8.31.2012

General Order


Head-Quarters, Montreal
August 31.

            It is with real regret that his excellency the governor-general and commander of the forces, announces to the troops under his command, and to the public, the failure of an important arrangement, lately entered into between major-general Dearborn, commander in chief of the forces of the United States of America, and himself, for a suspension of active hostilities, and which his excellency had hoped might have ultimately teraduated in an amicable settlement of the differences, subsisting between the two countries.
            Captain Pinkney, aid-de-camp to general Dearborn, arrived at 9 o’clock last night, being the bearer of despatches from the commander in chief of the American forces, with the information that the president of the U. States of America had not thought proper to authorise a continuance of the provisional measures entered into by his excellency and general Dearborn, through the adjutant general col. Baynes, and that consequently the armistice was to cease in 4 days from the time of the communication reaching Montreal and the posts at Kingston and fort George.  At the same time that his excellency cannot but lament so unlooked for a decision upon the friendly proposition made by him, through general Dearborne to the government of the U. States, he trusts it will be matter of high satisfaction to all his majesty’s subjects in this province to know that he has used all the means in his power to prevent a further increase of the breach subsisting between Great Britain and America, and to ward off from these provinces the calamities of war, with which they are threatened.  in the same spirit of conciliation which has uniformly influenced his majesty’s ministers in their late negociations with the government of the U. States, his excellency availed himself of the earliest opportunity of communicating to the commander in chief of the American forces, the despatches he had received from Mr. Foster at Halifax containing the intentions of his majesty’s government respecting the repeal of the orders in council; and as his excellency could not doubt but that this conciliatory message, removing the alleged principal ground of difference between Great Britain and America and which had been committed to the government of the U. States through Mr. Baker, late secretary of legation at Washington, would be met by a similar disposition on their part, be submitted to general Dearborne the propriety of a suspension of hostilities until the determination of the president should be made known upon the subject.  The ready acquiescence of that officer in this proposal, excepting as far as it related to general Hull, who was acting under the immediate orders of the executive government of America, and the order immediately issued by him, strongly manifested his friendly disposition on the occasion, and led to a reasonable expectation that his government would not fail to approve of his conduct, and to confirm the armistice he had entered into.  In this expectation his excellency has been disappointed, and the American government by refusing to continue the suspension of hostilities, though with the certain evidence before them of the actual repeal of the orders in council, has proclaimed in language not to be misunderstood, that other objects independent of those held out to the American people as the grounds of the war, were originally in their contemplation.  That the conquest of the Canadas, either for the purpose of extending their own territories, or of gratifying their desire of annoying and embarrassing Great Britain was one amongst others of these objects, cannot be doubted.  the invasion of the upper province undertaken so immediately after the declaration of war, shews in the strongest manner how fully they had prepared themselves for that event, and how highly they had flattered themselves with finding it easy conquest from the supposed weakness of the force opposed to them, and the spirit of disaffection which they had previously endeavored to excite amongst its inhabitants--Foiled as they have been in this attempt by the brave and united efforts of the regular forces, militia and Indians of that province, under the command of their disanguished leader, their whole army with its general captured, and their only remaining fortress and post in the adjoining territory wrested from them, it is not to be doubted but that the American government will keenly feel this disappointment of their hopes, and consequently endeavor to avail themselves of the surrender of Detroit, to term it an invasion of their country, and to make it a ground for calling upon the militia to march to the frontiers for the conquest of the Canadas.  A pretext so weak and unfounded, though it may deceive some, will not fail to be received in its proper light by others-and it will be immediately perceived by those who will give them selves the trouble to reflect upon the subject, that the pursuit of an invading army into their own territory, is but a natural consequence of the first invasion, and the capture of the place to which they may retire for safety, a measure indispensably necessary for the security and protection of the country originally attacked.
            Under all these circumstances so strongly indicative of the moderation, forbearance and true spirit of conciliation manifested on the part of his majesty’s government towards the United States of America, and of their determined hostility to Great Britain.  His excellency the commander of the forces trusts that the troops, regulars and militia, under his command, as well as all his majesty’s other subjects in this part of his dominions, animated with sentiments of just indignation at the extraordinary pretensions of the enemy and their unwarrantable views of conquest upon the Canadas, will be prepared to repel with firmness, and with that invincible spirit and true British courage which as so gloriously manifested itself in Upper Canada in the total defeat and capture of the invading foe, any further attempt the enemy may have the temerity to make ; and his excellency looks with confidence, under the protection of Divine Providence, to the confirmed discipline of his majesty’s troops, and to the zeal, loyalty and courage of all descriptions of persons in these provinces, as a certain pledge of the same glorious result.                       EDWARD BAYNES,
                                                                        Adjutant General.

Lower Canada

On Sunday last we received the Proclamation of his Excellency the Governor-General of Lower Canada, dated at Montreal, Aug. 31. It announces to the troops and the public, the failure of the pacific arrangement, entered into with Gen. Dearborn; and calls upon the troops and militia to stand forward with firmness and bravery in defence of their country. The Proclamation contains the following argument, which we present to our readers.-"Hear both sides," is an eternal rule of Justice.
"It is not to be doubted but that the American Government will keenly feel the disappointment of their hopes, (in the expedition to U. Canada) and consequently endeavour to avail themselves of the surrender of Detroit, to term it an Invasion of their Country, and to make it a ground for calling upon the Militia to march to the Frontiers for the conquest of the Canadas. A pretext so weak and unfounded, though it may deceive some, will not fail to be received in its proper light by others, and it will be immediately perceived by those who will give themselves the troble to reflect upon the subject, that the pursuit of an invading Army into their own Territory, is but a natural consequence of the first invasion, and the capture of the place to which they may retire for safety, measure indespensably necessary for the security and protection of the country originally attacked."







Published in the Boston Weekly Messenger-September 18, 1812










Published in the Boston Weekly Messenger-September 18, 1812

"It is incumbent upon me to protest in the strongest manner against the practice of conducting exchanges upon terms like these"

Extract of a letter from Admiral Sir J.T. Duckworth to the Honorable Secretary of the Navy of the U.S. dated,

St. Johns, Newfoundland,
Aug. 31, 1812. 


   "A vessel captured, as the Alert has been, could not have been vested with the character of a Cartel until she had entered a port of the Nation by which she had been captured, and been regularly fitted out from thence. For every prize might by provided with a flag of Truce, and proposals for an exchange of prisoners; and rendered thus effectually secure against the possibility of re-capture; while the cruizing ship would be enabled to keep at sea with an undiminished crew, the Cartels being always navigated by the prisoners of war.
   It is utterly inconsistent with the laws of war to recognize the principle upon which this arrangement has been made.
   Nevertheless I am willing to give a proof at once of my respect for the liberality with which the captain of the Essex has acted in more than one instance towards the British subjects who have fallen into his hands; of the obligation that is always felt, to fulfil the engagements of a British officer, and of my confidence in the disposition of his royal highness the Prince Regent, to allay the violence of war by encouraging a reciprocation of that courtesy by which its pressure upon individuals may be so essentially diminished.
   On the 4th of this month, a Midshipman of the Essex arrived, and presented to me a letter from his Captain for an exchange of British prisoners. The Midshipman had however been placed alone in the charge of one of the captured vessels with 83 prisoners to conduct them to this port. A list of 40 prisoners of the same description disposed of in the same manner, has been sent to me by the Commander of the American Private armed schr. the Rossie.
   It is incumbent upon me to protest in the strongest manner against the practice of conducting exchanges upon terms like these; and to signify to you that it will be utterly impossible for me to incur the responsibility of assenting to them."

Published in the Maryland Gazette - October 8, 1812. 

Brilliant Naval Victory

Boston
August 31, 1812


The United States' frigate Constitution, Capt. Hull, anchored yesterday in the outer harbor, from a short cruize, during which she fell in with the English frigate Guerriere, which she captured, after a short but severe action. The damage sustained by the fire of the Constitution was so great, that it was found impossible to tow her into port, and accordingly the crew were taken out, and the ship sunk. The brilliancy of this action will excite the liveliest emotions in every American bosom.

Particulars of the Action


[Communicated by an officer of the Constitution]

Lat. 41, 42, N. long. 55, 33, W. Thursday Aug 19, fresh breeze from N.W. and cloudy; at 2, P.M. discovered a vessel to the Southward, made all sail in chase; at 3, perceived the chase to be a ship on the starboard tack, close hauled to the wind; hauled S.S.W.; at half past 3, made out the chase to be a frigate; at 4, coming up with the chase very fast; at a quarter before 5, the chase laud her main topsail to the mast; took in our top gallant sails, staysails, and flying gib; took a second reef in the topsails, hauled the courses up; sent the royal yards down; and got all clear for action; beat to quarters, on which the crew gave three cheers; at 5, the chase hoisted three English Ensigns; at 5 minutes past 5, the enemy commenced firing; at 20 minutes past 5, set our colours, one at each mast head, and one at the mizen peak, and began firing on the enemy, and continued to fire occasionally, he wearing very often, & we manoeuvring to close with him, and avoid being raked; at 6, set the main top gallant sail, the enemy having bore up; at 5 minutes past 6, brought the enemy to close action, standing before the wind; at 15 minutes past 6, the enemy's mizen mast fell over on the starboard side; at 20 minutes past 6, finding we were drawing ahead of the enemy lufted short round his bows, to rake him; at 25 minutes past 6, the enemy fell on board of us, his bow-sprit foul of our mizen rigging. We prepared to board, but immediately after, his fore and main mast went by the board, and it was deemed unnecessary. Our cabin had taken fire from his guns; but soon was extinguished, without material injury, at 30 minutes past 6, shot ahead of the enemy, when the firing ceased on both sides; he making the signal for submission, by firing a gun to leeward; set foresail and main sail, and hauled to the eastward to repair damage; all our braces and much of our standing and running rigging and some of our spars being shot away. At 7, wore ship, and stood under the lee of the prize - sent our boat on board, which returned at 8, with Capt. Dacres, late of his Majesty's ship Guerriere mounting 49 carriage guns, and manned with 802 men; got our boats out, and kept them employed in removing the prisoners and baggage from the prize to our own ship. Sent a surgeon's mate to assist in attending the wounded; wearing the ship occasionally to keep in the best position to receive the boats. At 20 minutes before 2, A.M. discovered a sail off the larboard beam, standing to the S.; saw all clear for another action; at 3, the sail stood off again; at day light was hailed by the lieutenant on board the prize, who informed he had 4 feet of water in the hold, and that she was in a sinking condition; all hands employed in removing the prisoners, and repairing our own damage through the remainder of the day. Friday the 20th, commenced with light breezes from the northward, and pleasant; our boats and crew still employed as before. At 3, P.M. made the signal of recal for our boats (having received all the prisoners) they immediately left her on fire, and a quarter past 3 she blew up. Our loss in the action was 7 killed and 7 wounded; among the former, lieut. Morris, severely*; and Mr. Alwyn, slightly. On the part of the enemy, 15 men killed, and 64 wounded. Among the former, lieut. Ready, 2d of the ship; among the latter, captain Dacres, lieut. Kent, 1st; Mr. Scott, master and master's mate.
   The Constitution took and destroyed two English brigs, one in ballast and one loaded with lumber bound to England. Also, 2 days previous to falling in with the Guerriere, recaptured the brig Adeline of Bath, from London, with a full cargo of dry goods, which had been taken 7 days previous by the sloop of war Avenger - took out the crew and put a prize-master on board, and ordered her into the first port in the United States.

*Now recovering


Published in the Raleigh Register & North Carolina Gazette - September 11, 1812

More of Hull's Surrender

Bedford (Penn.) Gazette
Aug. 31, 1812

Yesterday evening we were politely favored, by the late governor of the state of Ohio, Mr. Huntingdon, with the articles of capitulation entered into by Gen. Hull with General Brock, for the surrender of Detroit - as also the particulars detailed below. The whole is most distressing and humiliating.
   Previous to the retreat of the army out of Canada, Col. Miller, of the regulars, entreated Gen. Hull to suffer himself and regiment to attack Malden - that his life should be the forfeiture in case of a defeat. This request Gen. Hull refused. About 500 Canadians had claimed the protection of Hull, immediately on issuing his proclamation, and numbers had joined his army. It was a heart-rending sight to see these poor fellows flocking down to the River and begging Hull to remain and protect them or take them with him.
   Gen'l Hull suffered the British to erect a breastwork on the shore opposite Detroit, without molestation- from which they killed 3 or four officers and some of our men - notwithstanding which, and tho' there were 60 fine pieces of cannon mounted in the fortress, not a single shot would Hull suffer the garrison to return. The British landed and marched up to Detroit, 12 men deep - and tho' there were a number of cannon pointed at them and loaded with grape shot, Hull would not suffer a single gun to be discharged at them. Col. Miller again remonstrated with him, and was so pressing in his demand for permission to sally out and drive off the enemy, or at least for leave to defend the fort, that Hull threatened to have him arrested if he did not desist. The British forces consisted of 300 regulars, 400 militia, & 360 Indians - total 1060. That of the American army about 1800 men.
   Notwithstanding private property was to be protected, the town of Detroit was entirely plundered immediately after it surrendered.

Published in the Raleigh Register & North Carolina Gazette - September 11, 1812

THE CREEK INDIANS

Augusta
August 31, 1812


The intelligence from our Indian Frontier is truly alarming. The Creek confederacy has long been manifesting a deadly antipathy towards the United States, by the murder & plunder of her deluded citizens. Although our agent has been soothing us into a belief of their peaceful & friendly intentions; their conduct on every occasion is marked with implacable enmity. Let us at once secure the peace and tranquility of our frontier by driving them across the Mississippi; for so long as Florida is in possession of Spain and Spain at the mercy of England, we shall never be able to secure their friendship.
   We have just now learned that Col. Hawkins U. States agent in the nation, is about to remove his family to the garrison on the Ockmulgee, and is actually now preparing accommodations for their reception; if this is the fact, the citizens of Georgia would be glad to know whether this arrangement proceeds from an apprehension for their safety on Flint River, where they have resided for the last 10 years.
   The Spaniards have offered the Indians ten dollars for the scalp of every white man bro't to them, and we understand, one thousand is the price of general M'Intosh's.

Published in the Raleigh Register & North Carolina Gazette - September 11, 1812

SPLENDID NAVAL VICTORY

Location: (Boston, Massachusetts)
Date: (August 31, 1812)

SPLENDID NAVAL VICTORY
The United States frigate Constitution, Capt. Hull, anchored yesterday in the outer harbor, from a short cruise, during which she fell in with the English frigate Guerriere, which che captured, after a short but severe action. The damage sustained by the fire of the Constitution, was so great, that it was found impossible to tow her into port, and accordingly the crew were taken out and the ship sunk. The brilliancy of this action, however we may regret the occasion that has produced it, will still excite the livliest emotions in every American bosom.

Published in The Maryland Gazette - September 10, 1812

"Do you not tremble with resentment, at this treacherous act?" Dolley Madison to Unkown, August 31, 1812


          Here, we are, my dear Cousin (I will not say still) but again! We had reached Dumfries on friday Ev.g on our way home, when an Express overtook us, with the melancholy [tidings], that Genl. Hull had surrender’d Detroit, himself & the whole Army to the British! – Do you not tremble with resentment, at this treacherous act? Yet, we must not judge the man until we are in possession of his reasons – they have not arrived, but all we have hear’d is unfavorable to his honor – Mr. M found it necessary to return to the City, in order to repair our misfortunes by – We hope to get off again tomorrow, at any rate, we shall be at home this week. I will enclose you some papers, & I wish I could give you good news – In great haste, but sincere affection for you all – 
                                                                                                                             Yours DPM

Courtesy of James Madison's Montpelier.

8.30.2012

Destruction of the Guerriere

United States' frigate Constitution,
off Boston Light.
August 30, 1812

   Sir - I have the honor to inform you that on the 19th inst. at 2 P.M. being in lat. 41, 41, and long. 55, 48, with the Constitution under my command, a sail was discovered from the mast-head, bearing E. by S. or E.S.E. but at such a distance we could not tell what she was. All sail was instantly made in chase, and soon found we came up with her. At 3 P.M. could plainly see that she was a ship on the starboard tack under easy sail, close on a wind - at half past 3 P, M. made her out to be a frigate - continued the chase until we were within about 3 miles, when I ordered the light sails taken in, the courses hauled up and the ship cleared for action. -- At this time the chase had backed her maintop sail, waiting for us to come down. As soon as the Constitution was ready for action, I bore down with an intention to bring him to close action immediately; but on our coming within gun shot, she gave us a broad side, and filled away, and wore, giving us a broadside on the other tack, but without effect, her shot falling short. She continued wearing and manouevring for about three quarters of an hour, to get a raking position - but finding she could not, she bore up and run under her topsails and gib, with the wing on the quarter. I immediately made sail to bring the ship up with her and 5 minutes before 6 P.M. being alongside within half pistol shot, we commenced a heavy fire from all our guns, double-shotted with round and grape, and so well directed were they, and so warmly kept up, than in 15 minutes his mizen-mast went by the board and his main-yard in the slings, and the hull, rigging and sails very much torn to pieces. The fire was kept up with equal warmth for 15 minutes longer, when his mainmast and foremast went, taking with them every spar, excepting the bowsprit; on seeing this we ceased firing, so that in thirty minutes after we got fairly alongside the enemy, she surrendered, and had not a spar standing, and her hull below and above water so shattered, that a few more broadsides must have carried her down.
   After informing that so fine a ship as the Guerriere, commanded by an able and experienced officer, had totally been dismasted and otherwise cut to pieces, so as to make her not worth towing into port, in the short space of 30 minutes, you can have no doubt of the gallantry and good conduct of the officers and ship's company I have the honor to command. It only remains, therefore, for me to assure you, that they all fought with great bravery; and it gives me great pleasure to say, that from the smallest boy in the ship, to the oldest seaman, not a look of fear was seen. They all went into action, giving three cheers, and requesting to be laid close alongside the enemy.


I have the honor to be,
With very great respect,
Sir, your obedient servant.
ISAAC HULL

Published in the Niles Weekly Register - September 12, 1812

8.29.2012

Lord Castlereagh Shot

Boston, August 29.

Lord Castlereagh shot – Arrived at Salem. Thursday’ evening, ship Hercules, West, from Gibraltar, 45 days. On the 10th inst was boarded by the privateer Rossie, capt. Barney, who informed him of the war, and put on board himm the captain of an English ship, prize to the Rossie, which left Liverpool the 14th July, who informs that Lord Castlereagh had fallen in a duel with Lord Camden, on the 9th. He also informs that the Guerriere, Shannon, and Belvidere, had fallen in with the Jamaica fleet and parted with it on the 6th inst in pursuit of what they supposed to be Commodore Rodgers’ squadron; three of which was said to have been in sight. The Rossie had captured and destroyed 14 English vessels.

The duel between Castlereagh and Camden took place on the 9th. The dispute which caused it related to American Affairs. The papers which contained the particulars were given to com. Barney.

News of the declaration of war having passed the House of Representatives, had been received in England; but the impression was universal, that the repeal of the orders in council would reach America before war was decided upon. Immense shipments were making for America.
E.C.H. Books.

Published in the National Intelligencer - September 5, 1812.

Honor to the brave.

   Yesterday (says a Philadelphia paper of the 23d inst.) the remains of captain JOHN HEARD, of the British brig Ranger, were interred with that respect which honor and valor even in an enemy can never fail to inspire. Capt. Heard was captured, with his brig, by the private armed schooner Matilda, of this port, after a smart action, in which he received the wound of which he unfortunately died. The funeral was attended by the officers of the United States army and navy, now in this city, and by three of the uniformed volunteer corps. The Philadelphia Blues, commanded by col. L. Rush, performed the funeral honors. The war of freemen is not with the virtuous men of any nation, but against the tyranny and oppression of rulers; and generosity must ever shed a tear over those whose unhappy lot it is to be the victim of their injustice.

 Published in the Niles Weekly Register - August 29, 1812.

Letter from William Henry Harrison to William Eustis

Cincinnati 
29th August 1812

Sir

I did myself the Honor to write to you Yesterday and dispatched the letter by an Express thinking that he rould be able to overtake the Mail at Chilicothe. The Troops marched this morning for Piqua, I shall follow and overtake them Tomorrow. Another letter was received from General Worthington last Evening covering one from Capt Rhea of Fort Wayne stating that a large body of Indians were near the Fort and he expected to be attacked that Night. I shall lose not a moment in marching to his relief and I think more than probable that we shall have to encounter all the Indians who assisted at the taking of Detroit, those to whom Chicago was surrendered and a very large number of others who will be induced by the fame of their Exploits to join the hostile party.
Permit me to recommend that a considerable supply of Tents Swords and Pistols, Camp Kettles, Cartridge boxes rifle flints and artificers tools of every description be forwarded immediately as well as the Artillery and every species of ordinance Stores -- Medicine Instruments and hospi- tal stores of every description will also be wanted for the large force which it will require to reinstate our affairs upon the North Western Frontier. It is important also that some disciplined Troops should be sent here, a company or two of artillery and an experienced engineer will be indispensable.
I have caused a travelling forge to be prepared and ammunition Waggons are now building - It appeared to me Sir that it was necessary that some one should undertake the general direction of affairs here and I have done it - The Critical situation of affairs in this country in my opinion authorised a departure from the common line of procedure (to wait for orders) and should it be considered by the Government to have been improper I shall I hope be pardoned for the purity of my intentions.
You may rely upon it Sir that the Western Country was never so agitated by alarm and mortification as at this time. I have the Honor to be with Great Respect Sir Your Humble Servant (signed) Willm Henry Harrison

Courtesy of the Ohio Historical Society

The Powder Monkey

From the Boston Patriot


   In the English naval service, and probably in ours, there is on board all vessels of war a fellow whose particular duty it is to hand powder from the magazine to the gun-deck, and who for this humble, but very necessary, service, is dubbed with the title of powder monkey. It happened, in one of the wars which the English waged against Spain, that the powder monkey on board one of their frigates undertook to judge for himself on the policy and justice of the declaration of war, and firmly believing it to be "unjust" and "unnecessary," conscientiously refused to assist in doing any harm to the Spaniards, and resolved to keep all his powder safely in the magazine. The frigate, whose captain had never been in the habit of consulting with his powder monkey, bore down on a ship of the enemy with the confidence of an easy victory over a superior force; but when all ready to engage, and every man was at his post, no powder was found ready; and on an enquiry it was discovered that the powder monkey had determined to lay to, and not have anything to do with so iniquitous a war! In the confusion which followed on this discovery, the powder monkey, was pitched overboard by the enraged crew, but the English vessel was captured by the enemy!
   We leave our readers to make application of this "historical fragment."

Published in the National Intelligencer - August 29, 1812

Events of the War

   Gen. Bloomfield has resigned the governorship of New-Jersey, and gone to head-quarters near Albany; in his quality and rank of brigadier-general in the U. States army.
   The governor of Pennsylvania, upon the requisition of general Dearborn, has ordered out 2000 militia for actual service.
   Bodies of troops are moving towards Albany from whence strong detachments are marching to the frontiers. The New-York frontier is in a very respectable state of defence. - A strong fort called Fort Van Rensalaer, has been erected at Ogdensburg, by the militia, and ample supplies of arms and ammunition have reached the shores of the lakes, with numerous corps of volunteers and militia.
   The report of an armistice has died away. It is agreed that the British proposed one - until they could recruit their forces in Upper Canada! but it seems to have been properly and promptly rejected. We have many irregular accounts of the capture of Malden, on the second of this month by general Hull, with the loss of 200 men killed and 400 wounded. Such are the reports from various quarters, but we wait official accounts. All is uproar and commotion in Canada - every third man has been drafted, and some large bodies of the people have positively refused to march. Consternation is the order of the day. A little time and vigor will confine the enemy to the precincts of Quebec.
   About 400 U.S. troops passed through Boston followed by a handsome train of military appendages.

Published in the Niles Weekly Register - August 29, 1812

Bad News from Fort Wayne

Paris, (K.)
Aug. 29, 1812


   A young gentleman of undoubted veracity, Mr. March, just arrived at this place from Piqua, has politely favoured us with the following letter from Mr. S. Ruddell, the authenticity of which he confirms.

Bad News from Fort Wayne
   Two expresses just from Fort Wayne, bring information to this place (Piqua) that capt. Wells hearing that gen. Hull had advised capt. Heald the commandant at Fort Chicago, to evacuate his Fort, went from Fort Wayne to Chicago with one white man and about 30 or 40 Miami Indians, in order to escort the garrison in. That the day after he arrived there a great number of Indians being present a council was held, at which all the public goods were distributed. In the evening of the same day, dispatches arrived from Malden, to the Indians, stating that all the tribes had joined the British, that Detroit had fallen into their hands, and exhorting them to drink the blood of our people. The next morning, 15th inst, captains Wells and Heald, with the force of the garrison and their women and children amounting to about 100, started for Fort Wayne - when they were attacked about half a mile from Chicago, by nearly 600 Indians who massacred them all! Only a few Miami Indians escaped to tell the news. Several of their chiefs were killed.
   A number of friendly Indians are on their way to this place to claim protection from our government. About 700 are here who manifest very friendly dispositions to our people; they are very sorry for our misfortune, and are fearful for their own safety.
   I have endeavoured to find out their minds and to set them right, and shall continue to do so. From the public's faithful servant,

STEPHEN RUDDELL.

Published in the Maryland Gazette - October 1, 1812

"Our frontiers are sadly Exposed to the savage Power"

Mount Vernon
August 29th. 1812

His Excellency Return J. Meigs Governor and Commander in Chief of Ohio --

Sir

At the request of A number of Citizens I have thought proper to Advise myself to you and inform you of Our Situation Our frontiers here are sadly Exposed to the savage Power they are flying in all quarters seeking pro- tection the Men from all quarters Are Voluntiering like men and Marching for their protection the Want of Arms Amunition Accoutrements and provisions are Great and We are at a loss to Know in w hat Manner to make pro- vision for them the best Way we can. tile troops from this County under the Command of Major Croitzer are now at Mansfield, the troops from Coshochton consists of About One hundred men under my Command Are At this place And numbers from other quarters of the State are now on their march to this place -- Sir permit Me to offer my Ideas of how the frontiers on this part of the State Could be most advantageously protected to be secure to your Consideration. I have been all this part of the frontiers frequently and am well Acquainted with the situation My Ideas is that four Block houses Ought to be Erected at the End of Every 25 Miles from this place untill they Would Intersect the frontiers on the Western part of the State at Each place where Block houses are Erected there Should in my Oppinion be large quantities of provisions Deposited With a sufficiency of Men to protect it by which Our frontiers Would always be secure and an open Comunication for provisions Or men to be taken On to any quarter whatever w ithout some Provisions of this Kind it would undoubtedly be Leaving Our Women and Children to the Mercy of the savages should Any of the troops belonging to this quarter be Called off -- I am in a few Minutes to mount my horse to go to Mansfield to Counsil with Major Croitzer and Armstrong the Indian Cheif at Greentown We wish your Advice how to proceed With those Indians at Greentown and Sandusky it is Verry doubtful whether they Intend being hostile or not the Indians of Greentown have frequently been Called upon to Know their Intentions and no satisfaction Can be Ob- tained they say they are at the direction of the Wyandott Chief at Sandusky and there can be no satisfaction Obtained from him - I think it highly necessary that they should be made to Join Either for or Against us We will wait your direction on the subject which we hope will come without Delay -

I have the Honour to be Verry Respectfully Your Most Obt.

Charles Williams Col.

2nd. Regt. 4th. Brige. 8 Divin.

Ohio Militia

Indian Logic

   The rumor of the British and Indians taking possession of Grand Island (situated in Niagara river and owned by the Senecas) having reached the Senecas, they assembled for the purpose of counselling with their agent, Mr. Granger, on the subject.
   The famous RED JACKET, after having stated the information they had received, addressed the agent in the following manner:

   Brother - 
   You have told us that we had nothing to do with the war that has taken place between you and the British: but we find the war has come to our doors. Our property is taken possession of by the British and their Indian friends. It is necessary now for us to take up the business, defend our property, and drive the enemy from it. If we sit still upon our seats, and take no means of redress, the British (according to the customs of you white people) will hold it by conquest - and should you conquer the Canadas, you will claim it upon the same principles, as conquered from the British. We, therefore, request permission to go with our warriors and drive off those bad people and take possession of our lands.

Published in the Niles Weekly Register - August 29, 1812 

"I do most religiously suspect his want of capacity to discharge the duties of a President." Thomas Flournoy to Thomas Jefferson, August 29, 1812

Georgetown, Ky. 29.th August 1812.

The news of the surrender of Hulls army has just reached us. It has cast a gloom over the people every where through the state. Indeed we scarcely know what to think of our present situation. The discovery of such barefaced rascally conduct in one man – Hull, has induced a suspicion with me, that there is something wrong in our government. This is a suspicion that I would by no means publish. Whatever destroys the people’s confidence in their rulers, must measurably weaken the government itself.
Several circumstances, of late, have served to confirm me in a belief that James Madison is not so well qualified to fill the office of president as he should be. The giving of fifty thousand dollars to Henry, was a thing that never quite pleased me, but as I did not, perhaps, entirely understand it, I would not censure it too severely. The appointment of Hull to command the North Western army of the United States, was surely a most unadvised measure It is impossible so great a scoundrel could ever have been placed in that station, if his character had been properly examined by a proper person. In addition to all this, I was never an admirer of Mr. Madison’s compositions. I thought his writings too much of that kind which we call milk and water; and I thought it strange if one who wrote so badly, could be a man of deep penetration. I would in no wise suggest a doubt of Mr. Madison’s intigrity, or patriotism; no man thinks more highly of them than I do; but I do most religiously suspect his want of capacity to discharge the duties of a President.
I know the intimacy that formerly subsided between yourself & Mr. Madison, and which, perhaps, continues to this day: Of course I am not ignorant that it would be rather a critical matter, with you, to disclose your opinion of him, particularly to a man you never saw. I cannot expect you will answer me upon this head. I have ventured to trouble you with my opinion of the man, chiefly on account of the interest I feel in the government, & as an apology for asking, whether you could be induced to hold a poll for the presidency, at the next election. I know not how your interest may stand in other States, but it is my opinion you would not lose a vote in Kentucky. True – the most of our candidates as electors, had promised if elected, to vote for Madison & Gerry; but the face of things is very much altered since the surrender of Hull’s army. Whatever it may be to the rest of the people in the United States; this I know – it would greatly contribute to the happiness of one man, to believe that Thomas Jefferson is to be our next president.
I fear this letter will have very much the air of vanity & impertinence. I beg you will consider the importance of the crisis, as my apology for writing to you, in this manner It has been my misfortune not to have a personal acquaintance with Mr. Jefferson: my opinion of the man has been settled after an attentive perusal of his writings, and a strict examination into his character. Only permit me to request, that you will take the trouble to answer my interrogatory – Whether you will consent to be a candidate at the next election for president: You will thereby relieve my suspense, and prevent my writing again, to know whether you have received this letter.
Should you think proper to honour me with any confidential communications I pledge myself to treat them with every degree of secrecy you may require. Accept my wishes for your happiness and welfare, and believe me yours sincerely.
                                                                               Thomas C. Flourney.

Thomas Jefferson Esqr.

8.28.2012

Exportation of Southern Produce

Our Southern Brethren have greatly the advantage of us in this war. Their produce goes off freely under the Spanish and Portuguese flags, which the British will not molest, while New-England productions are fast locked up, and our fisheries being destroyed. Thus we are growing poor, and they rich.

Printed in the Boston Weekly Gazette - August 28, 1812

I Have the Honor to Inform you

Washington City.
Tuesday, September 8.
Copies of Letter from Capatain Hull to the Secretary of the Navy.
United States’ frigate Constitution.
August 28, 1812.

Sir – The enclosed account of the affair between the President, Commodore Rodgers, and the British frigate Belvidera, and fell into my hands by accident! It clearly proves that she only escaped the Commodore by superior sailing, after having lightened her, and the President being very deep.
As much has been said on this subject; if Commodore Rodgers has not arrived, to give you his statement of the affair, if it meet your approbation I should be pleased to have this account published to prevent people from making up their minds hastily, as I find them willing to do.
I am confident could the Commodore have got alongside the Belvidere, she would have been his, in less than one hour.

     I have the honor to be,
          With great Respect, Sir,
               Your obedient servant,
                    ISAAC HULL
The Honorable Paul Hamilton, Etc.

An account of the proceedings of His Majesty’s ship Belvidere, Richard Byron Esq. Captain, 23 day of June 1812.

A.M. at 4, 40 Natucket Shoal, saw several sail bearing S.W. made sail towards them, at 6 30, they bore S W by S made them out to be three frigates, one sloop, and one [brig of war standing to the S.E. under a press of sail. Observed them to make signals, and haul up in chace of us, hailing down their steering sails, in a confused, and irregular manner. Tacked ships, and made the private signal which was not answered, made all sil possible. N.E. by E. at 8 moderate and fine weather, the headmost ship of the chace S.S.W 1/3 W. apparently gaining ground on us at times, and leaving her consorts. At 11 30, hoisted our colors, and pendant, the chace hoisted American colors, two of them hoisted Commodore’s broad pendants, at noon the commodore and the second headmost ship of the chace S.W. ¾ E. bout 2 and ¾ of a Mile, Nantucket Shoal N. 4 00 E. 48 miles, moderate and fine weather, cleared ship for action, Commodore of chace gaining, the other ships dropping, observed the chace pointing her guns at us at 3 40, the Commodore fired three shot, one of which struck the rudder coat, and came into the after gun-room, the other two came into the upper, or Captains cabin, one of which struck the muzzle of the larboard chace gun, the other went through the beam under the skylight, killed, William Gould (Seaman) Wounded, John Hill, (armourer) Mortally, Joseph Lee (sea.) severely George Marlon (ships corporal) badly, Lieut. Bruce and James Kelly, James Larmont (sea.) slightly. At 3 45, commenced firing with our stern guns, shot away her larboard lower steering sail, keeping our ship a steady course N.E. by E. at 4 the chace bore up and fired her laboard broadside, which cut our rigging, and sails much, the long Bolts, Breeching Hooks, and Breeching of guns and Cannonades frequently breaking (by one of which captain Byron was severely wounded in the left thigh) all of which was instantly replaced. Kept up a constant fire, which was returned by our opponent with bow chace guns, and at times by her broadsides, which by her superiority of sailing she was enabled to do till 6 45, when we cut away our spare sheet, and small bower anchors Barge, Yawl, & Jolly Boats, and started 14 tons of water; we then gained on him, when he bore up and fired three broadsides; part of which fell short of us, at 7 opponent ceased firing, and the second frigate commenced but finding her shot fall short, ceased again. Employed fishing our Cross-Jack yard, and maintopmast (both badly wounded) knotting and splicing our rigging, which was much cut and damaged. At 11 altered our course to E by S ½ S. and lost sight of our oopponents.

U.S. Frigate Constitution, off Boston, August 28th, 1812.
Sir – I have the honor to inform you, that after leaving Boston Light on the 2nd inst. the date of my last letter to you, I stood to the eastward along the coast, in hopes to fall in with one of the enemy’s frigates, which was reported to be cruizing in that direction, the day before I left Boston. I passed near the coast, as far down as the Bay of Fundy, but saw nothing. I then run off Halifax and Cape Sables, and remained near there fore three or four days without seeing any thing, which made me determine to change my situation to the eastward towards Newfoundland. I accordingly bore up, and run to the eastward under all sail, passing near the Isle of Sables, and hauling in to take a station off tehe Gulph of St. Laurence, near Cape Race, to intercept the ships of the enemy bound either to or from Quebec or Halifax, and to be in a situation to re-capture such of our vessels as they might be sending in.

On the 10th inst. being off Cape Race, I fell in with a light merchant brig, bound to Halifax, from Newfoundland; and as she was not worth sending in, I took the crew on board and set her on fire. On the 11th, I fell in with the British brig Adeona, from Nova Scotia, bound to England, loaded with timber. I took the crew out of her and set her on fire, and made sail to take a station nearer Cape Race, where we continued cruizing until the morning of the 15th at day-light; when five sail were in sight ahead of us, apparently a small convoy. I gave chace under a press of sail, and soon found that we gained on them very fast, and discovered that one of them was a ship of war; at sun-rise they tacked, and stood on the same tack with us. By this time we could plainly discover that the ship of war had a brig in tow. At 6, coming up very fast with the ship, and could see that she had cast off the brig that she had in tow, and had set her on fire, and had ordered a second brig to stand before the wind to separate them. The ship of war making sail to windward, I gave chace to a ship which appeared to be under her convoy; but when we came up with her, she proved to be a British ship, prize to the Dolphin privateer, of Salem. She had been spoken by the ship of war, but we came up with them before they had time to put men on board and take charge of her. Whilst our boats were boarding this vessel, the ship of war had got nearly hull down from us; and understanding from one of the prisoners that she was a very fast sailer, I found it would not be possible to come up with her before night, or perhaps not then; I therefore gave chace to the brig that run before the wind, determined to destroy all his convoy, we soon found we came fast up with the brig, and that they were making every exertion to get off by throwing overboard all the lumber, water casks & c.

At 2 P.M. we brought to the chace, and found her to be the American brig Adeline, from Liverpool, loaded with dry goods, & c. prize to the British sloop of war Avenger. I took the British prize-master and crew out and put midshipman Madison and a crew on board, with orders to get into the nearest port he could make. From the prize-master of this vessel I learnt that the brig burnt by the sloop of war belonged to New-York, and was loaded with hemp, duck, &c. last from Jutland, having gone in there in distress.

Having chased so far to the eastward as to make it impossible to come up with the sloop or war, I determined to change my cruizing ground, as I found by some of the prisoners that came from this vessel, that the squadron that chased us off New-York were on the western edge of the Grand B ank, not far distant from me. I accordingly stood to the southward, intending to pass near Bermuda, and cruize off our southern coast. Saw nothing till the night of the 18th, at half past 9, P.M. discovered a sail very near us, it being dark; made sail and gained chase, and could see that she was a brig. At 11, brought her to, and sent a banton board, found her to be the American privateer Decatur, belonging to Salem, with a crew of one hundred and eight men and fourteen guns, twelve of which she had thrown overboard wailst we were in chase of him. The captain came on board, and infromed me that he saw the day before a ship of war standing to the southward, and that she could not be far from us; at 12, P.M. made sail to the southward, intending if possible to fall in with her. The privateer stood in for Cape Race, intending to cruize there, and take ships by boarding, as he had last all his guns but two. The above is a memorandum of what took place on baord the Constitution under my command, from the time we left Boston up to the 18th inst which I hope will meet your approbation.

     I have the honor to be,
          With great respect,
               Sir, your obedient servant,
                     ISAAC HULL.

The Hon. Paul Hamilton,
Secretary of the Navy, Washington City.

Published in the National Intelligencer - September 8, 1812. 

What Is Patriotism?

   There is no word in the English language so often used, so little understood, and so frequently abused as is this sacred word. I was led to these reflections from hearing a man on the exchange call privateering, in the present situation of the United States, in its present helpless, exposed, defenceless state, Patriotism. Patriotism, I take to be the love of one's country - a pure, disinterested, enlightened affection for the country which we inhabit.
    Patriotism, true patriotism leads us to wish our country success in all its laudable, lawful and just undertakings - Enlightened patriotism looks farther than to the present moment.
    It condemns that policy, which, though it may lead to momentary successes, will eventually produce certain and lasting injury.
    These reflections, and this view of true patriotism, is very important to be kept in mind by all sober and virtuous men in the present disastrous situation of our country.
    With this view, I mean to make some remarks on the effects of privateering, upon the happiness, interests and future prosperity of our country.
    If any man can gainsay, or overturn my argument, I shall be happy to hear them.
    In the first place then is privateering, in the abstract, patriotism? Does it proceed from, or is it undertaken in any case with that enlightened regard to our own country which we call patrotism? We think not. A ship is fitted out to attack and strip the defenceless subjects of another country with whom individually and personally we have no cause of quarrel. Did any man ever engage in such an undertaking from motives of patriotism?
    If a share in a privateer be worth 1000 dollars, did the agent or owner ever say to any man whom we wished to become an adventurer, "a share in the privateer is worth and costs 1000 dollars, but your patriotism ought to induce you to pay 500 dollars more?" Did any a man ever pay a cent more on the score of patriotism?
    Did any man, in short (however patriotic he might be) ever engage in a privateer except upon the calculation of the profit he might reap by plunder?
    Was a privateer ever fitted out on the ground of patriotism? If not, the owners of them are in no case entitled to our praises as patriots. They stand on the footing of all other players at games of hazard, and can lay no claim to our peculiar applause of our sympathy.
    But it may be said, and has been said, that privateering is among the means of annoying the enemy, of weakening his force, and therefore ought to be commended, and we ought to sympathize with those who suffer in such an attempt.
    If this were true, I deny that the adventurers are entitled to our commendation, because the motives of an action constitute its whole intrinsic merit, and even a good deed performed from a selfish motive does not merit our approbation or esteem.
    But in the present war, there are important considerations, which render it unpatriotic to wish success to these sorts of expeditions.
    In the first place the war is unjust - In the second place, it is against the interest of all the commercial States - In the third place, we have ten times the property exposed to the enemy than the enemy has exposed to us, taking into account their superior means of defence - In the fourth place, and the most important reason of all, a reason which ought to induce us to discourage privateering, our enemy (being reluctantly forced into this war) expressed through her governors and officers a desire to mitigate its horrors. Accordingly to the utmost lenity was observed in its outset, and the Governor of Nova Scotia prohibited all predatory acts against peaceable citizens, and declared that if we did not fit out privateers to annoy their coasting and domestic trade, their cruisers should abstain from acts of that nature against our domestic and bordering commerce.
    Now as we had ten times as much property at stake and exposed as they had, it was impolitic, injurious, and very unpatriotic, to exasperate, and inflame, and excite the British to acts of retaliation.
    We have twenty millions of property abroad still to return. If we had abstained from warfare on private property, we should probably have got in one half, or two thirds of this valuable commerce.
    By sending out swarms of privateers, we have obliged the enemy to double the number of their cruisers - We have exasperated them - We have, (God forbid I should say we have!) But some men, by privateering on their coasts, have excited them to lay close siege to our ports, and have thus exposed this most important mass of property to capture and loss.
    Is it therefore extraordinary, is it unreasonable, that those who thus suffer by the use of those depredatory extensions of our own citizens, are not ready to call that patriotism which they know to be only a thirst for gain? Is it more extraordinary that they will not sympathize and shed crocodile tears over their losses and abortive enterprizes? Can a man be expected to rejoice when he is really sad, and when he ought to be sad; or to be sad when he is fully persuaded that the eventual peace and happiness of his country is rather promoted than injured by the temporary disappointment of individuals? Still I hold, and have always maintained, that those who disapprove of privateering ought not to wound the feelings of those who like it, either by remarks or any part of their conduct.
    But I shall be told this is the language of a friend to Great-Britain. If I was a friend to Britain, I should wish that all the first privateers might succeed. Because the effect would be that thousands of them would go out, and probably 40,000 sailors in them, and Britain being better prepared after she knows of the war, which as yet she does not, would take them nearly all. Such would be the wish of a friend to Britain.
    But the wish of a true friend to his country would be that those adventurous men, who issued out against the opinion and wishes, and enlightened interests of their fellow-citizens, who thereby exasperated the passions, called forth the vigilence, and increased the forces of the enemy against our immense defenceless commerce, might meet with so little success as to deter others from following an example so draining to our capital, so injurious to our morals, and so destructive to our sailors, who would be wanted to man our public ships.
    I will state a case in point which illustrates my argument - A man has an only son, twenty years of age, the prop and support of his declining years - That son suddenly takes to the gaming table, and is likely to be ruined. Ought the father wish him to be successful in his first gaming adventures, which he is sure will finally ruin him; or ought he to look further, and wish him temporary loss, in order to reclaim him!


Published in the Boston Weekly Messenger - August 28, 1812

Official Account of the Capture of the Guerrier Frigate

The last National Intelligencer contains the official Despatches of Capt. Hull, detailing the occurrences which took place during his late cruise. The first letter is dated Aug. 28, wherein Capt. Hull annexes the British account of the affair between the President and Belvidera frigates, as published in our Gazette of the 3d inst. Capt. H. observes; "This account clearly proves, that the Belvidera only escaped the Commodore by superior sailing, after having lightened her, and the President being deep."-The second letter is dated same day, and gives the particulars of his cruise, from the 2d to the 18th Aug. Capt. Hull observes:-"I stood to the eastward along the coast, in hopes to fall in with one of the enemy's frigates, which was reported to be cruising in that direction, the day before I left Boston. I passed near the coast, as far down as the Bay of Fundy, but saw nothing. I then ran off Halifax and Sables, and remained near there for three or four days, without seeing anything, which made me determine to change my situation to the eastward towards Newfoundland. I accordingly bore up, and ran to the eastward under all sail, passing near the Isle of Sables, and hauling in to take a station off the Gulph of St. Lawrence, near Cape Race, to intercept the ships of the enemy bound either to or from Quebec or Halifax, and to be in a situation to recapture such of our vessels as they might be sending in."-"On the 18th, after a chase of two hours, came up with the American privateer Decatur, and was informed that they had the day before seen a ship of war standing to the southward, and that they could not be far from them; made sail immediately to the southward , intending, if possible, to fall in with her."-The third despatch is dated Aug. 30, and gives the particulars of the chase and action with the Guerriere, is the modest manner following:-

United States frigate, Constitution, off Boston Light, Aug. 30, 1812.
SIR-I have the honor to inform you that on the 19th inst. at 2 P.M. being in latitude 41, 42, and longitude 55,48, with the Constitution under my command, a sail was discovered from the mast-head bearing E. by S. or E.S.E. but as such a distance we could not tell what she was. All sail was instantly made in chase, and soon found we came up with her. At 3 P.M. could plainly see that she was a ship on the starboard tack under easy sail, close on a wind; continued the chase until we were within about three miles, when I ordered the lights sails to be taken in, the courses hauled up, and the ship cleared for action. At this time the chase had backed his main-top-sail waiting for us to come down. As soon as the Constitution was ready for action, I bore down with an intention to bring him to close action immediately, but on our coming within gun shot she gave us a broadside and filled away, and wore, giving us a broadside on the other tack, but without effect; her shot falling short. She continued wearing and manoeuvring for about three quarters of an hour, to get a raking position, but finding she could not, she bore up. and ran under her topsails, and gib with the wind on the quarter. I immediately made sail to bring the ship up with her, and 5 minutes before 6 P.M. being along side within half pistol shot, we commenced a heavy fire from all our guns, double shotted with round and grape, and so well directed were they, and so warmly kept up, that in 15 minutes his mizen-mast went by the board and his main-yard in the slings, and the hull, rigging and sails very much torn to pieces. The fire was kept up with equal warmth for 15 minutes longer, when his main-mast and fore-mast went, taking with them every spar, excepting the bowsprit; on seeing this we ceased firing, so that in thirty minutes after we got fairly alongside the enemy she surrendered, and had not a spar standing, and her hull below and above water so shattered, that a few more broadsides must have carried her down.
After informing you that so fine a ship as the Guerriere, commanded by an able and experienced officer, had been totally dismasted, and otherwise cut to pieces so as to make her not worth towing into port, in the short space of thirty minutes, you can have no doubt of the gallantry and good conduct of the officers and ship's company I have the honor to command; it only remains with me to assure you that they all fought with great bravery; and it gives me great pleasure to say that from the smallest boy in the ship to the oldest seaman, not a look of fear was seen. They all went into action, giving three cheers, and requesting to be laid close along side the enemy.
Enclosed I have the honor to send you a list of killed and wounded on board the Constitution, and a report of the damages she has sustained, also a list of killed and wounded on board the enemy, with his quarter bill, &c.

I have the honor to be,
With very great repect.
Sir, your obedient servant,
Isaac Hull.



Published in the Boston Weekly Messenger-September 18, 1812

Letter from William Henry Harrison to William Eustis

Cincinnati 
28th August 1812

IMPORTANT
Sir
Before this reaches you a dispatch from the Governor of Kentucky to yourself and another from the Honble Mr. Clay to the Secretary of State will have arrived at Washington communicating the circumstance which occasions my having the Honor to write you from this place. Being at Frankfort on the 24th Inst. making arrangements for the eventual march of the residue of the Kentucky Quota for the Indians and Michigan Territories An Express arrived at that place with dispatches for Gov. Scott containing information of Gov. Hulls being shut up in Detroit and the probability of his being obliged to surrender unless immediately relieved. Upon a consultation with Gov. Scott it was thought advisable as he was the next day to go out of office to wait the arrival of his Successor Colo Shelby and to request the advice and assistance of all the public Characters in the State within reach and Expresses were sent to solicit their attendance on the next day. The Meeting accordingly took place consisting of Gov Shelby the former Gov Greenup the Speaker of the House of Representatives of the U States, & several other Members of Congress, the Judges of the U States and of the Supreme Court of the State, Genl Hopkins the Major General of the Kentucky Quota and it was unanimously recommended by Gov Scott to order another detachment of the State Quota to follow the one which had marched under Genl [illeg.] to request me to take the command of the whole and for the purpose of removing all differ- ences to give me the Commission of Major Genl. by Brevet of the Kentucky Militia. I could not permit myself to hesitate when urged by an author- ity so highly respectable especially when assured by the large Concourse of the Citizens from all parts of the state which had collected on account of the inauguration of the new Governor, that it was the Unanimous wish of the People of Kentucky that I should do so. Before I left Frankfort Gov. Shelby urged the propriety of sending one Regiment more to New Port than was at first intended, And hearing of the fall of Detroit a few miles from that place I sent back and recommended still another, My Command then consists of three Regiments of Kentucky Troops Colo Wells's Detachment and a Troop of twelve Months Volunteers making an aggregate of about 2100 at this place, and three Regiments of Infantry five Troops of Dragoons and 500 Mounted Volunteer Riflemen on their way to join me. Those that first arrive will not however be here before the 30th Inst and it will be impossible to get them from here for some days after.

Until this day I had some hope that the account of the fall of Detroit was not true, but a letter that was received a few Hours ago from Messrs Worthington and Meiggs to Colo Wells leaves no longer room for doubt, Three persons of the Quarter Master Department have returned to Piqua who were in Detroit when it was surrendered. The object of the letter from Messrs Worthington & Meiggs was to request Colo Wells to hasten his March and to take the route to Dayton and Piqua rather than the direct one to Urbana for the purpose of relieving Fort Wayne which was said to be in danger of an immediate attack. By a Gentleman who has this moment arrived from Piqua the taking of Chicago and the Massacre of the Garrison is also put beyond doubt. Poor Wells has also perished in endeavouring to save Capt Heald with his Company.

I shall march Tomorrow Morning with the Troops that I have here taking the route to Dayton and Piqua. The relief of Fort Wayne will be my first object and my after operations will be governed by circumstance until I receive your directions.

Considering my command as merely provisional I shall cheerfully conform to any other arrangement Which the Government may think proper to make. The Troops which I have with me and those which are coming on from Kentucky are perhaps the best materials for forming an army that the world has produced. But no equal number of Men were ever collected who Knew so little of Military discipline, nor have I any assistance that can give me the least aid if ever there were time for it but Capt [illeg.] of the 4th Regiment who was left here sick and whom I have appointed Deputy Adjutant, General until the pleasure of the President can be known. He is well qualified and I hope the appointment will be confirmed. You may rely upon my utmost Exertions but the confusion which exists in every department connected with the Army is such as can only be expected from Men who are perfectly new to the business they are engaged in. No arms for Cavalry have yet arrived at New Port and I shall be forced to put Muskets in the hands of all the Dragoons. I have written to the Quarter Master at Pittsburg to request him to forward all the supplies of arms Equipment and Quarter Masters Stores as soon as possible. I have also requested him to send down a few peices of Artillery without waiting for your Order and wait your instructions as to a further numbers There is but one piece of Artillery an Iron four[?] pounder any where that I can hear of in this Country. If it [is] intended to retake the Posts we have lost and reduce Malden this Season, the Artillery must be sent on as soon as possible. There is no longer a possibility of getting money for Drafts in this Country the Pay Master Genl (Taylors Deputy) still continues to act, and I have been obliged to agree with the Bank here called the Miami Exporting Company that the U States shall be at the expence and risk of sending on the specie for the drafts that are now given for the pay of the Troops that are coming on and for the Quarter Masters Department. I think it proper however to state that until very lately Gen Taylor has made the Bank pay a premium of one and one and a half per Cent on all his Bills. I will obtain a particular statement from the Bank in order that he may be charged with it. Permit me to re- commend that the Monies received here by the Receiver of the land office be deposited in the Bank of the Miami Exporting Company. It is now sent to Lexington and the Bank here is quite as safe as that of Lexington. I herewith enclose a receipt of the Surgeon and another of the Quarter Master of the Regiment which is gone to Vincennes for supplies furnished them. The bonds given by the Pay Master and Quarter Master were found after they came into my possession not to have been Witnessed. They were send on to Vincennes to have the mistake rectified and will be forwarded to the War Office. I wrote this, Sir, under the inconvenience of con- siderable interruption, when I advance[d] a few days I will do myself the Honor to communicate all the information which I receive, My opinion of the state of Affairs and submit the result of my reflections as to the course to be pursued.

I have the Honor to be &c Willm Henry Harrison

Courtesy of the Ohio Historical Society

Rumor of Fort Malden

Rumor has employed almost all her hundred tongues in asserting the surrender of Malden to the valor of the First Army of Ohio. So great, so desirable an event, we hope another week will enable us to announce a certain truth.

An Express Post is established from Washington City to Detroit by way of Pittsburg, which is to go through and return to Washington every ten days, making a journey of upwards of 100 miles each day.

Published in the Raleigh Register & North Carolina Gazette, August 28, 1812

Samuel McCord to Return Meigs


Zanestown 
Augt. 28th 1812

Sir
the Indians that started from sanduskey while I was there has not came as fast as I expected and this Morning I sent 2 or three men to know the reason Which Express returned in a Short time afterwards who was Informed that two Men from the town of delaware had came thru Sandusky and Stated that a large Company of men would be on the next day to build blockhouses and prevailed on them to have their familyes Stoped on the way but the men not coming on as Expected or reported they suposed the express, told lies and Some is comeing on which from accounts Will be here in an hour - it is Said by the Indian that arived here this Morning that 3 Vessels of British and Indians Landed at Lower Sandusky. the particulars the barer will Inform you
I remain yr obt Hubl Sevt
Saml McCord
(paper is scarce)

Courtesy of the Ohio Historical Society

"On Eustis' head be the responsibility"

Dated 28th August, 1812


"I wrote to you a few lines this morning, being extracts from the Sciota Gazette received to-day. Since then a letter from the Editor of that paper says --
'We have just received information that through Treachery our whole army has been surrendered to the British by Hull! The men who went from this place to guard provisions have returned - Our men are all Prisoners of War, and the Fort of Detroit is now in the hands of the British.
'It is said that the Secretary of War has informed a gentleman that he had seen the Capitulation. This he said came by an express to a person here, and not official. He believes the account himself - and is said to have declared that his apprehensions and unhappiness had been so great for 4 or 5 nights past that he has not been able to sleep in his bed. The account which accompanies the Capitulation states that the British after the capture of Mackinac drew up to Sandwich, which Hull being apprised of retreated to Detroit. The British and the Indians, the latter to an incredible number, sent a flag to Hull at Detroit and demanded his surrender. This was refused. A second flag was sent with the positive declaration that unless he immediately surrendered as prisoners of war, the Indians would be let loose upon Detroit. This threat determined him to spare the women, children, and the aged - His force being as yet so inferior to the combined army that he finally surrendered.
'This account was immediately sent after the President, who left here this morning.'
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FROM ANOTHER - same date
"Official returns give an account of Gen. Hull's having capitulated and been taken, together with the whole of his Army, by the British.
This deplorable event is but too true even to admit a hope that it is not so - On Eustis' head be the responsibility.
The President of the U.S. left this place this morning - Eustis has this moment (half after one) dispatched an express requiring his immediate return."
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The reader has seen the above; and for our own parts we cannot disguise our fears. We fear that some serious disaster has befallen Gen. Hull; though so long as there is a shadow of hope left, we shall cling to it with fervour. Our confidence in the valor of the little band which he conducted, almost precludes the idea that an American Gen. would strike to an enemy without a single blow. - Enquirer.

Published in the Raleigh Register & North Carolina Gazette - September 4, 1812

"The Country are not cast down; but much agitated," David Jones to James Madison, August 28, 1812


Wheeling Ohio County Augt 28. 1812

Dear Sir
            The Capitulation of Hull is come to hand. I hope you will condemn every Sentence. it is impossible for me to express the indignation of the Country here. not a few reflectinos are cast on you for appointing such an infamous Rascal to Command. I have vindicated your Conduct, so far as I could, by asserting that your appointments are made by recommendations, that no Doubt this Plan was laid by Traitors in Congress, not Supported by you. this was the best apology I could make. the Country are not cast down; but much agitated. I now conjure you by all that is Sacred to send immediately gen. Armstrong or some man of Talents to take Command, and appoint some good man for governor; but for god’s Sake trust no more to yankeys. good men they have, but office hunters are not in that Class. as I now feel, if you appoint a general to command in the north west, you may appoint me Chaplain in my 77th year. I wish to die in the Service of my Country. if you wish any further information respecting my Character, I refer you to my old Friend Mr Galatin, who has been well acquainted with me many years.
            A word now to what must be done to retreive our honour. give orders immediately to cross the St Lawrence with 800d men, with artiliry, & two morters, and proceed & take the fort opposite to niagara. this can be done, & nothing else can save your honour, & if you do not do it, you need not expect to be reelected President. this I wish to take place, and it depends on your Conduct in this awful Crisis.
            I cannot Set out for my home till next week; and you will see under the Signature of the old Soldiers. may the god of heaven direct you , is the sincere Prayer of your humble Servt
                                                                      David Jones
                                                                      late Chaplain to
                                                                      gen. wayne.