Reward of Merit


NEW-YORK, MARCH 31.-“The following Resolutions in honor of our last Naval Victory, were last evening proposed in the Common Council, by Mr. Lawrence, one of the members, and adopted by the Board.
“The Common Council of the city of New-York, being fully convinced that a naval establishment  is important to the protection of our commerce, and to the defence of our country; and viewing the late capture of the British sloop of war Peacock, by the American sloop of war Hornet, as reflecting the brightest honor on the intrepidity and skill of Captain Lawrence, his officers ard crew; aud being at all time solicitous to offer the meed of their applause to those of our gallant officers who thus eminently deserve it-they avail themselves of the present occasion, to present the thanks of the citizens of New-York, to the officers and crew who achieved this splendid victory.
“Resolved, That the Freedom of the City he presented to Capt. Lawrence, together with a piece of plate with appropriate devices and inscription, and that his honor the Recorder he requested to forward the same, with a copy of this Resolution.
“Resolved, That in testimony of the high sense which the Common Council entertain of the conduct of the crew of the U. States sloop of war Hornet, by the capture of his Britannic Majesty’s sloop of war Peacock, in the unexampled short period of 15 minutes, that the Common Council will give a Public Dinner to the gallant crew of the U.S. sloop of war Hornet.
“Extract from the minutes.

“J. MORTON, Clerk.”


Published in the Boston Weekly Messenger-April 9, 1813.


William Henry Harrison to John Armstrong

No. 48 Head Quarters Cincinnati

30th March 1813.


I have just received letters from the Miami Rapids informing me of the determination of the Virga, & Pensylvania Militia that are now there to leave that place the very moment that their term of service expires even if the troops destined to relieve them should not have arrived. The disagreeable circumstance of one of our men having been taken by the Enemy will apprise them of the situation of the post & will I fear induce them to undertake some enterprise against it before it can be reinforced I have determined therefore to set out early tomorrow for Camp Meigs by the way of St. Marys. Colo. Miller with about 120 Regulars & 80 Militia of this State will I hope be ready to descend the Auglaize the day after Tomorrow in boats & will arrive at the Rapids in three days -- there are also about 180 of the Ohio Militia building boats at Fort Findlay about 44 Miles from the Rapids & 150 of them have been ordered to proceed thither immediately A Compy. of the Kenty Militia reached Newport yesterday & others will arrive in a day or two Having a Number of Pack horses in the neighbourhood I have determined to employ them to [illeg.] to carry two men --

My uneasiness at the situation of Camp Meigs is greatly encreased from the state of the weather for some time past which will render Lake Erie navigable much earlier than usual The Indians have Commenced their depredations nearly all round the frontier -- the people are much alarmed -- I must take the liberty again of stating my belief that it will be necessary to call out the remaining part of the Militia that have but organized for service in Kenty & that they be marched in the direction of Fort Wayne advanced of St. Marys when they can be supported easily & where they will convince the Indian Tribes in that quarter & protect our deposits of provisions as well as cover the frontier

I am with great Respect sir yr Hul Svt


the Secy of War



Blockade of the American Coast

Blockade of the American Coast.

Foreign Office, March 30, 1813.

His Royal Highness the Prince Regent has been pleased, in the name and on the behalf of his Majesty, to cause it to be signified by Viscount Castlereagh, his majesty’s principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, to the ministers of friendly and neutral powers residing at this Court, that the necessary measures have been taken, by the command of his Royal Highness, for the blockade of the ports and harbours of New-York,  Charleston, Port Royal, Savannah, and of the River Mississippi, in the United States of America; and that, from this time, all the measures authorized by the Law of Nations will be adopted and executed with respect to all vessels which may attempt to violate the said blockade.

Published in the Boston Weekly Messenger-May 7, 1813.


From Charles Stirling to Charles R. Simpson

Shark, Port Royal (Jamaica)
March 29, 1813

Captain Moubray, of his Majesty's sloop Moselle, has sent to me the copy of a letter from you to him, and another to Mr. Cook, of his Majesty's late sloop Rhodian, dated the 25th ult., respecting six men mentioned in the margin, who were sent here from the Bahamas as having been taken in the American privateer Sarah Ann, and supposed to be subjects of his Majesty; but, as no proof to what country they belong has been adduced, it has never been my intention to bring them to trial, and they are at present on board the prison ships, waiting an exchange of prisoners.
I am, sir, your most obedient humble servant,
Charles Stirling, Vice Admiral

Courtesy of Library of Congress

Important-No Armistice

Important-No Armistice.

From the National Intelligencer of March 29.

“Various rumors were yesterday afloat in the public prints on the subject of an Armistice, said to be either in a rain of negotiation or concluded. To prevent the rumour from gaining further currency, we think proper to state, that we believe it to be entirely without foundation.”


Published in the Boston Weekly Messenger-April 9, 1813.


William Henry Harrison to John Armstrong

No 47 Head Quarters

Cincinnati 27th March 1813.


I had the honour to receive your favor of the 7th Inst on Tuesday last and should have received it by the return of the mail but was misinformed as to the time of its departure -- those of the 15th & 17th. arrived last Evg.

Had your letter of the 5th been received before the Measures for bringing out the Militia which I had requested from the state of Kentucky had progressed so far that the day of Gnl. Rendezvous had been appointed & the men left their homes I should have requested Genl. Shelby to counter- mand the order for calling them out -- the militia which have been em- bodied from this state from my last requisition not sufficient to join on the small posts-- One of the divisions furnished 40 instead of 250 men [In the margin[] Altho I am well convinced that if they are delayed four weeks we shall I [illeg.] have a part retaining upon this frontier

In your letter of the 5th. Inst. I am authorized to maintain or abandon the post at the Rapids of Miami as the one or the other may appear most proper under the circumstances which you mention. It could not be abandoned without sacrificing the artillery & valuable stores which are there & which no [illeg.] a means that I know of could bring off through the swamps that Furrow that place at this season to attempts to bring them up the Miami & Auglaize Rivers would from the length of time that it would be to the expense the detachment which would exert it to circulate distinction -- I had therefore no alternative but to main- tain the post -- It is safe from the attempts of the enemy until lake Erie is navigable and as long as the Virginia & Pennsylva Brigades of Militia remain there
On the 2nd proximo however the last of these Troops will be dis- charged -- It if is not then strongly reinforced it will be in Consider- able danger. A smaller work would have been more defencible But I must Confess that the Idea never occured to me that the Government would be unwitting to Keep in the field at least the semblance of an army of militia until the Regular Troops could be raised. A regular strong work calculated for 3 or 400 men could have been erected but with that force only at the rapids there could be no possible impediment to the enemy in taking all the [illeg.] all forst excepting the swamps which surround those of McArthur [illeg.] & [illeg.] There are 300 Indian Warriors in the neighbourhood of Upper Sandusky -- (Wyandots & a Mixture of Delawares & Munsies) the firendship towards us is by no means unequivocal An army of ours in their front will ensure their neutrality but that army dis- missed and a British and Indian Force appearing amongst them nine tenths of those warriors would immediately[?] join them -- The posts of upper & lower Sandusky would fall & the whole frontier as far back as Delaware at last would be stript of its Inhabitants. Further west in the immediate vicinity of fort McArthur where we retain a large deposit of stores, there are about two Hundred Shawanoes & a number of Iroquois -- their friendship for us is never to be depended upon -- But should the enemy appear in force a great part of the young men would certainly join them -- Fort McArthur has not a man to defend it -- Genl Meigs sent there two Compys called out for 30 days & they abandoned it at the expiration of that time Still further West upon the Head of the Auglaize River is the large Shawanoe village of Wapoch Konnata the Chiefs of which are altogether in our interest & may be relyed upon [illeg -- never?] -- But the warriors like all others of their discipline might be easily sundered[?] -- Near to the village of Piqua the Delawares to the amount of Nine Hundred souls & upwards of 200 warriors are encamped-- Their chiefs are now of Principle but the greater part of their warriors are attached to the enemy & would join them when ever an opportunity offered -- the dis- affected can at any time they please Communicate with the hostile Indians the posts of Wapock Konnata, Loramies St Mary's Amanda -- Jennings Brown & Winchester (Consisting of block houses Connected by pickets & having the immence supply of provisions Contained in the enclos- ed schedule) are immediately in the front of those people -- Until the arrival of the nearly drafted Militia from this state the force for the defence of all these posts consisted of 18 invalid Regulars & a weak & [illeg.] Compy of Dismounted Rangers -- As soon as Lake Erie is navi- gable the enemy could in Six Hours reach the foot of the Miami Rapids or Sandusky Bay with all their disposable force & with any quantity of artillery which they chose to bring -- Admitting that the Post at the rapids could not have beentaken but what [illeg.] with no greater natural advantages than that Infantry could long resist a superior force with the immence batterys train of battery pf artillery which the enemy could with such facility bring to bear upon it -- without an army there capable of opposing the enemy in the field nothing could prevent them from taking all our posts in the rear -- and I have stated that they would find friends there willing to assist them in all their enterprises -- It may be objected that the retaining the post at the Rapids was injudicious I answer that at the time it was occupied I had the strongest hopes of being enabled to advance against Malden -- & having gotten on there the Artillery & stores when the ground was frozen they could not have been taken back. But these were [illeg.] the Considerations which determined not to retain that position. It is only necessary to mention one of them -- the greater part of the supplies for the operation of the ensuing summer were placed upon the Auglaize & St Marys -- these Rivers are navigable in the spring only -- at that season they could be transported in boats to the rapids for one twentieth part of the Expense which it would cost to take them by land -- should the Rapids be abandoned they could not be reoccupied until the season for navigation [illeg.] would have passed. With this view of the subject I could not hesitate as I Conceived that I possessed the Presidents Authority for doing it to call for a sufficient number of Militia to ensure an effective force at the Rapids of from 1500 to 2000 and I regret that I have not the power of calling for as many more-- [illeg.] effectually to Cover Fort Wayne & the other posts in that direction -- For the force I entertain great appre- hensions -- In a letter addressed to Colo Morrison in Jany last I ex- plained the facility with which an attack upon those places may be made from Chicago -- I did not believe however that there would be much danger until Lake Michigan was navigable -- but if the information received by Genl Shelby[?] is correct it may be invested much earlier -- I have with the army two Captns of Engineers one of the Captns Gratiot has been ill for many weeks. Captn Wood was sent to improve the work at Lower Sand- usky -- I shall order him immediately to Fort Wayne for the same purpose--

85, 86


Violation of the Laws and Usages of War

Sec 2.  And be it further enacted, That in all cases where any outrage or act of cruelty or barbarity shall be or has been practiced by any Indian or Indians, in alliance with the British government, or in connexion with those acting under the authority of the said government, or citizens of the United States or those under its protection, the President of the United States is hereby authorized to cause fall and ample revaluation to be done and executed on such British subjects, soldiers seaman or marines, or Indians, in alliance or connexion with Great Britain, being prisoners of war, as if the same outrage or act of cruelty or barbarity had been done under the authority of the British government. 

Speaker of the House of Representatives, 
President of  the Senate pro tempore. 
March 3, 1813  APPROVED,

Published Raleigh Register & North Carolina Gazette March 26 1813

A Correspondent from Buncombe County

"Yesterday, and to day, several small parties of the East Tennessee Troop of Volunteers commanded by Col. John Williams, have passed through this place homeward, on their return from E. Florida.  The Col. with the remainder are expected in a few days.  These men  state that they have had several small rencounters with the Seminole Indians and Florida Negroes, and in an expedition made against their towns, calculate that they have killed from 30 to 40 Indians and Negros, taken 8 or 10 prisoners, burnt between 3 and 400 huts, destroyed all their corn and other provisions, and brought off a large number of horses, with the loss of one man killed and 7 wounded."

Published in the Raleigh Register & North Carolina Gazette March 26 1813

The Russian Mediation

From the National Intelligence.


    It has been stated, we have observed, in some of the factious points, and may be believed by some of their credulous readers, that the mediation of the Emperor of Russia between the United States and great Britain, had been offered to our government some time ago, and had been rejected. We state it as a fact, of which we have entire belief, that our government had received no intimation of such intention on the party of the Emperor, directly or indirectly, until since the adjournment of Congress-and that it was then promptly accepted, on the part of our government with the same frankness with which it was tendered by the Russian sovereign.

Published Raleigh Register & North Carolina Gazette March 26 1813

Extract of a letter from Norfolk, dated the 13th instant.

Extract of a letter from Norfolk, dated the 13th instant.

“The British fleet are no doubt about making an attack on this town-There are now two 74’s and one frigate in Hampton Roads, and one 74 abreast of Point Comfort Light-they are buoying the channel out under cover of their guns, and proceeding slowly towards the town. All communication is stopt even to James River. People have nearly all moved their valuable property out of town, and every exertion is making for a desperate defence.”


Published in the Boston Weekly Messenger-March 26, 1813.


British Spy


Some late accounts from the Westward, mentioned the capture of a British Spy, who had in his possession papers, giving an account of the disposition, and amount of our forces. Since which, a letter from Albany says, “A Mr. Livingston has been hung at Sacket’s-Harbor, as a spy.”


Published in the Boston Weekly Messenger-March 26, 1813.

From the Niagara Frontiers

From the Niagara Frontiers.

Letters from this quarter mention, that a considerable British force had appeared opposite Lewistown, and shewed a disposition to cross at that place; that a partial embarkation took place; but shortly after they disembarked again and have now concentrated their principal force at Queenstown and Fort George. All apprehensions of an immediate attack from Harrison had subsided in the consequence of the breaking up of the ice in Detroit river.


Published in the Boston Weekly Messenger-March 26, 1813.

From Sacket's Harbour

From Sacket’s Harbour.

A letter has been received in Albany from General Dearborn, stating-“that Gov. Provost had been to Montreal and returned to Kingston, with a reinforcement of near 5000 men.”


Published in the Boston Weekly Messenger-March 26, 1813.


Fifth Naval Triumph

Fifth Naval Triumph.

On Monday evening hand bills were received in town, from the Mercury office in New Bedford, and the Bristol Gazetter office in Fairhaven, announcing the capture and destruction of the British brig of war Peacock, of 19 guns, by the United States ship Hornet of 16 guns, Captain LAWRENCE, off Surrinam, on the 25th ultimo.

The following are the Hornet’s log-book minutes of this brilliant victory:-
“Thursday, 6th  Feb. 1813-At half past three P.M. discovered a strange sail bearing down for us-at 4, 20, she hoisted English colors-at 4, 30, beat to quarters and cleared ship for action, and battled close by the wind in order to get the weather guage of her-at 5, 10, hoisted American colors, tacked and stood for the enemy-at 5, 25, in passing each other, exchanged broadsides within pistol shot-the enemy then wore and gave us their starboard broadside-bore up close on her starboard quarter, and kept up such a heavy and well directed fire, that in less than 15 minutes she made the signal of submission, being cut to pieces-in five minutes after, her mainmast went by the board-sent our first lieut. on board-returned with her first lt. who reported her to be his Britannic Majesty’s brig Peacock, mounting 19 guns, and 134 men-that her commander, Capt. Peake, was killed in the action-a great number of her men killed and wounded, and that she was sinking fast-despatched the boats immediately to take out the wounded and the rest of the prisoners, and bro’t both vessels to anchor-but notwithstanding every exertion was made to save the crew, she unfortunately sunk, carrying down 19 or her crew, and 3 of my brave fellows.

“Lieut. Connor, midshipman Cooper, and the remainder of our men employed in getting out the prisoners, with difficulty saved themselves by jumping into one of her boats stowed on the booms-four men were then taken from the foretop by our boats.

“We had 1 killed, and 2 slightly wounded.

“The enemy had 8 killed, and 27 wounded.”


The Hornet is rated 16 guns the Peacock18, built in 1807, and sailed from Cork in January last. We know not which vessel was superior in weight of metal.


Published in the Boston Weekly Messenger-March 26, 1813.


Attachment of the Northern States to the Union.

Attachment of the Northern States to the Union.

THE National Intelligencer, the Aurora, and several of the Southern and Western prints, frequently accuse the maritime States of New-England, or some of them, of a design to withdraw themselves from the Union. Our answer to this accusation is short. On the one hand, we firmly believe that nothing short of extreme necessity and utter hopelessness of relief by any other means, would induce them to take such a step. Their fondness for our federate government was unbounded, and they were animated with utmost zeal for its conservation, so long as it was administered with an equal regard for their interests; and their cordial attachment to the government would return with the return of a wise, patriotic, impartial administration. On the other hand, we will venture to affirm, without the least apprehension of being contradicted, that, if at the time the federate constitution of government was before the people for their consideration, it had been foreknown by them, in what manner and in what degree they would have been oppress by its administration during the last five or six years; it would not have had one vote in fifty among the people of New-England, and of the Middle States.

Little did the people of this large and powerful nation apprehend, that, in so short a time, the federate government would become an “elective despotism,” in the hands of an all-powerful faction in the South and West. Little did they apprehend, that, ere twenty years had passed away, their interests would he sported with; that many hundreds and even thousands of them would be arbitrarily prohibited from pursuing their wonted occupations; that their navigation and commerce would be interdicted, under pretence of protecting them; that their imports would be burdened with taxes of double the amount that had been formerly exacted by the sovereigns of Europe; that an unnecessary war would be declared and persisted in, against their wishes and earnest remonstrances; that their petitions and supplications would be treated with scorn; in short, that, in five years, they would suffer more real oppression from their new lords and masters, than they had ever suffered, as colonies, from the British government, in fifty years together.

Had the people of this section apprehended all this, or foreseen it, at the time the federate constitution was first laid before them, it is needless to say again, what they would have done with it.


Published in the Boston Weekly Messenger-March 26, 1813.

American and British Rights equal

American and British Rights equal.

PERHAPS it is not sufficiently known to all who read the public papers, the Great Britain does not claim any right of impressments, which she does not allow to us. It has been the unceasing clamour of the partisans of the Administration, from Mr. John Q. Adams, and the Committee of Your citizens, (and especially those who have been naturalized in England) from her merchant vessels. Mr. Adams declared the British nation would not tolerate the sanction of the practice-thought they submitted to it at home. Our Committee of Foreign Relations inquire whether Great Britain would permit the armed ships of another power to enter on board her merchant vessels, and take away the crew or part of them. And Mr. Austin says, if we should make the attempt, G. Britain would declare war in a month.

Now although we have a high regard for the intelligence and candor of these gentlemen, one and all, and believe that they have very extensive and unclouded views of the policy and temper of the British nation, still we may be pardoned for supposing that the Prince Regent knows his own views, and the policy of his Cabinet at least as well as any one, or all of them. In his late manifesto, he clearly declares that the British Government “has never asserted any exclusive right, as to the impressments of British seamen from American vessels, which it was not prepared to acknowledge, as appertaining equally to the Government of the United States, with respect to American seamen, when found on board British merchant ships.” Here is an end of conjecture and crimination on this subject. G. Britain claims the right to take her seamen from our merchant vessels-and she acknowledges that we have an equal right to take our seamen from her merchant vessels. This seems (according to the old saying) as fair for one as the other. And after this we hope to hear no more scolding about Great Britain’s claiming rights respecting impressments, which she does not allow to others.  


Published in the Boston Weekly Messenger-March 26, 1813.

Madison opposed by his old Friends

Madison opposed by his old Friends.

IN no instance has Mr. Madison discovered such chagrin as in the late desertion, by his party, in neglecting to pass the non-exploration bill, and the bill prohibiting foreign licences, more especially as the eastern states were to enjoy exclusively this privilege; in nothing has his uniformity and consistence appeared more striking, than in his hatred to Great Britain and commerce. This hatred has been so long cherished, that every other passion is in complete subordination in it, like the manic, who raves most when the cord is touched that produces the disorder. We find him in almost the last breath of his political existence, as well as in the first of his new career, so far forgetting his station, as to condescend in language fraught with asperity, and better suited to that of a Paris fish-woman. From the period when he brought forward in Congress his labored, coercive, restrictive measures against Great Britain, which were so successfully opposed by the great states man Fisher Ames, down to the present moment, the whole energy of his soul has been exercised in attempts to destroy the consequence of the commercial states-and too well he has succeeded. We ask what has been the cause of this violent prejudice to commerce? That those that should have been the nurturing parent, should have been the assassins! Is it that Mr. Madison and his immediate predecessor are leagued in Bonaparte’s continental system? Or can it be owing to the hatred that is indulged towards Great Britain? Or rather is it not to be found in the mortal hatred those men have to the means that give to the commercial states their consequence in the union, and threaten a competition in influence with the ancient dominion? On no other principle can we account for the steady persevering attempts, by non-importation, embargoes, non-intercourse, and at last the destructive war, which, as if to bring the two hated objects, the British navy and the commercial states, into collision with each other, the grand object would be obtained. It is granted strong evidence is necessary to warrant a conclusion so desperate. But it can be conclusively found by an examination of the history of the last fifteen years of Mr. Madison’s political life; a life, the incidents of which will be found ot be made up of ardent persevering attempts for the destruction of commerce. But our propects begin to brighten, both at home and abroad, and we look forward with pleasing anticipation to the next Congress, as the only ark of our safety.



Published in the Boston Weekly Messenger-March 26, 1813.


Letter from Andrew Jackson to Ferdinand Leigh Claiborne

Camp Jackson
March 25th. 1813

Dear Genl.
     This will be handed to you by my Nephew Thomas Hutchings, who you and Colo Mead had the goodness to furlough to see me, and for the friendly act, please to accept a tender of my thanks--I have detained him untill this morning awaiting your letter permitting me to have the power of liberating him--from not receiving any, I infer you have not been able to obtain the boon and this morning I send him back with his furlough enclosed--should he not reach you within the time specified in his furlough, please to forgive him, the fault was in me--
     I march today, without supplies from the quartermaster they have been refused, he says by orders--Strange to tell that this detachment has been ordered to be discharged, and no provisions made for the sick or supplies for the cavalry on their return, no direction by the Secratary of war for their payment &c &c &c. This will be long recollected by Tennessee and hers sons-- who at the call of the President voluntarily tendered their service which was accepted by him ordered to a distant clime ordered to be dismissed the service in a way that would disgrace the barbarous climes
     From the polite attention recd. from your lady & yourself, a lasting gratitude is left on my mind and it will afford me great pleasure to have it in my power to return the kindness--present me to Colo Mead and his family and accept for yourself a tender of my high esteem and respect

                                                                                                   Andrew Jackson


Letter from Andrew Jackson to John Armstrong

Headquarters near Washington Mississippi Territory
March 22. 1813

      my letter of the 15th. Inst. informed you, that I had recd. yrs of the 5th. of Jany 1813--I have now the honor to inform you that I recd. under cover from Major Genl. Wilkinson of date March 8th. your notification to him, without date, but post marked Feby. 8th 1813, which was as follows

     The militia force organized by Governor Blount under command of Genl. Jackson expedited to New      orleans early in the last month is discharged from further service. The Genl. is required to have delivered over to yr. directions, such articles of public property as have been commited to them--

your notification to me received as above, and having no "Militia force organized" under my command places me in a delicate situation. I have the honor to command only an organized volunteer corps enrolled and tendered to the President of the United States under the act of Feby. 6th 1812 and whose services with my own were accepted and made known to me through Governor Blount, by the President under date war department July 11th. 1812--and all the officers under my command down to a Capt have been commissioned by the President of the United States on the 21st. of Novr. 1812 in pursuance of his authority under the act of congress of July 6th. 1812--hence the words, in your notification to Genl. Wilkinson "organized militia" cannot be applied to the detachment under my command. But from your communications to Governor Blount, Majr. Genl Wilkinson and your unofficial note to me of Jany. 5th. 1813--I infer, that the wishes of the government are, that the detachment under my command is to be discharged. I have therefore ordered their return to Nashville Tennessee. Their being no direction for the payment of the troops, or their supplies on their return home, by you directed, from a perusal of the law on the subject, I find I have been correct and anticipated the intention of the Government, in ordering supplies of provisions--and conveyence for the sick and their necessary baggage to Nashville, where they will be discharged. The law runs thus--" that whenever any officer or soldier shall be discharged from the service, he shall be allowed his pay and rations or an equivalent in money for such term of time as shall be sufficient for him to travel from the place of his discharge to the place of his residence,  computing at the rate of twenty mies to a day"--There being no direction to pay the troops here; no compensation directed to be given to them in lieu of rations--I have ordered the contractor and quarter master, as you have been advised of mine of date, the 15th Inst. to furnish the necessary supplies for my detachment on their return to Nashville. I have been detained here since by the 18th. Inst. by the agents of government, but in Justice to Mr [John] Brandt I would observe, that every exertion has been used on his part to expedite our departure--I have however been notified that the necessary supplies will be ready against the 25th. Inst.--when I shall take up the line of March for Nashville, at which point or some other within the State of Tennessee, I hope they will be directed to be paid off, and the paymaster be furnished with funds for this purpose I have, a hope, (altho not ordered to a theatre of war) that my detachment merit as much from our Government, as the detached Militia from this Territory who are ordered to be paid, and discharged at Baton Rouge--Your note of the 5th. of Jany. 1813 directs that two thousand well organized volunteers under the acts of congress of Feby the 6th. and July 6th. 1812 are to be dismissed at New Orleans without pay or a compensation for rations. Is this yr. impartial rule. and this reward to whom? men of the first character patriotism and wealth of the Union; who left their comfortable homes and families for the tented fields, to support the Eagles of their country at any point ordered by the constituted authority--

                                                                                                              Andrew Jackson

Letter from Andrew Jackson to James Wilkinson

Camp Jackson
March 22, 1813.

    About two O'clock, P.M. this day, I received yr letter of the 16th inst. with its enclosures; and am truly sorry the the originals have not reached me. I still more regret to see so many blunders creep into the Secretary's communications. The paper stated by him to be a duplicate, altho' substantially the same, is not a copy; and further, the date of the original, of which he says he sends a duplicate, bears date " War Deparment Jany. 5, 1813" The enclosed bears date"War Department, Feby 6, 1813." The original is in his own hand writing; or every letter, word and figure a forgery. I cannot help smiling when I read the Secretary's note, a copy of which you send me, bearing date "War Department, Feby. 16, 1813," expressed as if wrote at a date to overtake me at Massac; when on the evening before its date, I had reached the vicinity of Natchez; and on the 4th of Jany. I had wrote him from Nashville, advising him that in a few days I should march; and he was advised by the Governor, as he writes me, that on the 7th. of January my troops did march. This gauze is too thin, too flimsy to hide the baseness of the act, even from my dull apprehension. But as I have not received from the Secretary the originals, of which your enclosures are copies, and he not having notified me, that we were to be paid off any where, the law allowing me so many days to return; and as I have sent on my Aid-de-Camp this morning, before the receipt of yours, to Nashville, to procure supplies to meet me at Tennessee, I shall commence the line of march on Thursday the 25th. inst. Should the contractor not feel himself justified in sending on provisions for my Infantry, or the qr. master, waggons for the transportation of my sick, I shall dismount the Cavalry; carry them on, and provide the means for their support out of my private funds. If that should fail, I thank my God, we have plenty of horses to feed my troops to the Tennessee, where I know my country will meet me with ample supplies.
     These brave men, at the call of their country, voluntarily rallied 'round its insulted standard. They followed me into the field--I shall carefully march them back to their homes. It is for the agent of Government to account to the state of Tennessee, & the whole world, for their singular and unusual treatment to this detachment. The feelings of the whole state is alive and awakened. The administration must render a justifiable reason, why they have singled out this detachment, whose tendered service they so flatteringly accepted, as the victims of their destruction; and why they have not been discharged in the usual way.
      I tender you my thanks for the Genl. Order issued, a copy of which is enclosed, for directing that to be done, which the law secures to be done some where. But as the secretary at war has given no directions to me on this head, I cannot now detain my march. I have notified the President, of date the 15th. instant, and forwarded it by last mail, enclosing him a copy of the singular order I had received. (I am persuaded he never sanctioned it.) and stating to him that I would march my men to Nashville, and there await his orders for the discharge of my detachment. I know from advices received, our services will be wanted in the North West; and no act of the agents of Government, can withdraw our attachment from our Government, however we may be induced to despise the baseness of its agents.
     These reasons will govern me in taking up the line of march on the 25th inst. supplies or not.
     Accept a tender of thanks for you offered friendship to the Detachment I have the honor to command. I am with the highest consideration of respect, Yr Mo ob Sert.

                                                                                                         Andrew Jackson


Letter from James Monroe re: peace efforts

21 March 1813
Letter from Secretary of State Monroe re peace efforts
“It is not known whether G. Britain has accepted this mediation (offer by Russia to mediate between England and America). The President acts on motions independent of that consideration. If (Britain) accepts with a view to fair and just accommodation, it may probably lead to peace. If she declines it the responsibility will be on her government. In the meantime, no relaxation should take place in our military operations. They should on the contrary be carried on with greater vigor.”

Letter from Andrew Jackson to Rachel Jackson

Head quarters Camp Jackson
March 21st.  1813

My Love
      This will be handed you by my friend and aid de camp Major A. Haynes--to whom I refer you for news--I send him on to make arangement for the supply of my brave companions in arms, who have been lead on from love of country into the tented fields and by the agent of goverment attempted to be sacrificed, by being dismissed from service 800 miles from home, deprived of every particle of publick property, without pay or any means of transporting the sick--or supplies for the well, and this to as I believe with the base design to compel them from want to enlist into the regular Service of the united States. The law I think has better provided and these brave men deserve a better return--I led them into the field I will at all hazard and risque lead them out, I bring on the sick, or be with them--it never shall be said if they have been abandoned by the agents of the goverment they have been abandoned by their general--I have made the necessary requisitions on the contractors and quartermaster, the dismissal (unoficial) by the Secretary of war notwithstanding in past they have been furnished, and I hope the will be fully, and I hope in a day or two to be able to take up the line of march--I shall remain with the troops untill I see them safe in their own country--paid, and discharged--I shall write you occasionally by the post as it passes me--and shall expect you with my little son to meet me in Nashville--tell him I will make a general of him--that he shall have a soldiers coat, and sword--you can say to the overseer I am returning and shall expect my farm in good order--give my love to Miss Kitty and all my friends, may god bless you adieu

                                                                                 Andrew Jackson


Letter from James Wilkinson to Andrew Jackson

New Orleans
March 20th. 1813

      I had the honor a few minutes since to receive your letter of the 15th. Inst. & hasten to answer it.
      It is with unfeigned concern, I perceive the embarrassments under which you labour, because it is not in my power to alleviate them.
     From the Tenor of the orders of the Secretary of war to you, under date of the 6th. and 16th. ultimo copies of which, I had the honor to transmit you on the 16th. Inst., you will perceive that no provision has been made, for marching back your corps to Tenessee, in array of arms, from the position where those orders might reach you, and under such circumstances, I could safely appeal to your candour for the admission, that were you even under my orders, I should not be warranted in proceeding further than I have done in my order of the 16th. Inst. which I forwarded you in my last; indeed I have in that order exceeded the strict limits of my authority, but I am persuaded the occasion will justify me. I beg you to be assured of my disposition, to render you & the Gentlemen of your command, every facility & accommodation in my power; but I dare not incur the responsibility of the expense which must attend the march of the corps of your command back to Tenessee.
         I have &c--
                                                                         Sigd   Ja: Wilkinson


Letter from James Monroe to Gov. of Pennsylvania re: seizure of American citizens by Britain

March 19, 1814
NILES WEEKLY REGISTER reports this letter from Secretary of State James Monroe to the Governor of Pennsylvania:
Department of State
Feb. 23, 1814
Sir- the conduct of the enemy in seizing and transporting to Great Britain for trial, as traitors, under the claim of perpetual allegiance to the British sovereign, certain American prisoners of war, having compelled the government of the United States to resort to a just and indispensable measure of retaliation, and certain British prisoners having been with that view taken into close custody, as hostages for the safety of the American prisoners thus seized and transported, the president requests that you would authorize them to be received and confined in the penitentiary at Philadelphia, whither they will be conducted without delay, and placed under the general superintendence of John Smith, Esq. the marshal of the United States for the District of Pennsylvania.
I have the honor to be, with great consideration, sir, your obedient humble servant,
James Monroe

Emperor of Russia

It is understood that the Emperor of Russia has offered to the U. States and G. Britain, his mediation with a view to promote peace between them, and that a communication of this effect has just been made to our government by Mr. DASCHKOFF.  This proposition is believed to have originated in motives no less honorable to his Imperial Majesty than friendly to both the parties.  it is to be presumed, that our government, steadily adhering to its principles will not hesitate to accede to a measure, which having peace solely and simply for its object may be beneficial and cannot be injurious to the U. States.

Published Raleigh Register & North Carolina Gazette March 19 1813


A Sea man on board the Constitution named John Cheves, was mortally wounded in the late action with the Java.  Whilst lying on the deck apparently dying, the word was passed, that the enemy had struck.  He raised himself up with on hand, gave three cheers, fell back and expired!  Heroic specimen of the genuine patriotism of American tars!  He had a brother killed in the same action.  We understand they have left an aged and helpless mother at Marbiehead, who depended entirely on the fruits of their industry for a subsistence.

Published in the Raleigh Register & North Carolina Gazette March 19 1813

Extract of a letter, dated Norfolk the 9th inst. at 2 P.M.

Extract of a letter, dated Norfolk the 9th inst. at 2 P.M.

“This morning every man in town was under arms, in consequence of a reinforcement to the squadron last night, and the passing and reposing of barges from the ships, and their sounding the channel, which induces us hourly to expect an attack. Both forts are now heating balls and every exertion is making to repel the enemy by land and water.

“Many families are this moment moving out of town, with what few articles they can take with them through the bustle.”


Published in the Boston Weekly Messenger-March 19, 1813.



John Fleming to Return Meigs

State of Ohio Preble County 
March the 18

Most obedient Sir
after my best respects to you and Misten Lam[?] and family for their love to me while in chilicothe I got home safe & found all well at home but was met with a suden shock by hearing that the indians had killed some of our neighbors in the territorys west of us three brothers Kild at one suger camp one was a Liutenant in Capt. Lucases company two more kild down by brookvill the people is flying to git clere of their savage Barbarity theare principly gon out of the Knew [new?] purchase all reddy we in this settlement on the west side of this state are waiting to here what you will do for us before we start to fly from our homes the neigh- bors has been bilding block houses for the safety of their famlyes we do all wate with patiance to see whether we will git men to help gard those famlyes on the frunteers who is exposed to the barbarity of the savage tribs that is round us it is supposd by some to have been the dalawars knaving them to have a spite at one of the men that was kild the Liutenent we understand that Government is about establishing rangers a round the frunteers if this is don I think it will be a materiel bennifit if the officers will do thare duty and see that men do their duty but still the frunteers would feel themselves much safer could the[y] have some m[en] sen to the diffrent stations round the frunteers there are been if you sent from the territory to se what the[y] could dicover they said a good dale of indian signe at the white river town or neer it they felt some what timores to venture into the town I think it would be a verry good thing if their could go a good many men and ly in wait for them and scour the woods west of us I think it is enough to tuck the feellings of our sittisons in these western cuntryes when we have of husbands been torn from their deer wives and wives from their husbands and children from their parents some scelp and tommahakd some throwd in to the fire I must conclude by asscribing myself your friend ---
John Fleming Capt.

Courtesy of the Ohio Historical Society


Message to the Tennessee Volunteers

March 16, 1813

Fellow Soldiers
         Long since the clouds of war hovered around your beloved country, its constituted authorities announced it in danger, and invited you to rally round the government of your choice for its support and defence--It was anough for such patriots as you, descended from the heroes of the revolution to know that the patrimony procured by the best blood of your fathers were endangered you rushed to the support of your country and volluntary enlisted yourselfs for its defence--and tendered your services to the President which was with expressions of gratitude which carried balm to each patriot boosom accepted off--your tender was on the broad basis of your countries will not confined within any constitutional limits, but the orders of your goverment war was declared, you stood panting for the call of your goverment, with eyes turned to the north the seat of war, ready to mingle your strength with that of your distressed brethren in arms, to defend them from the ferocious Indian scalping knife and British Bayonets, your representative in congress with all his eloquence made known your patriotism to the goverment adressed you as part of his constituents, with the eloquence of a cicero (this your patriotism did not require) urged you enmass to enroll yourselves under the acts of congress in the support of a Just proper & necessary war and pledged himself for your patriotism--enrolled you had been and only awaited the call of your goverment--an army was basely surrendered, a Territory lost--Men were wanted-- Still you were not called to the field--at length it was said that the inhospitable clime of the lower Mississippi was endangered by threatened invassion--The goverment called--There was no climes that could damp your ardor--The 10th. of Decem will be with pleasure recollected by every patriot boosom--you with the spirit of freemen whose rights were invaded bore without murmur the snowy blasts--you entered the camp with the ardor of good citizens you bore its privations like soldiers--The alacrity with which you entered on the duty of soldiers, foretold to your general, that you would soon be disciplined --his highest wishes were realized--with attention, industry, and knowledge of tactics of Capt Carrol Brigade inspector added to your attention of duty, I knew in a short time you would fit to meet an enemy in the open plain and contend for the victory at the point of the Bayonet--in this your Genl. was not disappointed--your orders were given to descend the river Mississippi, you obayed it with alacrity and in every act has realized the fondest wishes of your general and your Country--
      your uniform good conduct, you attention to the rights of the citizens through which you have passed has secured you the plaudits of the citizens of this country and entitle you to the esteem and thanks of your general--he knows if you had met an enemy, from your pride your patriotism and attention to discipline you would have gained laurels for yourself, and honor for the country from which you come you are about to return to your country, and it remains for time to unfold whether you have been truly the agents of goverment, with that attention your patriotism entitled you to expect--and whether you have not been shamefully forgotten  by your representative in congress--
      It becomes the duty of the Major Genl to make known to the detachment under his command that he has received advices, that "the causes for embodying and marching to this lower country the corps under his command has ceased to exist" and we are now to turn our faces to the north--and I must repeat it again and again and never shall forget it that you have done much and met privations, with the firmness of soldiers--you have behaved with that order and propriety that becomes citizens soldiers to step forward in defence and vindication of their countries rights--having thus merrittedly established a reputation and obtained the praises of the good citizens with whom we have mingled and in whose neighborhood we have encamped--it is necessary to support this reputation on our returning--and the general has full confidence, that in no instance will one of his officers or soldiers, infringe the right of the citizen or depart from his usual sobriety, should he be disappointed in this immediate punishment awaits the offender--when we turn our eyes to the west and behold our profused bleeding brethern that are wounded and then surrender to savage cruelty I well know your boosoms pants for retaliation and vengeance, Should our destination be to that point I have confidence you will do your duty--but to be prepared for action, we must not relax in our discipline--fellow citizens in arms--we have to pass a savage country--their rights must be respected and notwithstanding your humanity is shocked at the late unheard of brutality and murder of our brethern, still it becomes us untill we are ordered by goverment to withhold our hands from vengeance least we might strike the innocent and bring disgrace and guilt upon our heads--It is therefore ordered and commanded that neither the persons nor property of the indians be disturbed by any officer or soldier under my command whilst returning through their country--It is necessary for the safety of the detachment, that we march in good order,  and that the whole detachment continue together untill we arrive at Nashville--The order of march will be duly communicated through the Brigade inspector and all officers are forbidden to give any furloughs or permit any of the soldiary to leave the encampment for a longer time than four hours and then must be accompanied by a commissioned or non commissioned officer, as soon as the necessary supplies are recd from the contractors and quarter master of this department--the line of march will be taken up--The Major Genl, Having pledged himself that he never would abandon one of his men, and that he would act the part of a father to them--has to repeat that he will not leave one of the sick nor one of the detachment behind, that he has lead you here that he will lead you back again to your country and your friends--The sick as far as he has the power and the means shall be made comfortable--they shall all be taken along not one shall be left unless those that die and in that event we will pay to him the last tribute of respect, they shall be buried with all the honors of war--should your general die he knows it is a respect you would pay to him; it is a debt due to the honest and brave soldier, it is due to every member of the detachment--it is a respect that shall be paid to each--The guards at their fires are permitted to sleep keeping one up at the fires untill otherwise ordered--

Courtesy of the Andrew Jackson Papers Project

Letter from James Wilkinson to Andrew Jackson

March 16, 1813.

      I was yesterday honored by your letter of the 8th. inst. and regret that the policy of Government should not permit the maturation of our association in arms; because I believe much public good would have grown out of it.
       I am sorry any misunderstanding should have taken place with the Dep. Qr. master General; because he is a well intentioned and correct officer. His difficulty arose from the tenor of his instructions, and the obligations by which he is bound, to obey the commanding officer of the Department alone; who being placed in trust for the whole, is responsible for the whole, and must necessarily controul the whole. This is the broad rule of service, and it must govern, so long as power & responsibility are inseparable. I hope, however, no inconvenience has arisen from a diversity of opinion.
      In consequence of the receipt, by yesterday's mail, of the enclosed copies of the Secretary of war's letters to you of the 6 & 16th. ultimo, which I take the liberty to transmit you, I have considered it my duty to issue the Genl.  Order which you will find under cover, to prevent any difficulties or unnecessary delays with the paymaster or contractor, being convinced the Executive will justify every usual measure, which may be adopted for the accommodation & comfort of the patriotic citizens of Tennessee, on their return home. I beg leave to offer you and them, Sir, my best wishes for health, pleasant weather, an agreeable march, and a happy meeting with your friends and families.
         I have the honor to be, with much consideration and respect, Sir, Yr. Obt. Servant,
                                                                                            Ja. Wilkinson


Copy of Order to Robert Andrews from James Wilkinson

New Orleans
March 15, 1813.

P Jackson
C Tennessee

      (Enclosed under cover, directed to Majr. Genl Jackson, near Washington, M.T.)
      The President having been pleased to discharge from further service, the Patriotic intrepid Volunteers of Tennessee, encamped near Natchez, under the orders of Major Genl. Jackson; they are to be mustered up to the day of their discharge; and in addition to the pay due them, are to  receive from the District paymaster the usual allowance for milage in returning home, and the Contractor will furnish provisions for the same period.
      The Asst Dep. Qr. Master Genl. is to receive and receipt for whatever public property, Genl. Jackson may order to be delivered to him, and will have the same put in order and well secured.

                                                                                         (Signed)         Ja. Wilkinson
                                                                                                               Majr Genl.

Letter from Andrew Jackson to William Berkeley Lewis

March 15, 1813

Dear Sir
         On last evening I recd. advices from John armstrong now Secretary of war, stating that the causes that give rise to the organization of the corps under my command having ceased to exist--our services is no longer required--so soon as I can get the proper transport for my sick, I shall take up the line of march for Nashville--I have to request that you will have a supply of provissions and forrage at Coberts ferry, against we arive--I have drew on the Contractor and quarter master for supplies to this Point and expect you to furnish supplies down Elk and the Tennessee sufficient for this detachment--to last to the line
         I have recd. last night your letter of the 22 and after perusal, ha so many on hand put it to the flames o not think it necessary to write to Colo Aderson--when I see him I can assure him of the substance of your letter, and that you have done him every Justice--I have enclosed to Governor Blount a certified coopy of armstrongs letter it bears date 5th of January 1813, one month before he came into office, by applying to Governor Blount you will see A coopy, and you can Judge whether in all civilized urope, or the barberous climes of africa is has its fellow--the supposition when the order was written that we were 800 miles from home--and our whole detachment sick and well deprived of every supply furnished by government even the Pack horses that might have removed the sick home &c &c, But I have not thought proper to yield all. I bring home my sick or perish in the at-- an enquiry will be made how this ss has been transacted when time will permit and how far our representative after his pompous call on the Patriotism of his constituents under the act of February & July 6th can Justify this neglect towards those brave fellows who has turned out to defend their country--I feel too much I must change the subject--Supplies I am intitled to, and I will have, I have credit, no money but when all resources fails I have horses adeiu my friend--

                                                                                                  Andrew Jackson

Letter from Andrew Jackson to Rachel Jackson

Camp Jackson
March 15th. 1813

My love
          On last night by mail from Neworleans I recd advices from the war department that our services was not longer wanted, and I shall march with my detachment so soon as convayence for my sick can be had, and portage for my provisions--I hope to order the line of march in a few days, my duty my feelings, and Justice to those brave fellows who followed me at the call of their country, deserve more from their Government, than what they have recd They at least deserved, by the orders of their government, to have recd. every necessary comfort for the sick, convayences that would insure them a safe return to their family their country and their homes--This has not been the case, it is only by and through me, that these things can be the sick shall be taken back as far as lif lasts, and supplies shall be had--altho their Patriotism has been but illy rewarded by an ungratefull officer, (not Country) it is therefore my duty to act as a father to the sick and to the well and to stay with them untill I march them into Nashville--I shall use industry, but that must be with caution not to founder my troops when they first set out--I recd yours by Stockley Hays last night, and one from my sweet andrew, I am happy if life lasts that I shall shortly see you--I am sorry my overseer does not act with industry you may say to him I will soon be at home, and expect my farm and stock in good order--I have but little leisure--not will I, untill I am ready to march, kiss my little andrew for me tell him his papa is coming home--give my compliments to all friends, and receive from me the tenderest Esteem of an affectionate Husband
                                                                                          Andrew Jackson

Letter from Andrew Jackson to Felix Grundy

Camp Jackson Head quarters
March 15th 1813

     By the new orleans mail of yesterday I recd the extraordinary order, of the extraordinary date, of which the enclosed is a copy-It speaks for it self, & rests with the representatives of the state, to account to this detatchment, how it has happened, that we were thus neglected & left to be sacrificed, by the incumbent in the war department, if it had been in his power. is this the way, the best patriots of the Land is to be treated--Solicited, intreated, & urged by your eloquence, calculated to rouse every patriotic feeling to rally around the standards of their country--marched to an inhospitable clime supposed to be eight hundred miles from home--dismissed--The sick stripped of every comfort or covering & the means of getting back to their country and their friends--without money and wihout means. the hole detachment given p as a prey to pestilence and famine and if they should escape that, to make destruction sure they are ordered to surrender their arms, that they may fall an easy prey to the scalping knife of the ruthless savage on their return--These questions will be asked of you as their representative; of the President, and this new incumbent who must have been drunk when he wrote it or so proud of his appointment as to have lost all feelings of humanity & duty, that he commenced by anticipation on the duties of his office a month before he was really in office, such treatment as this well calculated, to bring about disgu which will never gain the object in view. It is time for the people to recollect, that Sempronius in the Roman Senate cried out that he was for war, when he was in the act of betraying his country. I fear it is the case now that many cry out "I am a republican," when they are endeavoring to disgust the citizens--trying to disgrace the constitutional bulwark of the nation. The Militia--This done the path is plain. The Militia not being competant to defend the country on a sudden war it is necessary that a anding army in time of peace should be kept up to meet the sudden emergencies of war. this once done (and I have very little doubt of the intentions of some) the liberties of the country are gone forever. The late incumbent at the close of the revolutionary war has given a good specimen of what he would do with a soldiary (I mean a mercenary soldiary) under his controll, but it is time for the people to awake from their slumber & false delusions. The gause covering is too thin to hide such flagrant acts. Hull surrenders an army & a whole Territory--a court martial calld his trial postpone'd to the end of the war and why and for what reason--Genl. [Alexander] Smith makes an attempt on Canady-fails: all the blame is laid on the militia--a call is made on our state, t Volunteers the best materials on earth march, against whom? there could be nothing alleged, & who was certain to support their own reputation & that of their country & Return with credit--but this must not be permitted. they destroy all our plans. they would reinstate the lost reputation of the militia. it is necessary that they by destroy'd & they are attempted to be dismissed 800 miles from home, without money, stripped by the order of this new incumbent of every necessary furnished by govment & left to perish with hunger and diseae--but I thank my God the law under which they were raised give them their arms until they choose to resign them-- And as long as I have friends or credit, I will stick by them. I shall march them to Nashville or bury them with the honors of war. should I die I know they will bury me.  And as soon as I arrive--the necessary enquiries of the intended sacrifice of the whole of this detachment will be made & the publick will be able to judge how far certain representatives & men in office are the friends or traitors to their country--The history of all Barbarous Europe cannot furnish a parallel. The bloody buoy does not contain a mo damning transaction than the intention of this order As I expect the representatives in Congress have secured directions from the proper department for the payment of this detachment and a fulfillment of the engagements with them under the law of Feby 6th & July 6th 1812, I shall say nothing on the subject expecting that the paymaster will be prepared to pay us off. This must be done before I discharge the Troops-- and they have a right to expect you to this business before you left Congress.
         I am Sir in haste Your Obt. H. St.
                                                                                       Andrew Jackson

Letter from Andrew Jackson to John Armstrong

Camp of Volunteers near Washington, M.T.
March 15, 1813

      By this days mail I recd. yr. letter bearing date of the 5th. Jany. war department 1813-This was previous to yr. being in office at the head of that department which induces me to believe, that their must be a mistake in the date, otherwise it must be an unofficial act, as the official acct. of yr. taking possession of that office appears to be of date the 3rd. Feby. 1813. Allways obedient to the orders of my superiors and the will of the government when made known through a proper organ, I shall in persuance of the above advice, immediately deliver over to the Q. Master of this department all public property in my hands that can be spared from the convenience and health of my troops on their return to Nashville-it being the place where they were rendexvouzed by the orders of the president of the United States, and to which place I shall march them, so soon as the necessary supplies can be had for that purpose. 
      If it is intended by yr. letter or order which runs thus "The causes for embodying and marching the corps under yr. command to New Orleans having ceased to exist, you'll on receipt of this letter consider it dismissed from public service and have delivered over to Majr. Genl. Wilkinson all articles of public property that have been put into its possession-If it was intended by this order that we should be dismissed eight hundred miles from home, deprived of arms, tents and supplies for the sick-of our arms and supplies for the well, it appears that these brave men, who certainly deserve better fate and return from their government was intended by this order to be sacrificed-Those that could escape from the insalubrious climate, are to be deprived of the necessary support and meet death by famine The remaining few to be deprived of their arms pass through the savage land, where our women children and defencelesss citizans are daily murdered-Yet thro. that barbarous clime, must our band of citizan soldiers wander and fall a sacrifice to the Tomhawk and scalping knife of the wilderness our sick left naked in the open field and remain without supplies without nourishment or an earthly comfort-Was this the language of the act calling on the citizans to rally round the Government of their choice, which brought this band of heroes the best citizans and wealth of our country into the field, and whose attention to order discipline and harmony forbade ample services to their country-who tendered their services to march and support the Eagles of their country to the heights of Abraham on the North, or to the burning and unwholesome climate of the South-These men had no constitutional bounderies but that of their insulted Government, its rights privileges and its laws-Yet this order is given by a friend of the war measures, an old revolutionary officer-who knows the privations of a soldier who exercised his talents (not at a very prudent moment) in their behalf on the close of the last war This same hand! Yes, the same hand writes an order to consign to distruction a well organised detachment of near two thousand men, well disciplined for the time (I say none better) fit for the service, willing to march any where and that too Eight hundred miles from home--I annimated those brave men to take the field-I thank my God they are entitled to their Arms to defend them from the Indians scalping knife and believing as I do that it is such patriots as I have the honor to command that our country and its liberties are to be saved and defended-that a well organized militia is the bulwark of our Nation-I have no hesitation in giving the lie to the modern doctrine that it is inefficient to defend the liberties of our country, and that standing armies are necessary-in time of peace-I mean to commence my march to Nashville in a few days at which place I expect the troops to be paid and the necessary supplies furnished by the agents of the Government while payment is making, after which I will dismiss them to their homes and their families--
                                                                                             Andrew Jackson


Letter from Capt. Bainbridge to Lt. Gen. Hislop re: British prisoner parole

13 March 1813
Answer of Captain Bainbridge to request from Lt. General Hislop of the British army (currently prisoners of Captain Bainbridge on parole) agreeing to Hislop’s  request for extension of parole in St. Salvador:
United States frigate Constitution
St. Salvador, 3rd January 1813
Dear Sir—I have received your letter of this date, conveying- sentiments of your feelings for my treatment towards you since the fate of war placed you in my power. The kind expressions which you have been pleased to use are justly appreciated by me, and far overbalance those common civilities shown by me, and which are always due to prisoners……..I have complied with your last request, respecting paroling all the officers of the Java. In doing so, your desire, in addition to my disposition to ameliorate as much as possible the situation of those officers, considerably influenced me.
Permit me to tender you (notwithstanding our respective countries are at war) assurances of high esteem and high respect, and to assure you that I shall feel at all times highly gratified in hearing of or from you……
Signed Wm. Bainbridege

Letter from Mr. Barlow to James Monroe

March 13, 1813
Letter from Mr. Barlow (American negotiator) to Mr. Monroe, Secretary of State:
Paris, October 28, 1812
Sir –
By the letters from the duke of Bassano and my answer, copies of which are herewith enclosed, you will learn that I am invited to go to Wilna and that I have accepted the invitation. Though the proposal was totally unexpected, and on many accounts disagreeable, it was impossible to refuse it without giving offense, or at least risking a postponement of a negotiation which I have reason to believe in now in a fair way to a speedy and advantageous close.
…I am induced to believe that it is made with of view of expediting the business. There may, indeed, be an intention of coupling it with other views not yet brought forward. If so, and they should extend to objects beyond the simplicity of our commercial interests and the indemnities which we claim, I shall not be at loss how to answer them.
I shall have the honor to write you as soon as possible from Wilna, and shall return to Paris without any unnecessary delay.
I remain,
(Signed) J. Barlow

Letter noting the sinking of the schooner Lottery

March 13, 1813
Maryland Gazette Newspaper
Extract of a letter from Lt. Sinclair, dated United States schooner Adeline, Chesapeake Bay, March13
I have the satisfaction to inform you that I have this day received information that the unknown vessel we engaged on 10th at night, and of which I gave you the particulars in my letter of the 11th was his Britannic Majesty’s schooner Lottery, and that she sunk that night before she could reach the Fleet at New Point Comfort.

Copy of a printed circular letter addressed to American seamen in British ships of war


In answer to your letter of the ----  ----, I have to inform you, that the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty having, in consequence of the war between the United States and Great Britain, declined to release those American citizens who have been impressed, and are held in the British service, there appears to be no other course for you to pursue, than to give yourself up as a prisoner of war, to the commander of the ship in which you are detained.

______ ______,
Agent of the United States for prisoners of war in Great Britain. 

Extracts of a letter from Mr. Beasley to Alexander M'Leay, dated 13th March, 1813.

"In the letter of their Lordships' secretary of the 5th inst. the Board are directed to observe tome, that the printed letter which I addressed to certain American seamen detained in the British navy, "contains a statement unfounded in fact; for that, neither since the war with America, nor before, have their Lordships declined to release American seamen, admitted, or proved to be such." It is not necessary to my present purpose to enter upon an examination of their Lordships' conduct, on this matter, before the war; although my own official observation, in numerous cases, when I held the office of consul, would authorize me to dispute even that part of their secretary's assertion.  But with reference to their Lordships' conduct since the war, I beg to remind them of their letter of the fifth August, soon after the commencement of the war, in answer to a request made on the 31st July, for the release of certain impressed American seamen, in which their Lordships, going beyond the mere declining to release the men, stated "that, under the present circumstance, they will defer the consideration of the request for their release;" or, in other words, that they will not, at present, war being commenced, even think on the subject of their release.  If further proof be necessary of their Lordships' having, as I stated in my printed letter, declined the release of such seamen in consequence of the war, I will call to their recollection a letter written by their secretary, on the 25th of August, in answer to an application for the release of William Wilson, and impressed American, detained on board the Cordelia, in which they state that this man, being an alien enemy, must continue to serve, or go to prison. Should other corroboration be wanted, it may be found in the long and marked silence of the British Government to my numerous applications, again and again and again repeated, for the release of these men; seeing that it was not until the 25th of February, nearly seven months after their Lordships had informed me of their having deferred the consideration of the subject, and nearly five months after my formal demand made to Lord Castlereagh, that they directed the Board to inform me of their intention to treat them as prisoners of war. And even this was not done until eight days after my printed letter in question appears to have been on their table.  Surely it was in utter forgetfulness of all these circumstances, that their Lordships declared my statement unfounded in fact; for it appears impossible that they can, in the mind of any person, bear a different interpretation from that which I have given them. But how do these facts bear on their Lordships' statement? How, I ask, does their determination, that Wilson, proved and admitted to be an American, must continue to serve or go to prison, support the assertion, that their Lordships have not declined to release American seamen when admitted or proved to be such? But, perhaps, in their Lordships' view, to send them from service and detention in ships of war, to confinement in prisons, is to release them. If so, it is unnecessary to pursue the subject further, and I will content myself with having vindicated the correctness of my own statement."
"I come now to the consideration of their Lordships' purpose, as expressed in their Secretary's letter of the 25th ultimo, to treat as prisoners of war the American seamen who have been impressed, and are held in the British Government; that their own rights and inclinations, the rights of their country, the law of nations, and every principle of justice were violated in the very act by which each of these men was brought within its power, and that this wrong accumulates so long as any of them remain in its power, I do maintain that they are, on every ground, entitled to, and the British Government is bound to grant, their immediate and complete release. It acquired them only as the spoils of unlawful violence; how then can it retain them as the fruits of lawful war? Its right of control over them can only arise from the lawfulness of their detention; but that which was unlawfully taken cannot be rightfully held; and to acknowledge the pretension to such control as their Lordships purpose implies, would be to legitimatise the act by which they came into their power. The British Government disclaims all right and all intention to take them, and this disavowal is an acknowledgment of its obligation to restore them to the same condition, and to the same freedom, from which they were taken.  Upon what ground is it, then, that they are to be treated a prisoners of war? Not many years have elapsed since all Europe resounded with the complaints of Great Britain against France, for retaining, as prisoners of war, certain British subjects, who, having entered the French territories, in time of peace, were found there at the breaking out of the war. But, if that were regarded in England as an outrage, what will be thought of this detention, as prisoners of war, of American seamen, who, having been wrongfully taken on the high seas, and forcibly carried into the British service, in time of peace, are found therein at the breaking out of a war, doing her service, and fighting her battles? The conduct of France was attempted to be justified by certain acts of England, which were alleged to be equally contrary to the law of nations. But what justification, what excuse, can be set up for this conduct of Great-Britain towards the impressed American seamen? What infraction of the law of nations, what violence or injustice exercised towards British subjects, or what outrage is this cruel act to retaliate? It cannot be the free and spontaneous permission given by the United States, at the commencement of the war, for every British subject, of every class and description, found within their territories, or in their power, to return to his country; that this imprisonment of American seamen is to requite. And, surely, this cannot be the indemnification which Great Britain offers these unfortunate men for the wrongs which she has inflicted on them or the reward which she bestows for the service she has received at their hands.
"To the unqualified prohibition of all correspondence between myself and the impressed American seamen in his Britannic Majesty's fleet, so unreservedly stated i the letter of their Lordships' secretary of the 6th instant, I must conform, whatever may be my sentiments and feelings respecting it. The situation in which these unfortunate men and myself stood towards each other, appeared not only to invite, but to authorize a communication between us. On their part, the object of this correspondence was to obtain information and counsel as to the proper manner of conducting themselves under circumstances the most difficult, and on an occasion the most important and solemn, namely, how to act while forcibly held to service in ships of war belonging to a State engaged in actual hostilities against their country-a situation which their own good sense and proper feelings taught them was alike incompatible with their rights and their duties.  My part has been, after having waited five months, in vain, for a communication of their Lordships' intentions, to recommend them, since there appeared to means of obtaining their release, to give themselves up as prisoners of war- an evil comparatively light to that which they suffer. In other instance, their letters have related the rejection of their offer, and the threats of punishment, and all contain complaints of the unexampled hardship of their situation."

Courtesy of Library of Congress