable men in practicing your company.  The first Sergeant has numerous duties to perform; he keeps the list of the company; he calls the list over night and morning; makes a morning report of the company’s state; receives the orders of the day from the Adjutant, and hands them to the capt. and the rest of the officers; warns your men in their turn for duty; and in every respect acts as the Adjutant acts for the Regiment; makes your monthly returns to the Adjutant – from which returns the Adjutant makes one to the Col. which goes to the Brigad. Gen. from Brigadiers to Major Gen. and from Maj. Gen. to the Commander in Chief.
Whenever you have men sufficient to form your company, (say 64 rank and file, or whatever number) measure the height of your men; form a list or roll of your men’s names, putting the tallest man first with his height against his name, and so on, until you have the whole, leaving the lowest last on the list.  This is called a size roll.  Call your men together, the tallest to the right, next tallest to the left, next to the right – so on, to the centre. – They form in this manner in one rank.  Count 16 men on the right and 16 on the left – Face to the right & left and march in the rear until they meet and face.  This forms the rear rank of your company.  Once formed, they are always formed; men take notice of the man before them and on their right and left.  The benefit is this – on the most sudden alarm every man knows his place in the company – there is no confusion.  Companies of this formation make a Regiment have a very handsome appearance.  You would suppose the men were all of one size.  As handsome well formed companies make well-form’d regiments, Captains ought to be very industrious in learning their men all the different movements before they put arms into their hands.  Divide your company into squads; put a Sergeant or Corporal with each squad; keep them exercising twice a day for a week, they will learn all the movements to enable you to join the Regiment, with arms in their hands, to learn the maneuvers.  And that they may learn the maneuvers the more readily, divide your Regiment into two battalions of 128 file each – Your Army will be fit for actual service in 1 month – All maneuvers are performed in quick time.
The want of discipline is held up as a great bugbear by designing men.  Believe them not, my countrymen – If your officers are assiduous, the mode of defence is soon attained. – From what source the European arrangements which have been recommended to the use of the Army have arisen, I cannot conceive; but I am afraid they are from one that is not sound.  The Executive, we know, is a good man, but not a military man.  We hope, with Divine assistance, he will prove a second Washington to his country.  The Secretary at War, we are told, is not a great military man.  There, I fear, is the opening for imposition; and we have long seen a number of men amongst us in opposition to our government, who glory in deranging every measure taken by government.  It has long been the policy of these men to get the government out of the hands of the people, that, according to the European system, the few may govern the many.  Citizens! Look to yourselves; be on your guard against a set of men who flatter with intention to deceive.
My view is to explain Gen. Washington’s arrangements, and leave to our citizens to decide which best suits our country, Legions on paper with a huge number of officers and expence, who, I predict, will never get men to command, or the simple arrangement of our formerly beloved chief.
                [To be concluded in our next.]

"We live by commerce; you by the labor of slaves"

The Northern States, almost exclusively, fought the battles of our revolution, and established the independence of our republic. In the first states of the contest, the enemy was ejected from our soil, by our own unassisted strength. We then sent our armies to assist our feeble, dejected, fainting brethren of the south.
Since the war, our industry and our commerce have paid off the debt which was the price of our independence.
We have submitted to a representation of the Southern states, in the national legislature, or a peculiar sort of property, without any corresponding representation of our ships, stores, cattle, or any other species of wealth.
We have suffered the national funds (arising almost exclusively from our contributions) to be applied to the maintenance of wars against the Southern and Western Indians - the the extinguishment of Indian titles - to the construction of roads through the Southern and Western territory - to opening and securing the navigation of the Mississippi - and to the purchase of an adjoining Empire.
In return for all this, we have received, as peculiar boons, NOTHING, save only a navy, consisting of half a dozen frigates, and a few fortifications of our sea-ports, not one of which will be pronounced by any engineer of reputation, a certain protection against a single ship of the line.
Men of the South - Did ye well reflect upon these things before ye brought upon us a war which will annihilate half our property, and at least expose our dwellings to destruction?
We live by commerce; you by the labor of slaves. Our subsistence is earned by the fair exercise of natural rights. We have no wish to discuss the character of yours. You have wantonly destroyed the chief source of our comfort, if not of our existence. Still we trust that we shall be prevented from the destruction of your, by our moderation and humility.
We boast not superiority. We do not attempt to intimidate you by threats. We appeal to your justice. Nay more - we beseech that we may not be driven to the extremity of distress. We implore you to grant us peace now, and the means of protection hereafter. We are conscious of no crime deserving the ban of the Empire. We have been loyal subjects of the constitution. We entreat permission to continue so. Suffer us to earn our own bread, as we have hitherto done, and to contribute to your support.

Published in the Boston Weekly Messenger - July 31, 1812

Dispatch from Andrew Jackson to the Tennessee Volunteers

July 31st 1812

Division Orders!
Patriotic Volunteers of the Second Division!
At the signal of your Country's danger you have repaired to the national Standard with the ardor which characterizes freemen. The tender of service which you have made to the President of the United States, has been accepted by him; and your names are now enrolled among the defenders of the rights and liberties of the only free people remaining on earth.
The sacred charge which you have taken into your hands will not be abandoned by you; nor will the sword which you have drawn be returned to its scabbard untill the proud Mistress of the Ocean has been taught to respect the rights of a great and rising Republic. But at the moment that you are entering on a new profession, remember that military ardor and Civil virtues will be inefficient in the hour of Battle unless accompanied by other qualifications. Discipline, a knowledge of the art of War, a strict subordination, are the pride of the Soldier's character: they lay the foundation of success against the enemy, and make a conquering army the blessing and the ornament of its Country.
Brave Soldiers!
A slight alteration has taken place in your organization. The commissions of your officers will be derived from the President, instead of the State Executive. Hence the necessity of compleat and correct Muster rolls being immediately made out, and forwarded to the Major General.
Brave Men!
The War has now begun. Your brothers in arms from the Northern States are passing into the coutnry of your enemies; & (I know your impatience) you burn with anxiety to learn on what theatre your arms will find employment. Then turn your eyes to the South! Behold in the province of West Florida, a territory who rivers and harbors, are indispensable to the prosperity of the Western, and still more so, to the eastern Division of our State. Behold there likewise the asylum from which an insidious hand incites to rapine and bloodshed, the ferocious savages, who have just stained our frontiers with blood, and who will renew their outrages the moment an English force shall appear in the Bay of Pensacola. It is here that an employment adapted to your situation awaits your courage and your zeal: and while extending in this quarter the boundaries of the Republic to the Gulf of Mexico, you will experience a peculiar satisfaction in having confered a signal benefit on that section of the Union to which you yourselves immediately belong. The Generals of Brigade attached to the Second Division will cause muster rolls to be made out, and forwarded to the Major General in conformity with the intention of this order.

(signed)
Andrew Jackson
Majr Genl Second Division

"...The great crater is at Boston..."

  The question is frequently asked why does not the Aurora repel and expose the seditious and treasonable attacks of certain prints upon the government and the most sacred rights of the nation? A short answer may suffice; we look upon the British faction in the U States in the nature of a volcano that first broke out in 1794, and has like the late earthquakes kept the nation in alarm and distraction as short intervals ever since - their late and present violence, are only the last agonies of their expiring nature - the decomposition of their elements has thrown into one or two points a greater proportion of inflammable matter; the great crater is at Boston, slight shocks are felt like corruscations of electricity, wherever there are metallic conductors -- but all that is required is to let them alone - and the volcano will burn itself out.
   The violent federal papers are now engaged in the laudable and patriotic vocation of magnifying the resources of the enemy and depreciating those of their own country for carrying on the war. Ambition and revenge are ever fruitful of inventions to promote their unrighteous and desperate designs. Finding that they dare not take an open part with the enemy, the exasperated demagogues of faction have adopted an indirect course to bring disasters upon the country, and thus to ride into power over the ruins of its character and interests. We confess that we should rather see them take an open part with the enemy at once. We should then know the real foes of the country without doubt. The indignant frowns of an insulted nation would immediately put them down.
Baltimore American

Published in the Raleigh Register & North Carolina Gazette - July 31, 1812. 


The Federal "Assemblage"

   The "Federalists" of Boston having some time since had a town meeting, wherein they loudly denounced the war and every other measure calculated to compel England to respect our rights and repeal her orders in council, the republicans thought proper to call a public meeting of their own. Previous to the appointed time, a number of federalists, agreeable to their pre-concerted plan, rushed into the room, and completely blocked it up. As the throng continued to increase, a motion was made and carried for another meeting at Faneuil Hall on Wednesday (yesterday.) As the federalists, not content with their own town meeting, appeared to crowd upon and oppress the republicans and deprive them of the constitutional right of expressing their opinion on public affairs; and as they had in this magnanimous manner entirely broken up their meeting, the republicans left them again to bring forward in Faneuil Hall, whatever thing they might choose. A string of "Resolutions" was then introduced which were the most violent of all the violent proceedings of Federalism. They could not in plainer language have declared that the states were SEPARATED. Their object in resorting to such violent measures, is very apparent. They wish to dissolve the Union; they want a pretence to attempt it; their policy is to goad the general government by such outrageous acts, to the adoption of some specific measures against them; they would then rally under the cry of "persecution," "domestic tyranny," &c. &c. and persuade the people that their liberties were in danger, and that it would be as righteous to oppose our own government and separate the states, as it was in '75 to oppose England.
   Parson Bramble has declared, in his sermon, that "prudence leads the men of Washington principles to cloak their opposition under constitutional forms?" He hints that an insurrection and civil war were determined upon, and would certainly take place. - The "Resolutions" appear to be the step stone of this state of things. Should the federalists persevere in this course, and introduce a state of anarchy, it is probable they would eventually become by far the greatest sufferers; and would rue their folly in sackcloth and ashes, when repentance and dear-bought experience would come too late.
   The federalists pretend, in palliation of their conduct, that they were equally invited with the republicans, by the form of the notification. This is wholly untrue. The notification called only for those to assemble who were "determined to support the National Government in the prosecution of the existing war." The men who usurped the place of meeting, and deprived the republicans of their constitutional prerogative, were not invited by the notification. They have passed resolutions, not only in direct opposition to supporting government in war; but threatening an insurrection in case it is persevered in.

Boston Chronicle

Published in the Raleigh Register & North Carolina Gazette - July 31, 1812. 

Voice of Warning

   From the Aurora
   "United we stand - Divided we fall."  

   Americans - If you revere the sacred words of the immortal Washington - if you love your country and would perpetuate its independence - if you have respect for the constitution and the solemn pledge of "our lives and our fortunes" to support it - or if you value the liberty, the freedom or happiness of yourselves or your posterity. - If any of these are dear to you now rally round the standard of our country and let your patriotism be known - teach the disaffected, teach our foe, teach the world, that we are firmly united by sacred ties and bonds of interest and love, which in prosperity or in adversity, in times of war or times of peace, can never be rent asunder; it has often been said both by foreign foes or domestic enemies, that in the event of a war, the bond of union would be broken. Shew to those we are not the degenerate people they would have us - tell them there is nothing "critical as well as novel" in "the moral bond by which" we "are united" although...have said it - let them learn that "of all states that of war is most likely" to unite us closer still in the bonds of national friendship, interest love and honor, and that the "signs not to be mistaken" only mean that a manly opposition may be tolerated, but that at all times and more especially when our much loved country is in danger, treason, anarchy or rebellion, shall never dare to shew its front - should the events of war press hard upon a few individuals, or on one class of citizens, let them unite (or be wholly silent) in vigorous measures, the only means of obtaining an honorable peace - But, let not avarice, or tumultuous faction, lead them from the path of virtue; let them pause and reflect, lest instead of amending their condition, they meet certain ruin and eternal infamy - and bring down upon their heads the curses of a nation and of posterity - and awake from their delusion when all is lost forever - Remember that no nation ever enjoyed such a season of prosperity, as has attended the United States - and that it is this unprecedented good fortune envied by our jealous enemy, that has caused her to commit wrong upon wrong and insult to insult, that longer forbearance would by all the world be construed as degeneracy & pusillanimity - our once flourishing state of commerce will soon return, if all unite, and convince our foe that the assertion "we go to war as a divided people" is as false as it is mischievous, and that the authors are unworthy the sacred name of men of truth. Let the awful example of the ancient states or the still more awful events of modern Europe, torn by faction, anarchy and treason, warn my countrymen, and let them take heed lest happy America share their fate. Gentle means, the influence of mild persuasive eloquence should and always will be used by a magnanimous nation, even to those who are deluded by the hydra faction - but when those means fail, heart rending as the blow, dreadful as the consequences may be, the monster should never be suffered to procreate in our republic, but should be cut off in its infancy, or driven from our "precious heritage." Let my fellow citizens attend to these things, let them hearken to the voice of Quintius ere it is too late - let them join like a band of brothers and bring this war to a speedy conclusion - Unity will lead them to happiness and prosperity - under her banners the brave shall reap their laurels and be enrolled in the records of fame, our country will be ranked amongst the greatest of nations, our valor and our achievements shall be the theme, the wonder and the admiration of succeeding ages.

QUINTIUS.

Published in the Raleigh Register & North Carolina Gazette - July 31, 1812.

7.30.2012

Glory! Glory! to the volunteers of Ohio, and the Tippacanoe boys who have first planted the American Standard in Canada.

National Intelligencer
July 30, 1812, Page 2, Column D

Zanesville, July 22.
                Glory! Glory! to the volunteers of Ohio, and the Tippacanoe boys who have first planted the American Standard in Canada.
                We are happy to announce the glorious news that Gen. Hull and his army have landed safe in Canada, with little or no opposition, and taken possession of the town of Sandwich, two miles below Detroit on the English side.  There is no mar to this pleasing news but the capture of a number of Americans in some vessels laden with provision, and some baggage of the army, among whom we are sorry to learn is Mr. Lewis Dent, paymaster, from this town, capt. John Sharp of Marietta, a lieutenant in the 4th regiment, some women and others.  It is said the total prisoners are about 50: and the loss of property 40,000 dollars (including probably some vessels not here enumerated).  The report of Mr. Hughes, chaplain of the army, and two of col. Byxbee’s daughters being taken is unfounded.  The post rider last evening direct from Urbanna, and who brought us gen. Hull’s proclamation of the 12th inst. states, that a quarter-master had arrived at Urbanna from Sandwich, who verbally gave the melancholy information that after crossing the river, a soldier in the act of trying his gun, not supposing it loaded, it went off and the ball passed through major Munson’s arm and entered his body as he was going into his tent.  He was not expected to live.  Col. Cass, after the army arrived at Detroit (which was on the 6th and 7th) went to Fort Malden with a flag of truce and demanded the prisoners, but without effect.  By deserters it was ascertained that the force in Malden consisted of about 1100, 700 of whom are Indians.
                The following extract of a letter and Gov. Hull’s proclamation will afford further explanation:
                Extract of a letter from Dr. James Reynolds, Surgeon’s mate in the army of Ohio, dated Detroit, July 7th, 1812.
                “In order to hurry the march of the army to Detroit, the sick were put on board of a boat and schooner, with public property, and the greater part of the officer’s clothing.  I took command of the boat loaded with sick.  On the 1st of July we hoisted the sails for Detroit from the Rapids.  The schooner and boat were ordered to sail in company, but she passed me the first night and about 10 o’clock the next day, opposite to Fort Malden, she was made a prisoner of war by the British, 30 on board, among whom were paymaster Lewis Dent, capt,. Sharp of Marietta, a lieutenant of the 4th regiment, and three of the officers’ wives.  Two of the ladies were sent to Detroit, the other remains with her husband in Malden.  The same day in the evening passed Malden up a different channel unmolested by the British, but harassed by the Indians that night.  On the 3d, at 3 o’clock in the afternoon we arrived at Detroit, where I was received with open arms, and here I first heard of war being declared.
                On the 5th inst. the artillery opened on the British dogs (in Sandwich), and we continued firing 24-pounders on them till 10 o’clock, while they were forcing their way with boats loaded with produce out of their warehouses.  We have reason to believe that a number of them were killed.”

BY WILLIAM HULL,
Brigadier-general and Commander-in-chief of the North-western Army of the United States.
A PROCLAMATION.
Inhabitants of Canada!

After thirty years of peace and prosperity, the United States have been driven to arms.  The injuries and aggressions, the insults and indignities of Great-Britain have once more left them no alternative but manly resistance or unconditional submission.  The army under my command has invaded your country, and the standard of Union now waves over the territory of Canada.  To the peaceable, unoffending inhabitant, it brings neither danger nor difficulty.  I come to find enemies, not to make them.  I come to protect not to injure you.
                Separated by an immense ocean and an extensive wilderness from Great Britain, you have no participation in her councils, no interest in her conduct – you have felt her tyranny, you have seen her injustice: but I do not ask you to avenge the one or redress the other.  The U. States are sufficiently powerful to afford every security consistent with their rights and your expectations.  I tender you the invaluable blessings of civil, political and religious liberty, and their necessary result, individual and general prosperity.  That liberty which gave decision to our councils and energy to our conduct in a struggle for independence, and which conducted us safely and triumphantly through the stormy period of the revolution – that liberty which has raised us to an elevated rank among the nations of the world; and which afforded us a greater measure of peace and security of wealth and improvement, than ever fell to the lot of any country.
                In the name of my country, and by the authority of government, I promise you protection to your persons, property and rights.  Remain at your homes; pursue your peaceful and customary avocations; raise not your hands against your brethren.  Many of your fathers fought for the freedom and independence we now enjoy.  Being children, therefore, of the same family with us, and heirs to the same heritage, the arrival of an army of friends must be hailed by you with a cordial welcome.  You will be emancipated from tyranny and oppression, and restored to the dignified situation of freemen.  Had I any doubt of eventual success, I might ask your assistance, but I do not.  I come prepared for every contingency – I have a force which will look down all opposition, and that force is but the vanguard of a much greater.  If contrary to your own interests and the just expectation of my country, you should take part in the approaching contest, you will be considered and treated as enemies, and the horrors and calamities of war will stalk before you.  If the barbarous and savage policy of Great Britain be pursued, and the savages let loose to murder our citizens and butcher our women and children, this war will be a war of extermination.  The first stroke of the tomahawk, the first attempt with the scalping knife will be the signal of one indiscriminate scene of desolation.  No white man found fighting by the side of an Indian will be taken prisoner; instant destruction will be his lot.  If the dictates of reason, duty, justice and humanity, cannot prevent the employment of a force which respects no rights, and knows no wrong, it will be prevented by a severe and relentless system of retaliation.  I doubt not your courage and firmness – I will doubt your attachment to liberty.  If you tender your services voluntarily they will be accepted readily. – The U.S. offer you peace, liberty and security, your choice lies between these and war – slavery and destruction.  Choose then, but choose wisely, and may He who knows the justice of our cause, and who holds in His hand the fate of nations, guide you to a result the most compatible with your rights and interest, your peace and happiness.
                By the General,
                A.P. Hull, Captain of the 13th United States’ regiment of Infantry and Aid-de-Camp.
                Head-Quarters, Sandwich,
                July 12, 1812.

The following official acts for softening the horrors of War, will be gratefully received by the friends of humanity

Maryland Gazette
July 30, 1812, Page 2, Column D

à The following official acts for softening the horrors of War, will be gratefully received by the friends of humanity,

Proclamation.
By His Excellency Lieutenant General Sir John Coast Sherbrooke, Kt. Bath, Lt. General Commander in Chief in and over His Majesty’s Province of Nova Scotia, &c., &c., &c.
                WHEREAS every species of predatory warfare carried on against defenceless inhabitants living on the shores of the United States contiguous to this Province and New Brunswick, can answer no good purpose, and will greatly distress individuals; I have therefore thought proper, by and with the advice of his Majesty’s Council, to order and direct all his Majesty’s subjects under my Government to abstain from molesting the inhabitants living on the shores of the United States, contiguous to this Province and New Brunswick, and on no account to molest the goods or unarm coasting vessels belonging to defenceless inhabitants on the frontiers so long as they shall abstain on their part from any act of hostility and molestation towards the inhabitants of this Province and New Brunswick, who are in similar situations: – It is therefore my wish and desire that the subjects of the United States living on the frontiers may pursue in peace their usual and accustomed trade and occupations without molestation, so long as they shall act in similar way towards the frontier inhabitants of this Province and New Brunswick.  And I do hereby order and command all his Majesty’s subjects within my jurisdiction to govern themselves accordingly until further orders.
                Given under my hand & seal at arms, at Halifax, this 3d day of July, 1812, in the 52d year of his Majesty’s reign.
                                J.C. Sherbrooke.
                By his Excellency’s command,
                                B.H. Cogswell

Instructions for the private armed vessels of the U. States.

Maryland Gazette
July 30, 1812, Page 2, Column C

INSTRUCTIONS FOR
The private armed vessels of the U. States.
                To Captain – –, commander of the private armed –, called the –.
                1. The tenor of your commission under the act of Congress entitled “An act concerning the letters of marquee, prizes, and prize goods,” a copy of which is hereunto annexed, will be kept constantly in view.  The high seas referred to in your commission, you will understand generally, to extend to low water mark; but with the exception of the space within one league or three miles from the shore of countries at peace both with Great Britain and the United States. – You may nevertheless execute your commission within that distance of the shore of a nation at war with G. Britain, and even on the waters within the jurisdiction of such nation if permitted so to do.
2. You are to pay the strictest regard to the rights of neutral powers and the usages of civilized nations; and in all your proceedings towards neutral vessels, you are to give them as little molestation or interruption as will consist with the right of ascertaining their neutral character, and of detaining and bringing them in for regular adjudication in the proper cafes.  You are particularly to avoid even the appearance of using force or seduction with a view to deprive such vessels of their crews, or of their passengers, other than persons in the military service of the enemy.
4. Towards enemy vessels and their crews, you are to proceed in exercising the rights of war, with all the justice and humanity which characterize the nation of which you are members.
5. The master and one or more of the principal persons belonging to captured vessels are to be sent as soon after the capture as may be to the judge or judges of the proper courts of the U. States to be examined upon oath touching the interests or property of the captured vessel and her lading; and at the same time are to be delivered to the judge or judges all passes, charter parties, bills of lading, invoices, letters and other documents and writings found on board; the said papers are to be proved by the affidavit of the commander of the capturing vessel, or some other person present at the capture, to be produced as they were received, without fraud, addition, seduction or embezzlement.
By command of the President of the U. States.
                James Monroe,
                                Secretary of State.

SEA SONG.

National Intelligencer
July 30, 1812, Page 2, Column D

For the National Intelligencer.
SEA SONG.
Tune – “Banish Sorrow.”

Comrades!  Join the flag of glory,
Cheerly tread the deck of fame,
Earn a place in future story,
Seek and win a warrior’s name.

Yankee Tars can laugh at dangers:
While the roaring mountain wave
Teems with carnage – they are strangers
To a deed that is not brave.

May our banner’d stars; as ever,
Splendidly o’er freemen burn,
Till the night of war is over,
Till the dawn of peace return.

Washington, July 27.  A.

Speech of the Lords Commissioners to both Houses of Parliament


July 30, 1812.

MY LORDS AND GENTLEMEN,
            In terminating the present session of parliament, his royal highness the prince regent, has commanded us to express to you the deep concern and sorrow which he feels at the continuance of his majesty’s lamented indisposition.
            His royal highness regrets the interruptions which have occurred in the progress of public business, during this long and laborious session, in consequence of an event which his royal highness must ever deplore.  The zeal and unwearied assiduity with which you have persevered in the discharge of the arduous duties imposed upon you by the situation of the country, and the state of public affairs, demand his royal highness’s warm acknowledgements.
            The assistance which you have enabled his royal highness to continue to the brave and loyal nations of the Peninsula, is calculated to produce the most beneficial effects.
            His royal highness most warmly participates in those sentiments of approbation which you have bestowed on the consummate skill and intrepidity displayed in the operations which led to the capture of the important fortresses of Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz, during the present campaign, and his royal highness confidently trusts that the tried valor of the allied forces under the distinguished command of general the earl of Wellington, combined with the unabating spirit and steady perseverance of the Spanish and Portuguese nations, will finally bring the contest in that quarter to an issue, by which the independence of the Peninsula will be effectually secured.
            The renewal of the war in the north of Europe furnishes an additional proof of the little security which can be derived from any submission to the usurpations and tyranny of the French government.  His royal highness is persuaded, that you will be sensible of the great importance of the struggle in which the emperor of Russia has been compelled to engage, and that you will approve of his royal highness affording to those powers who may be untied in this contest, every degree of co-operation and assistance, consistent with the interests of his majesty’s dominions.
            His royal highness has commanded us to assure you, that he views with most sincere regret the hostile measures which have been recently adopted by the government of the United States of America towards this country.  His royal highness is nevertheless willing to hope that the accustomed relations of peace and amity between the two countries may yet be restored ; but if his expectations in this respect should be disappointed by the conduct of the government of the United States, or by their perseverance in any unwarrantable pretensions, he will most fully rely on the support of every class of his majesty’s subjects, in a contest in which the honor of his majesty’s crown and the best interests of his dominions must be involved.
            Gentlemen of the House of Commons,
                        We have it in command from his royal highness to thank you for the liveral provisions which you have made for the services of the year.  His royal highness deeply regrets the burthens which you have found it necessary to impose upon his majesty’s people ; but he applauds the wisdom which has induced you so largely to provide for the exigencies of the public service, as affording the best prospect of bringing the contest in which the country is engaged ot a successful and honorable conclusion.
            My Lords and Gentlemen,
                        His royal highness has observed, with the utmost concern the spirit of insubordination and outrage which has appeared in some parts of the country, wand which has been manifested by acts not only destructive of the property and personal safety of many of his majesty’s most loyal subjects in those districts, but disgraceful to the British character--His royal highness feels it incumbent on him to acknowledge your diligence in the investigation of the causes which have led to these outrages, and he has commanded us to thank you for the wise and salatary measures which you have adopted on this occasion.  It will be a principal object of his R. H’s attention to make an effectual and prudent use of the powers vested in him for the protection of his Majesty’s people ; and he confidently trusts, that on your return into your respective counties, he may rely on your exertions for the preservation of the public peace, and for bringing the disturbers of it to justice.  His royal highness most earnestly recommends to you the importance of inculcating, by every means in your power, a spirit of obedience ot those laws, and of attachment to that constitution, which provide equally for the happiness and wellfare of all classes of his majesty’s subjects, and on which have hitherto depended the glory and prosperty of this kingdom.

"It remains for America to say, whether our revocation of the orders will satisfy her..."

London, England
July 30, 1812


   The official intelligence of War having been declared by America against this country arrived last night by the Julis, from Halifax. A cabinet council was held this morning on the dispatches and was sitting when our paper was put to press. The receipt of the official intelligence renders of course some immediate and decisive measure on our part imperative. It remains for America to say, whether our revocation of the orders will satisfy her; if it does not, we have a pledge from the opposition, recorded in Parliament, that they will give their utmost support to the war. Courier.


Published in the Raleigh Register & North Carolina Gazette - September 25, 1812

"Thus with French powder, French cloths, and French Brandy, our country is travelling post-haste to ruin"

[The following was designed to have been annexed to the article headed "False Reports" in our last but omitted for want of room - Niles Weekly Register].

Harford
July 30, 1812

   We understand that government has purchased a large quantity of powder from certain Frenchmen, on the Brandywine, near Wilmington, Del. It is true the powder is as good as any in the world, and perhaps as cheap; but we would ask any man if it is prudent at this time to form an alliance with France? Further, these same Frenchmen have established one of the best cloth manufactories in the world, and we are alarmed with their zeal to encourage the breed of Merino sheep. One of them, though very rich already, out of his ferocious enmity to Great Britain, has sent his only child to France to serve a regular apprenticeship in one of the great cloth manufactories in that country, to give the highest possible perfection to its fabrication here. Thus with French powder, French cloths, and French BRANDY, our country is travelling post-haste to ruin.
  We state it as a positive fact, all that appears in the 'ministerial papers' to the contrary notwithstanding, that 1,000 men for the new standing army are not yet enlisted. By the returns, it appears that of these 617 have neither arms nor legs, and 198 are totally blind. Hopeful protectors of the country! - Gallant spirits, indeed, to meet the full-fed soldiers of Britain! - "by whose forbearance, (as has been justly observed by one of the our most eminent statesmen,) a single herring is PERMITTED to enter the Chesapeake bay."

Published in the Niles Weekly Register - August 15, 1812

London's Reaction to America's Declaration of War

From The Maryland Gazette
Annapolis, Thursday, September 24, 1812

LATE FROM ENGLAND.
London, July 30.
Declaration of War by America.

     The official intelligence of war having been declared by America against this country arrived last night by the Julia the hon. captain Gardner, from Halifax. The President's approval of the act of Congress declaring war was signed on the 18th of last month. -The account of our revocation of the Orders in Council had not reached America.
     A cabinet council was held this morning on the dispatches, and was fitting when our paper was put to press. The receipt of the official intelligence renders of course some immediate and decisive measure on our parts imperative. It remains for America to say, whether our revocation of the Orders will satisfy her; if it does not, we have a pledge from the opposition recorded in Parliament, that they will give their utmost support to the war.                                                                 [Courier.]
     [Then follows the long message of the President.]
SPEECH
Of the Lords Commisioners to both Houses of Parliament.
On Thursday, July 30, 1812.
My Lords and Gentlemen,
     In terminating the present session of Parliament his Royal Highness the Prince Regent has commanded us to express to you the deep concern and sorrow which he feels at the continuance of his majesty's lamented inindisposition.
     His Royal Highness regrets the interruptions which have occurred in the progress of public business, during this long and laborious session, in consequence of an event which his royal highness must ever deplore. The zeal and unwearied assiduity which you have preserved in the discharge of the arduous duties impofed upon you by the situation of the country and the state of public affairs, demand his royal highness's warm acknowledgements.
     The assistance which you have enabled his Royal Highness to continue to the brave and loyal nations of the Peninsula, is calculated to produce the most beneficial effects.
     His Royal Highness most warmly participates in those sentiments of approbation which you have bestowed on the consummate skill and intrepidity displayed in the operations which led to the capture of the important fortresses of Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz, during the present campaign, and his Royal Highness confidently trusts, that the tried valor of the allied forces under the distinguished command of General the Earl of Wellington, combined with the unabating spirit and steady perseverance of the Spanish and Portuguese nations, will finally bring the contest in that quarter to an issue, by which the independence of the Peninsula will be effectually secured.
The renewal of the war in the North of Europe furnishes an additional proof of the little fecundity which can be derived from and submission to the usurpations and tyranny of the French government. His royal Highness is persuaded, that you will be sensible of the great importance of teh struggle in which the Emperor of Russia has been compelled to engage; and that you will approve of his Royal Highness affording to those powers who may be united in this contest, every degree of co-operation and affiliance, consistent with the interests of his majesty's dominions.
     His Royal Highness has commanded us to assure you, that he views with most sincere regret the hostile measures which have been recently adopted by the government of the United States of America towards this country. His Royal Highness is nevertheless willing to hope that the accustomed relations of peace and amity between the two countries may yet be restored; but his expectations in this respect should be disappointed by the conduct of the government of the U. States or by their preference in any unwarranted pretensions, he will most fully rely on the support of every class of his majesty's subjects, in a contest in which the honor of his majesty's crown, and the best interests of his dominions must be involved.
Gentlemen of the House of Commons,
     We have it in command from his Royal Highness to thank you for the liberal provision which you have made for the services of the year. H. R. H. deeply regrets the burthens which you have found it necessary to impose upon his majesty's people; but he applauds the wisdon which has induced you to largely provide for the ezigencies of the public service, as affording the best prospect of bringing the contest in which the country is engaged to a successful and honorable conclusion.
My Lords and Gentlemen,
     His Royal Highness has observed, with the utmost concern, the spirit of insubordination and outrage which has appeared in some parts of the country, and which has been manifested by acts not only destructive of the property and personal safety of many of his majesty's most loyal subjects in those districts, but disgraceful to the British character.
     His Royal Highness feels it incumbent on him to acknowledge your diligence in the investigation of the causes which have led to these outrages, and he has commanded us to thank you for the wise and salutary measures which you have adopted on this occasion. It will be a principal object of his Royal Highness's attention to make an effectual and prudent use of the powers vested in him for the protection of his Majesty's people; and he confidently trusts, that on your return into your respective countries, he may rely on your exertions for the preservation of the public peace, and for bringing the disturbers of it to justice. His royal Highness most earnestly recommends to you the importance of inculating, by every means in your power, a spirit of obedience to those laws, and of attachment to that Constitution, which provide equally for the happiness and welfare of all classes of his majesty's subjects, and on which have hitherto depended the glory and prosperity of the kingdom.




7.28.2012

What is War?



FOR THE NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER 
No. 111.

     Among the misrepresentations that party violence has propagated, the allegation that the present war with Great Britain is an offensive war is not the flagrant. It is, moreover, an allegation, that, in proportion to its falsehood, demands reprehension. With whatever professions it may be urged, it is, notwithstanding, intended to shake the confidence of the people to the government, to make them believe that the war is undertaken without adequate cause, that the motive of our rulers is not the defence of our rights or the protection of our interests, but ambition, false glory, aggrandisement. As the ascription of such motives is a base libel, totally destitute of foundation, orgination with men who know its untruth, thos who propagate, and more especially those, who from the high political stations they occupy, are bound by the most sacred obligations to maintain by every means in their power the character of their government.
     What shall these malcontents dare to tell us, that the solemn step taken against Great-Britain, after the insults and injuries she has heaped upon for near thrity years, is not in defence of our violated rights and outraged honor, but as a wanton attack upon her, merely because it is or purpose, after having exhausted every hope of an amicable arrangement, to touch her, in the first instance, in her most vulnerable point? Do the laws of just defence among individuals require the aggressed to report upon the agressor the identical kind of blow he has received? If a man of a small stature is pugilistically consulted by one of gigantic strength, is it forbidden to the former to use in his defence the sword or te musket? If the mid-night robber approach my house, may I not, in my own defence, give him the first blow, before he has broken my locks and entered it? If a person, with whom I have dealings, cheats me of my property and transfers it to another, may I not, without the reproach of attacking his rights, legally seize upon his property, and thro' it obatin an inemnity? If these are the plain, imprecriptible, hallowed principles of equity and law between man and man, in cases where rights and interests have an individality of character, shall they be disallowed to large communities, in whose general interests, personal rights and local, limited concerns are necessarily on great degree merged?
     Let us put the case in plain terms - We have citizens, ships and merchantize; Britain has colonies. For thirty years, Britain seizes, incarcerates, lacerates our citizens, and, worse than all compels them to aid not only in fighting their enemies, but in enslaving and oppressing their fellow-citizens. She likewise seizes our ships sailing on the common domain of nations, carries them, with the goods they contain, into their ports, condemns and applies both to their gratification of her own appetites. The solicit redress. It is withheld. Our request assumes the tone of remonstrance, but without avail. We demand, (illegible) however in respectful terms, that the persons of our citizens may be respected, and our rights to property receded on the high seas - upon those high seas, which for our use are as much theirs as the air we breath. But this (illegible) of the ocean, hypocritically can't be about national honor and liberty, with the depravity of the highwayman without his sincerity, proceeds in her interest of insolence and robbery. She need, sometimes promises, but never performs. Her promises seem only included to shew that she can be as (illegible) as she is tyrannical. She proceeds in seizing our citizens, in capturing our ships - why? - Becuase we are strong enough on the ocean to pretest her; and she does all this without cause; she does it, too, while with our abundant crops we are feeding her armies and supplying her manufactories. And now, forsooth, the despicable apologists of her injustice, beacause in returning her blow, when further forbearance would sink us in irretrievable disgrace, we contemplate the invasion of her adjacent territory, charge us with waging offensive war. And they address themselves to our sympathy, our generosity, our magnamimity! Have say they, the people of Canada given you any offence? Why then attack them? Why, we may in our turn, ask our interrogators, why attack the innocent soldiers who compose the armies of your enemy? Explore her wide domains, and you shall not find a set of men whose hearts are freer from hostility to you, or who have in thgought, word or deed, done you less injusry; and yet, without a pang of conscience, you can proceed murderously to put them to death. Were it not to harsh language, to apply to any body of men, we should be tempted to say that these men presented the solecism of acting like dishonest ment and talking like fools. What is war? Is it not that dire appeal to force, in which, for some end, one whole people are arrayed against another, & which the whole physical force is called forth? Does it not belong to its very essence to embark the active community in one common cause, in one fell swoop to involve in the same fate the innocent and the guilty? Humanity deplores it. Reason incessantly strives to avert it, Reason incessantly strives to avert it. But, once entered upon, the cheif, if not only consideration is how one nation can do the other the most harm. The means are dreadful; but they are in a just war sanctified by the end, which is, as we have already said, a safe and honorable peace.
If then Britain has driven us into declaration of war; if the step was unavoidable; once taken, we are bound to use our force in that way in which she will most feel it, and our rulers would be madmen or traitors did they not attack her in her most sensible point. If that point be Canada, and that province be occupied by our arms, the act of occupation is as strictly defensive in its nature as if we took the very frigates that seized our merchantmen and enslaved our sailors. For the frigate is not a whit more the property of our enemy than Canada; and in defending or avenging our violated rights, whatever appertains to her, whether persons, effects, or territory, are equally legitimate objects of war.

Published in the National Intelligencer - July 28, 1812

Porter to Gov. Meigs

Detroit July 28th. 1812

Sir

I have a Contract with the Government of the United States for the supply of all Rations which may be required by the Army at chicago, Michi- llimakinac, Fort Wayne and this place, and also all other places in the State of Ohio and Indiana Territory north of the 41st Degree of Latitude, and also in the Territory of Michigan.

This Contract was entered into by me in time, and with a view to a State of peace, and with an expectation that the Supplies might be furnish- ed as they have heretofore been, and transported in Vessels over the Lakes.

Previous to the declaration of War I had made large purchases of provisions along the shores of Lake Erie with the States of Ohio & Pensyl- vania and had Just commenced removing them to this place when War declared, the Navigation of that Lake is not shut against us by the Enemy, and of course, it is impossible for me to furnish the Army by water, There then remains no other means than to forward Supplies from the State of Ohio through the Wilderness for 150 or 200 miles, where the Roads are So bad that it is almost impossible for Waggons to travel and where no doubt the cheapest mode will be to transport by Packing on horses, In addition to these embarrassments, is that, of the hostile disposition of the Savages, who are daily committing depredations on Travellers on this route and will no doubt do all in their power to prevent Supplies from passing.

Under these circumstances you will See at once Sir that the efforts of an individual can produce but little effect, and that nothing Short of the energies of Government can furnish the necessary Supplies.
I Some time ago wrote to the Secretary of War on this Subject, and re- quested that he would devise means to overcome these difficulties, but have not received his answer.

Understanding that General Hull was about to addressyou on the Subject of an additional force to his
Army and Supplies for that, and the force al- ready here, I am induced to make this communication.
There is one circumstance relating to these Supplies which I will men- tion, that is that the Army which came on with General Hull very soon after their arrival passed into Canada without the limits of my Contract, but notwithstanding have been Supplied by me, Since, as matter of necessity should an additional force come on I conclude they would also pass into Canada,,and of course placed out of the reach of any Government Contract for supplies.

I leave this tomorrow to proceed Eastward along the South Shore of Lake Erie with a view of sending on Some Supplies in Boats from New Connecticut but the Success of this attempt must be doubtfull and not to be relied on. I should wish that your Excellency might adopt Such mea- sures to furnish Supplies as your better Judgement may direct without con- sidering me as the Contractor.

I am Sir with great respect Your Obedient Servant

Aug. Porter

His Excellency
Governor Meiggs