Latest from Halifax


New York Dec. 31.
Monday arrived at Boston, Swedish brig [illegible], Capt. Isnaren, from St. Barts, via Halifax 7 way, (where she was sent in and [illegible].-There were no papers received by this arrival-but Mr. Peters, a passenger in the above vessel states that [illegible] 3 days before the FORTY SIX AMERICAN OFFICERS were put into close confinement, in retaliation for Forty Six Officers and others, lately put into close confinement in America. Another gentleman also a passenger in the above vessel informs, that NINETY TWO AMERICANS had been put into close confinement.]
Salem, Mass. Jan 1.
Ten of the petty officers of the Chesapeake frigate, having been released from close confinement at Halifax, the ten British officers who have been closely confined in Ipswich Jail, in retaliation, have been likewise released.


Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-January 14, 1814.

Letter to Thomas Pinckney from Andrew Jackson

Head Quarters Ft. Strother
Decr. 31st. 1813.


         I advised you on the 27th Inst. of my situation, prospects & intentions--Having since recd. from Govr. Blount two letters answering certain enquiries which I had put to him, & recommending to me a course of conduct neither corresponding to my wishes, my sense of duty--nor my ideas of correct policy--I feel myself bound to transmit you copies thereof, together with the act of Assembly under which the troops were called into service--To return into the settlements & wholly abandon, for a time the campaign, can only be justifyd. in my belief by the last extremities--Great as the difficulties are by which I am surrounded & they are greater than when I wrote you last, I cannot consider such an extremity as having yet arrived--should such a measure be adopted I am fearful that but little reliance need afterwards be placed on the aid of Tennessee on conqueoring the Creeks--Under this view, I am determined to retain my position until I am ordered to abandon them, or until I can really retain them no longer--I have said my situation was even less favorable than when I wrote you last: it is so in this, the 200 militia whom I advised you were coming on with Genl. Roberts, after having gotten within two miles of this place, have turned about, & are gone home, without my ever geting even sight of them--Genl. Roberts reported to me in writing on the morning of the 29th. that in obediance to my order he had brought 191 men, to fill up the deficiency of his Brige--Upon which I ordered him to parade them before the fort at 9 O'Clock on the next day: &  the result was nevertheless that which I have mentioned: Added to this we are now wholly without corn--corn meal or flour: & I am not advised when any will arrive--
        Gloomy as the prospect is, I have not abandoned the idea of advancing forward in a short time--Nothing, I find but the entire want of the means of moving can under some circumstances, justify the keeping militia long stationary--This want I may continue to experience, but nothing less shall prevent me from attempting at least, the execution of the purposes which I have heretofore expresed; & even in that event, I will not, if It can possibly be retained, abandon the present post until I receive positive instructions to do so.
       I have orderd Genl. Roberts in pursuit of those new troops lately brought on by him & who after having been regularly mustered into service, so shamefully deserted on the 28th. Inst. with instructions to use all the means & the power he possesses or can command to have them arrested & brought to head Quarters without delay, under a strong guard: & in the event of his not being able to command a force, by calling to his aid any of the U.S. troops within the State of Tennessee, sufficient to guard them safely to Head Quarters to have them safely confined in some secure jail, & make report thereof to me immediately--It has become indispensibly necessary that the most energetic measures should be adopted in regard to these citizen soldiers: & shall be happy to red. yr. advice & instructions as to the proper manner of dealing with them in cases of such delinquency--A very feeble hope can be entertained that the rules & articles of war, will be properly enforced by any Court Marshall that can be had here.
        4 o clock P.M.  I have just recd. a letter from Govr. Blount, a copy of which I send to you, stating, that altho he did not consider himself authorised to grant a discharge to the Militia or to say decisively, how long they were bound to remain in the field, yet that it was his opinion when they were called out it was only for a term of three months, & recommending that at the expiration of that period they should be discharged or dismissed until the Presidents will be known--The contents of this letter I have been requested by him to make known to them, which I shall accordingly do this evening: & the consequences then are not difficult to be foreseen--They will almost to a man abandon the service on the 4th. Jany. & altho I conceive I have no power to discharge or dismiss them, I shall not under any circumstances, attempt to oppose their return by force--They will quit the service at their own risk, & not unapprised of the probable consequences--Owing to this unfortunate occurrence I shall be compelled for the defense of this place which I am still determined to maintain so long as I can possibly maintain it, to order up immediately the new raised forces whom I advised were stationed in Madison--As I have just learned, I am likely to soon to receive more plentiful supplies, than I have hitherto been furnished with, if when those troops arrive, I should consider them sufficient for the purpose, I will advance & dislodge a body of the enemy who are assembled about 60 miles below us--even if it should be necessary to return immediately afterwards, to this point--As to this movement however I can now give you no such assurance as will justify you in making any confident calculations upon it--Indeed I am by no means certain that the new raised volunteers will not be seized with the spirit of discontent, with which they will be so industrially attempted to be inspired by those who are returning, & never arrive here: Should even that be the case, I still hope & believe I shall be able with a few companies who will remain, to keep my positions until further & effectual provision can be made for the prosecution of the Campaign. I have the honor &c.

                                                                                                        Andrew Jackson
                                                                                                        Major Genl.

Latest from Halifax

New York
Dec. 31, 1813

   Monday arrived at Boston, Swedish brig Hussaron, Capt. Isnaren, from St. Barts, via Halifax 7 days, (where she was sent in and cleared). - There were no papers received by his arrival - but Mr. Peters, a passenger in the above vessel states that about 3 days before he sailed FORTY SIX AMERICAN OFFICERS were put into close confinement, in retaliation for Forty Six Officers and others, lately put into close confinement in America. Another gentleman also a passenger in the above vessel informs, that NINETY TWO AMERICANS had been put into close confinement.]
   Halifax papers recently received in the United States, state that the British naval force on the N. American station consists of 106 vessels of war viz: 13 of 74 guns, 2 of 64, 2 of 50, 1 of 44, 2 of 40, 11 of 38, 8 of 36, 6 of 32, 2 of 28, 2 of 24, 5 of 20, 28 of 18, 6 of 16, 5 of 14, 8 of 10, and 4 of 4; amounting in the whole to 3139 guns!

Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette - January 14, 1814


Hampton Arrested

   Our Plattsburg correspondent continues his favors, altho' the army being in winter quarters, there is little of interest to communicate. His last letter is dated the 29th ult. from which we have the following extract:

   Several days ago General Hampton left this place, and his army, very suddenly and unceremoniously; but at that time it was not known that he had been arrested by gen. Wilkinson, for disobedience of orders in the late campaign. Should he be acquitted on trial, I think he will not be employed any more by the government, as he has become very unpopular with both armies. I am glad, on the whole, that they have gone into winter quarters; for the taking of Montreal this fall, is in my opinion utter of little importance; because, if the war continues, the ultimate object of the United states must and will be Quebec. Our army, therefore, when it shall have been sufficiently augmented to invest that city, can move down from where it now is, and take Montreal in its way. If congress does its duty this winter, by giving such wages to recruits as will induce a sufficient number of them to step forth immediately and join the army, the next campaign down the river St. Lawrence will be a brilliant one, and redound to the honor and greatly to the advantage of the United States.

Boston Chronicle.

Published in The Clarion & Tennessee State Gazette - January 11, 1814

Letter from Andrew Jackson to John Coffe

Head quarters Fort Strother
Decbr 29th. 10 oclock at night 1813

            I had the pleasure of receiving by last nights express yours of the 27th. instant and thank you for pushing on the express, but it really brought nothing but lengthy milk and cider recommendations of retrograding by the governor assertions of good wishes to the cause I am engaged in, and regret of want of power to aid me by men untill instructed by the Secratary of war--I have give him a good natured tickler by Lt Parish, by the express that goes on with this, I give him a godgen, that will make him look and see his own situation and that of the consequences of a failure or delay of the campaign--I have pointed out his duty and his power in strong language not to be mistaken--I have give him the orders of the goverment to me their expectations of the force in the field from Tennessee, their disappointment in not finding it the field when a Spanish force is before pensacola--and have asked him what answer he can make to the goverment on not having 1500 in the field under the requisition of the secratary of war from the Eastern section of the state under his order--and why he has not called on his officer, for an answer why he has not brought them into the field--and lastly painted in high colours, the pledge we have made of protection to the friendly indians their situation if I retrograde--with a British force at pensacola, the Choctaws wavering, my orders to advance--and the situation of the georgia army in case I retreat--and wind up with shewing his responsibility with his certain damnation if the campaign fails & him sitting with his arms folded and waiting for order from the Secratary of war--I think it will arouse him from his lethargy & make him act--
          I hope my answer to the address of the mounted gunmen & cavalry reached you before they seperated and that it was read to them--I also hope you have had it published in the Huntsville gazett and then send it on to Nashville for publication--let the world see how Colo. Alcorn will look in the future with his sacred pledge signed with his own hand--& exciting and encouraging desertion & mutiny--if they go let them go and as Capt David Smith writes to me "they will be met with the curses of their country both in front and rear."
         I wrote you the other day, by express and refered you to Colo Carrols letter for further information, I hope he has made my powers known to those brave men that has come on with him, a soldier never ought to be deceved he never ought to do service for which he will not be paid. of their pay I have no doubt, but as their term of service does not bring them within any law or order, the power of directing payment rests not with me and I do not wish them to be deceved--
         In the name of god what is the contractors quarter masters, and adjutant Antony about--Where is the pack horses, and waggons I sent the quarter master to purchase and send on with meal--we have not one pound of bread stuff nor have we had for two days.
        Can it be possible that the contractors has employed the publick horses to carry there meal from the mills to Fort Deposit--I hope not--you will please see to that--they are bound to furnish the transportation to the south bank of the Tennessee the U.S. afterwards--I am anxious to make a movement before the Holston Regt leaves me, their time is up on the 14th of January--I have sent Baxter up to Fort Armstrong and Rosses, with instructions to purchase supplies at any price and to have them pushed forward to us--he will do his duty and I feel confident will discover the combination that has starved us, founded on the intention of destroying our operations--all things will be right I hope shortly as soon as my letter get on to the war office--should any supplies come down the river I will advise you, and as soon as breadstuff and the portage can be procured with you, to Justify a movement and your force added to the force here, is 2000, move up without further orders, should the supplies not come in a few days we will loose the Holston troops which is Eight hundred strong, few of them will march forward without coertion, and when they have but a few days to serve coertion would be improper--in a few days we could reach the hickory ground and one blow will finish the war on Cosa and Tallaposa--I learn that Genl Adams is some where on the head of Tallaposa, but what he has done as yet I have not heard--
        accept of my congratulations on your returning health--I hope you will be able to command through the campaign--your name is verry highly spoken of in the Presidents message--This will be a killing stroke to your envious enemies and is as highly gratifying to me--I wish if I can to make a bold stroke, and form a Junction with the Georgia troops, and conjointly form a Junction with Claibourne--scouring the country n both banks of the allabama--I have a party two hundred and fifty out now on the Cahaba ope they may bring me some hair--
       with sentiments of Esteem I am yours respectfully

                                                                                                    Andrew Jackson

P.S. I wish this express pushed on to Nashville

Letter from Andrew Jackson to Rachel Jackson

Head quarters Fort Strother
Decbr. 29th. 1813. 1/2 past 11 oclock at night

My love

     After twenty four hours of labour in preparing dispatches for Major Genl Pinckney, the Secratary of war and Governor Blount, during which time Major Read my aid, and myself has not Slept one hour, before I lie down--(as the express is to Start at day light) I take up my pen to Say to you that I am well, my arm mending I hope I will be able to wear my coat Sleeve on it Soon--I have been much pestered and vexed with the shamefull retrograde of the Volunteers and mounted gunmen--and with the still more shamefull indolence of the contractors, in not supplying us with provisions--I have been anxious to advance and meet the wishes of the commander in chief by putting a Speedy end to the war and return to you again, but our supplies will not Justify a movement as yet--at present we have not one pound of meal but plenty of good beef and pork--with this I tried if I could prevail on the Troops to advance but the Holston Regt. except two fine companies commanded by Capts. Hamilton and argenbright refused--five days we could have cleared the cosa and Talleposa, and opened communication with Genl Floyd who commands the Georgia Troops--But they did not come to fight--altho it was there complaint that they had come for that purpose and was sorry they could not have one fight that induced me to make the proposition with the supply of Beef & pork on hand--I found it would not do and I am fearfull when I get supplies up, which I am making every exertion to do I shall have no men to fight with The shamefull desertion from their posts of the Volunteer Infantry--The Violated Pledge of the cavalry & mounted infantry under their own proper signatures, and the apathy displayed in the interior of the state by the fireside Patriotts will sink the reputation of our State--and I weep for its fall--and with it the reputation of the once brave and patriotic Volunteers--who a few privations, sunk from the highest elevation of patriots--to mere, wining, complaining, sedioners and mutineers--to keep whom from open acts of mutiny I have been compelled to point my cannon against, with a lighted match to destroy them--This was a grating moment of my life--I felt the pangs of an affectionate parent, compelled from duty, to chastise his child--to prevent him from destruction & disgrace and it being his duty he shrunk not from it--even when he knew death might ensue--This was a painful moment, but it is still more painfull, to hear of their disorderly, and disgracefull conduct on their return--had I have been with them this should not have happened--what a contrast between their present return and there return last spring Then they return cloathed with a good reputation, praised by all, ?what now--retreating from the field, leaving a half conquered enemy behind them within 65 miles in force, their conduct rude and disorderly-There abandonment of the service may destroy the campaign and leave our frontier again exposed to the Tomhawk of the ruthless savage--and now the return disgraced--hated and cursed by all--for their shamefull and disgracefull retrograde--no doubt you will hear of my situation being a critical and hazardous one--be not uneasy--that god that protects you at home, protects me here, and if I have trials, and Perils, he has fortified me with fortitude to do my duty under every circumstance--reguardless of consequences, and when I return, I return like a true patriot, without a tarnish on my reputation--
      I must ask you to say to fields to have as much land cleared as he can, take care of my stock, and see that you are comfortable--if Mr Trigg of Gallatine comes for Truxton, on his shewing you my letter and in making his election as to the choce of Terms on paper you will deliver him Truxton and Dinwodie if he wants Dun, for the Season--If Mr. Trigg does not call for him capt David Smith was saying that he would take m & thought he could do well with him--do my love for the best--
     Please write me how my little andrew and whether, his little Indian Lyncoya was taken to him by Major Whyte of Gallatine--if he has got him how & what he thinks of him--Keep Lyncoya in the house--he is a Savage that fortune has thrown in my h[ands when] his own female matrons wanted to k[ill him] because the whole race & family of his was destroyed--I therefore want him well taken care of, he may have been given to me for some Valuable purpose--in fact when I reflect that he as to his relations is so much like myself I feel an unusual sympathy for him--tell my dear little andrew to treat him well--and kiss andrew for me, and with love to all friends accept the blessing of your affectionate husband
                                                                                        Andrew Jackson
P.S. two days since I sent you my famous pipe taken from the famous Bob Catala by Mr Parish--keep it for my sake

Letter from John Coffee to Andrew Jackson

29th. Decr. 1813


       On the 26th Instant, I met your Order at Tennessee River, to my Cavalry Regt. wherein you gave your assent to their quitting the service on their own responsibility, &c.--the order together with the Govrs. letter to you, was read to them immediately; when the Regt. generally (such as had not deserted the service before) availed themselves of the priviledges therein given--some few of the officers who had endeavored to do their duty, has been permitted by me, to raise new companies and bring them on to join your army at a short day--but none have been prevailed on to stay except a few individuals, not sufficient to form a company, and some few officers, who are determined not to leave the service, some few of the men have joined the new Tennessee troops under Col Carroll, but very few, I think that Captains Molton, Kavanaugh, and Jetton will very soon return with companies and join you--On the night of the 27th. Inst. I recd. your reply, ( at this place) to the address of the Rifle Regt. demanding their discharge from further Service, prior to that, they had recrossed the river and had encamped four miles north of this place, determined to go home at all events, but had been prevailed on by some the officers to halt there until they could hear from you, yesterday morning had them drawn up in solid Column, and read to them, their written pledges to you, (and which I knew not of before I recd them enclosed) and your reply thereto, which was followed by an animated address from the Revd. Parson Blackburn, but all to no effect, they were much confused, some of the men denied authorising the pledge being made, while other who could not deny, said that as you did not give them an immediate written answer, they did not consider themselves bound thereby, and some few, honestly confessed they had acted imprudently, in that state of minds, the whole broke off, and went home, with like exceptions to that of the Cavalry Regt.--thus the Brigade has abandoned the Service, with the exception of Captain Winstons Company of Madison County men (who it is also believed will desert the service) and Captain Hammonds Company of Rangers, who has reported all ready to march but 6 or 8. who have deserted--there has been mustered into Service One Battalion of Madison County mounted men, that has been reported to me, but not their precise numbers, supposed to be about 240. One company I have ordered into the contractors service in packing meal and guarding it for the use of the army, the balance are a part in camp and some on furlough, to return to camp tomorrow when they will be subject to my orders, the remaining part of this Battalion after deducting the company in the pack service, will not exceed from 160 to 180 men add to them Captain Hammonds company say 50, will make from 210 to 230 men exclusive of Captain Winstons Company if they come out--there will be some of the Spie companies, perhaps but I have no regular report of them. The Tennessee troops, I have nothing to do with further than to feed their horses. I ordered my quartermater, and forage master to furnish them in forage seeing they had no provisions made in that way. I have but little knowledge of them. I presume Col Carrol will give you a full account by this express, presume the whole amount of mounted men here to be about 850, whole term of service is 60 days. I shall proceed to have the procedings relative to the Rifle Regt. published, but cannot do it, untill you send me the address demanding a discharge; I did not keep a copy and none exist but the one in your possession, will you send it to me with such other and further advice as you may please on that Subject--I can say nothing to you on the Subject of the contractors further than I have heretofore said to you I had concluded  to start what few men are here under my directions, with the second load of packs, but on reflection will wait your Orders further on this Subject. I would be exceedingly glad to make a move towards you, and will the very moment you signify it to me. Several applications of officers who are left without commands are made to me, on the subject of their continuing in the service. I have advised all to stay, will it be better for Captains to return and raise companies of mounted men and come on with them, than to continue themselves now alone in service I would be glad of your advice on that subject, and any other in this unhappy moment of our army--
      I am Dr. Genl. very respectfully your Obedent Servt.

                                                                                       Jno. Coffee


Letter from Andrew Jackson to John Cocke

Head quarters Fort Strother
Decr. 28th. 1813.


   you will receive herewith enclosed, a complaint lodged by the path killer, against part of your Division on their return march from this place--If the statement, should be correct, it is a reflection on the State, as well as on the Regt. Brigade or Division to whom they belong, and ought to meet with speedy and ample punishment--If any thing could have been proved against old Rattcliff, of any Treason, or hostility against the united States, then and in that case he was amenable to the laws of the united States, and ought to have been arrested and tried by such tribunal as had competant Jurisdiction of the offence--But that a sett of men should without any authority rob a man who is claimed as a member of the Cherokee nation, who is now friendly and engaged with us in a war against the hostile creeks, is such an outrage, to the rules of war--the laws of nations and of civil Society, and well calculated to sower the minds of the whole nation against the united States--and is such as ought to meet with the frowns of every good citizen, and the agents be promptly prosecuted and punished as robers--I have to request on the receipt of this you will cause old Rattcliff to be liberated, his property returned, and the offenders arrested and punished. I have wrote to governor Blount upon this subject and Colo. Jonathan J. Meigs, whose duty it is as well as ours, to have Justice done in all such cases, and the offenders punished--for the credit of the Troops from your Division it is that the guilty should be apprehended and punished, that the reputation of the honest part of your Division, may not be Tarnished by the acts of the dishonest--Is it not cruel the the whooping boy, who fought bravely at Talushatchey and got wounded at the Battle of Talladega--should be plundered, by the east Tennessee troops, whilst confined with his wounds--what will the general government think of the State, if such things is permitted to go unpunished--It is as much Theft as tho the property, was stolen from one of our own citizens, and the laws of the united States provide amply for the punishment--Strict inquiry ought to be made whether any commissioned officers were present, or had any knowledge of this atrocious act, and if so they ought to be immediately arrested, and tried by a court martial, and afterwards transferred to the civil authority--I have just learnt by Doctor Vandyke that it was Colo. Wears Regt. that has committed the above fellonies--and I have the fullest confidence in your exertion to have this business well prosecuted and by that means have the stain that it has inflicted on the reputation of our State thereby washed out and blotted forever--for I hope and trust it is the last of the kind that will ever be recorded, and I have to repeat again, that it is best, that all officers should be arrested and tried by a court martial--it is stated that Colo Wear was privy to it, if so, have him arrested, if he is innocent, it is due to him than an investigation should be had, that his character may not be under the stigma that it now labours under-- May it be done away--Before I close this letter I must name again to you, that we have not one pound of bread stuff and information from Fort armstrong states there is none at that place--It appears that there is some enchantment, wrought, by the Indian prophets on our contractors, that will lead to our Starvation but to counteract this phisic--as I advised you in mine of yesterday, I have at the request of the commander in chief of this army Genl Pinckney appointed Major James Baxter Asst. D. quarter Master and sent him to overlook the contractors, with full powers to buy in case he has not an ample supplies agreable to your and Genl Pinckney requisitions--I now know in a few days we will have ample supplies--I wish you on the recpt of this forthwith to inform me by express--in what forwardness the fifteen hundred troops, under the requisition of the President is in and at what time they will be in the field--existing circumstances requires promptness in execution--The Indians are in our front and a British force Just arrived at Pensacola
        I have the honor to be verry respectfully yr mo. ob. serv.

                                                                                  Andrew Jackson


Letter from Andrew Jackson to William Carrol

Head Quarters Ft. Strother.
Decr. 27th. 1813

Dr Sir

      I recd. last night late your letter of the 23d. Inst datd Huntsville, & am sorry to hear that such confusion reigns among the volunteer Cavalry and mounted gunmen, & such shameful & disgraceful waste of the scanty supplies that have been collected for the army--this must be done with the same view there as the contractors hogs & horses were killed here--to produce a scarcity & form some excuse for their disgraceful desertion of the service of their country, when the enemy were embodied in front; and before they received a discharge from the competent authority to give it.
       It fills me with regret, that those volunteers who you have brought into the field, should be enrolled for two months only--I know of no law that will authorise their being accepted of, or under which they can be paid--I was willing to hazard, under existing circumstances every responsibility, to get as many men into the field as would be sufficient in number to be substituted for, and in the stead of the volunteer infantry, not expecting, from the written pledge of the officers of both volunteer cavalry and mounted gun-men, that there would be a discontent or murmur in continuing the campaign. When I first heard of their desertion, and mutinous disposition, and received your letter, that you were bringing on all mounted gun-men--believing that they were engaged for the campaign, or six months, agreeably to my order to you, I was content, and willing still to hazard the responsibility myself. Men for sixty days, under present circumstances, and the orders of General Pinckney, will answer the government but little purpose--but still I will be grateful for their services, & they are entitled to & receive my thanks for their patriotism--You must frankly explain them their situation, endeavor to have their term of service changed agreeably to my order; I then will become responsible for their pay & cheerful acceptance by the government--otherwise you will explain to them, that for their services for 60 days they must depend on the liberality of the government & not upon any responsibility on me, still stating as frankly that no influence on my part will be wanting to procure them justice & full compensation for their services, or in other words say to them that I have no power to order or accept the services of men for 60 days, that there is no law authorising such a term of service that it must be for 6 months or during the campaign, & that my order to you was predicated upon that term of service--Under the above explanation, I shall freely & thankfully accept of their service & shortly lead them on to battle, with a sanguine hope of victory--I have duly weighed your observations on the subject of ordering up the mounted men & volunteers, with those that have come on with you--A number of points present themselves on the subject when considered--first will they obey the order & march with the supplies of beef & pork on hand (for we have no bread here)--we have beef & pork on hand from the contractors report yesterday for forty days rations for 2000 men 2d. will their force, with what can be spared from Genl. Roberts Brige. be a sufficient force to make the intended movement. I know not your numbers & therefore cannot form an opinion (about 500 may be calculated from that Brige.--if it is I authorise the order to be given--there is no dependence to be placed on the Regt from E.T., that when ordered they will march--I tried that on yesterday, anxious to be moving forward, & often hearing them say they wanted to fight before they returned home--and to have one fight out of them, I addressed Col Lillard a note upon the subject, intending to order you up immediately by forced marches, if the consent was given--They answered in the negative, that Genl Cocke had promised them that they should be marched home in 15 days after they left Ft Armstrong & they ment to go home &c &c &c--I am anxious to move  forward--the whole force on Tallapoosee & Coosee are now on the west side of the Tallapoosee & the East side of the Coosee & with sufficient force a fatal blow could be struck--With 1500 men, exclusive of 500 that may be counted on here I would hazard every thing, nay even with 1200--recollect, situated as I am it would not do to hazard a defeat--& if Genl Coffee & you can ascertain that the mounted men & cavalry, that will march under these circumstances, fairly understanding the supplies, let the order be issued to bring them up speedily, by Genl Coffee--The new raised troops brought on by you are entitled to be commanded by officers of their own choice--the field officers to be chosen by the Platoon officers--& you will direct them thus to be organized--The Madison troops will be left to their own choice, whether to remain as a separate Regt or Battalion or join the other--the whole if constituting a Brige. will be commanded by Genl. Coffee if his health permits to be in the field--if yr force will in yr opinion & Genl. Coffees be sufficient to authorise a movement agreeably to the within ideas, & he will agree to march, I inclose an order to Genl. Coffee to march them up immediately, be pleased to show this letter to Genl. Coffee--

                                                                                                   Andrew Jackson
                                                                                                   Major Genl.

I have not time to look into the rules & articles of war to determine the point in yr letter, but should you be the choice of the officers of the Regt. the thing can be easily adjusted

Letter to John Floyd from Andrew Jackson

Fort Strother Ten Islands
27th Decr 1813


       On the 23rd Inst: I received dispatches from Genl. Pinckney; among which was an account of your fortunate engagement with the Enemy at Autossee on the 29th ultimo. I offer you my sincere congratulations on the success of that affair; and at the same time that I do so, I must be permitted to lament that there has been so little concert in the operations of the Georgia, and Tennessee Troops.
        When the Campaign was opened, I did all I could to establish a perfect harmony in their movements. Believing that irregular, & temporary incursions into the Enemy's Country would be far from producing those Effects, for which the War was undertaken.
        In this endeavor however I was very unfortunate. when I had approached nearly to the heart of the Enemy's Country, I found myself standing alone, unsupported by the Georgia Troops, or those from E. Tennessee; and what was worse, unsupported by the contractors. But it was then too late to make new arrangements. I fought the Enemy & obtained two signal victories over them. Had I then received either cooperation I expected from the E. Tennessee Troops, or, supplies, the Creek War before this had been ended--But I received neither, and for the worst of both, was compelled to retrograde from Talladega to this point. Since then I have had a thousand difficulties to contend against which need not be mentioned. A greater part of my Men, unwilling to submit to further privation, and believing their term of service to have expired, have gone home; many of those who remain, operated upon by the same causes threaten soon to return. Thus situated I found it necessary to send back to Tennessee to raise a new Corps of Volunteers upon my own responsibility; and I understand a thousand are now on their way to join me. They are all mounted men; & I have sent an Express to meet them, with orders that they shall remain in Madison County, where their horses can be fed, until supplies shall have been furnished to enable me to make another movement from this point.
     Those supplies I expect in a few days; not with great confidence it is true; because I have been too often disappointed by the Contractor already, to form such an Expectation; but with some degree of hope, in speaking of supplies, I now allude particularly to bread stuff, and forage for our horses: but whether they be furnished or not, it is my present purpose to assemble all my forces, and commence another movement from here about the 6th of next month, for the junction of the Coosa & Talipoosa.
     Our provisions of meat will I believe justify such a measure, and the situation of our affairs renders it necessary. If I am correctly informed (and I have omited no means to procure the most correct information) the principal force of the Enemy is now on the West of the Talipoosa, on this River at the "fish Traps" and near the hickory grounds They have been led into false notions by the delays which I have been made to experience, and ought to be soon undeceived.
        Whenever I recommence another movement from this point, I will advise you of it by express, & then I shall desire and expect co-operation from the Troops now under your command; permit me to say, I lament very sincerely the wound you have received, and to express a hope that it may not disable you from continuing in the present Campaign.
       If any occurrence should make it necessary that I should be advised of the situation & intended movements of the Georgia Army, I hope it will be immediately communicated by Express.
       I am very respectfully Yr. Obt. Servt.

                                                                            (signed)       Andrew Jackson
                                                                                                Major Genl. T.V. Service U.S.


Letter from Andrew Jackson to Willie Blount

Head quarters Fort Strother
December 26th. at Night 10 oclock

Dear Sir

       I am wearied with dating letter at this place--every exertion that was within my power has been made, to progress with the campaign and save the State from disgrace--still insurmountable difficulties present themselfs, and it appears, that I am to be left alone struggling to obtain the object-- I have advised you, of the failure of General Cocke to bring into the field, the fifteen hundred men agreable to requisition of the Secratary of war that was so anxiously sought for by him to fill from his division--I have transmitted you his letters promising supplies of breadstuffs, which was never forwarded, I have advised you of my order to him to return and pass by the way of Fort armstrong and there make arangements, for transporting, from thence to this place a sufficient supply of bread stuff, and to go from there to Rosses, and see that the contractor had a sufficient supply there, and direct his quarter master to have it immediately transported to Fort armstrong, and in case there was not sufficient supplies delivered at Rosses by the contractor agreable to his requisition forthwith to order the quarter master to purchase at any price to fill the requisition--The enclosed letters from Colo. Snodgrass will shew you how far the regulations of the general has afforded supplies here--The finishing of the Fort in the heart of the Cherokee nation, appears to be a primary object instead of supplies for this army--I have enclosed you heretofore his order to Genl White, that occasioned the general to retrograde and not form a Junction with me and which occasioned my retrograde from Tulladega, after the battle that has proved fatal to my arrangements--I enclose you a note I sent to Colo Lillard of this day with his answer which will shew you with what intentions and expectations the Junction was formed with me, by the east Tennessee troops--was it not for the declarations of Colo Lillard personally, added to the expressions of his Regt. I could not believe, that the general would have made such a promise to men whose service was much needed as the one contained in Colo. Lillards note, without notifying me thereof--I enclose them however for your perusal, and a further evidence of the boasted patriotism of the State, when danger approaches--
      I have just recd a letter from Colo. Carroll, from Huntsville advising me that he has about six hundred mounted men, whose officers say they have Volunteered their service for sixty days, I have no authority to accept the service of men for so short a term nor do I know of any law that would authorize it--I gave Colo. Carroll orders to raise on my own responsibility one thousand footmen for six months or during the campaign--I have wrote to Colo. Carroll, if they will on the responsibility, of the government for payment, without any responsibility on me, come on and serve Sixty days to bring them on, but explain to them, that they are not in the field by my orders or on my responsibility--I am ordered by Genl Pinckney to advance and fortify and retain the ground I take possession of, men for sixty days service answers but little purpose in such a campaign as contemplated by the goverment--the Goverment intends to conquer the Creek nation and hold possession of it--The President has predicated his orders to Genl Pinkney on the reliance that the state of Tennessee has 5000 troops in the field; when in fact she has not one thousand that she can calculate on--I cannot think it possible that you will hesitate under existing circumstances, to order a draft to fill up the Deficiency, occasioned by the omission of General Cocke and the desertion of the Volunteers--when we view the conduct of the Governors Meigs and Shelby, to aid Harrison with men, and how gratefull the general Goverment has been to them for their patriotism--will it be suffered to be said and recorded in history, that the Governor of Tennessee will permit a campaign to prosperously begun, defeated and with it the reputation of the State for patriotism damd forever, for the want of his exertions, and the fear of taking a little responsibility on himself--I cannot, I will not believe it--is the freeman of the State so lost to every feeling of true americans, lost to every feeling of the soldier and the patriot to shrink from the contest, with a savage tribe that has murdered our fathers our wives and our sleeping babes--If this is the case, which I fear it is, then Sir your powers is looked up to cure the evil, and to save the state and the citizens (who are devoid of noble feelings) from eternal disgrace, by immediately ordering a draft under the requisition of the late law of the State--and the requisition of the Secratary of war--I say under the law of the State--for inasmuch as the campaign is not finished contemplated by that act--and as the number of thirty five hundred men is not in the field, it is your duty to require, not only to have the requistion of the Secratary of war, but the requisition of the law of the State filled, and the campaign carried on with that vigour contemplated by the late law--here Sir, permit me to be plain, is a greater responsibility upon you; in not ordering, than to order, here is a positive law that requires you to act untill the thing contemplated by the law is completly carried into effect, and particularly so as the general goverment has sanctioned the act of the State and believes and has a right so to do, that five thousand men are in the field for the campaign or for six months--The men having been once in the field and having retrograded, does not away your powers under the law--or your obligations to the state and the general govment--in having the campaign continued to the full extent now contemplated by the general government--where does the Governor of Georgia obtain his power from--the same as yours, from a requisition of the Secratary of war for fifteen hundred men and a law of the State--The time of the first class have expired--The Governor of Georgia has ordered a draft, as I am informed by Mr. Cooper--express from Genl. Pinckney and are now marching thirty five hundred men up to relieve those that have served six months under Genl Floyd--and will it be permitted to be said that the governor of the once patriotic State of Tennessee, at such an important crisis as the present, when the creeks are more than half conquered, a British force on the coast ready to aid and supply them--and reanimate their sinking spirits-- I repeat will it be permitted to be recorded in the page of history that the governor of Tennessee hesitated one moment on the subject of exercising his power to carry into effect the grand object of the State and the general goverment in bringing the campaign to a speedy happy conclusion by ordering a draft for such number of men as will fill the deficiency of the quota of this state--but now absent from the service--I hope not--delay will not do, the campaign must not be delayed--every exertion must be made to put down the creeks and meet the British at the walls of Pensacola--There is the Point to put a speedy end to the war--and I hope your exertions will not be wanting, to enable me agreable to Genl Pinckneys orders, there to meet the eternal enemies of our peace put an end to the war, and give peace to our southern and western frontiers--These sentiments grow out of your letter to Colo. Carroll which this evening reached me from Colo. Carroll--in which you say you have no power to order men out--and I have given you mine with the frankness of a friend, in the present disagreable situation of our country--I believe you have the power, I believe every patriot, will Justify your exercising of it, and the publick good requires you should promptly exercise it--I wish you to give me a speedy answer that I may know my true situation and advise Genl Pinckney what he may rely on--Genl Pinckney having requested that I should name some fit person to act as asst. D. q. master for East Tennessee--I have named Mr Baxter, who sets out tomorrow morning to take a peep into the causes why I have got no supplies from East Tennessee of breadstuff with the necessary instructions to purchase--I will try if I can not punish McGees pockett for his conduct--let me hear from you by express, my situation is a critical one, and the frontier of your State will be in an equal critical situation, if I am compelled to retrograde with a British army to supply and aid the creeks--a posponement will not do, it will have the same evills of a retrograde and attended with equal expense to the goverment, the expense is more than half incurred, if you will from the whole State give me Twenty five hundred men--I will hazard with my life and reputation a full completion of the campaign with that number if spedily furnished and supplied--
        I am sir respectfully, yr mo. ob. serv.

                                                                                                  Andrew Jackson


Advertisement for Seamen to join the Chesapeake Flotilla

December 24, 1813
Advertisement for Seamen to join the Chesapeake Flotilla

“Chesapeake Flotilla, Where an honorable and comfortable situation offers to men out of employ during the Embargo; where seamen and landsmen will receive two months pay advanced, and their wives to receive half-pay monthly, and single men can provide for aged parents, and widowers for helpless children in the same manner, with the advantage of always being near their families and not to be drafted into the militia, or turned over into any other service. Apply to the recruiting officers or to JOSHUA BARNEY, Com. Of U.S. Flotilla”

Treasury Dept. circular re: how American embargo to be implemented

December 24, 1813
Excerpts from Treasury Department Circular: how American embargo to be implemented
THE provisions of the act of the 17th December, 1813, "laying an embargo on all ships and vessels in the ports and harbors of the United States," of which a copy is enclosed, so far as they apply to ships and vessels, and to exportations that may be attempted by their means, relate to such as are of the following descriptions:
  • 1. Public armed vessels, possessing commissions from any foreign power, which are not affected by the act.
  • 2. Private armed vessels, duly commissioned by any foreign power in amity with the United States, and also private armed vessels of the United States duly commissioned under the act of June 26th, 1812. These are to be permitted to depart, having on board only the proper and necessary stores, provisions, armament, furniture and equipment for their cruise; but they are not to take on board any merchandise or cargo of any description, for the purpose of trade or traffic either with the enemy, or with a neutral, or for exportation; and the collectors of the customs are authorized and enjoined carefully to examine, search and effectually ascertain that there is no such merchandise or cargo on board, and if any such be found, to seize it and cause it to be landed and proceeded against by the district attorney, as forfeited to the United States.
  • 3. Foreign merchant vessels. These may proceed on their voyages with the cargoes they have on board, other than provisions, military and naval stores, at the time they are notified of the act; but they must sail with their officers and crews composed wholly of foreigners belonging to nations who were in amity with the United States at the time of their arrival: and they must carry from the United States no American citizen who shall not produce a passport, permitting him to depart, furnished under the authority of the President of the United States. ….. If they shall have any other cargoes or merchandise on board, they may proceed to sea with them, or in ballast; and for effecting the prohibition imposed upon such vessels, against carrying out of the United States any American citizen, the collector is to cause every such vessel immediately before and at the time of her departure, to be carefully searched and examined. The officers and crew are to be mustered in his presence, or in the presence of an inspector, assigned to attend to that service, and compared with a list to be made out and delivered to him by the master of the vessel for this purpose. The inspector is to remain on board after the vessel is under way, to see that no American citizen comes or is taken on board, and, unless there be danger of falling into the hands of the enemy, is to leave the vessel only when the pilot leaves it. The clearance or permit for the departure of the vessel, is to be placed by the collector in the hands of this inspector…………… Foreign merchant vessels, after being notified of the act, are to take on board no cargo of any description whatever, nor any specie; and the collectors are required to use all the means in their power for detecting any attempt to evade this prohibition, and particularly the attempt to carry away provisions or specie; the last of which, from its small bulk, is most liable to concealment and clandestine exportation. In those ports and places where there are banks, it is recommended to the collectors to have an understanding with the officers of those institutions, whose interest is principally concerned that the specie should not be drained from the country, and who, it is presumed, will readily act in concert with the collectors upon this subject. Through them, and in every other way in their power, they will endeavor to obtain information of those persons who may have drawn out or collected specie with the probable intent of sending it abroad, that such collections of specie in private hands may be watched, and that if it should be found under the circumstances described in the 10th section of the act, it may be taken into custody, in the manner there pointed out. …………..
  • 4. American vessels of every description, (excepting private armed vessels duly commissioned under the act of June 26th, 1812,) which shall be in port at the time when notice of the act is received at the custom-house, if they shall have any cargo or lading on board, whether intended for exportation or for transportation coastwise, are either to discharge the same, or to give a bond with two or more sufficient sureties, in double the value of the vessel and cargo, not to proceed on the intended voyage or trip, until permitted to do so agreeably to the provisions of the act. …This prohibition extends as well to coasting and fishing vessels and boats, as to registered and sea-letter vessels. Vessels licensed for the coasting trade or fisheries cannot depart from any port of the United States without a clearance or permit...A monthly return of all the permissions granted under this authority, thus committed by the President to the collectors, is to be transmitted to the Secretary of the TreasuryOn the sale or transfer of any ship or vessel, or in any case in which a new register or license is to be granted, or when, on the sale of any vessel not entitled to a register or license, it shall become necessary, by any custom-house document, or in any official transaction at the custom-house, to recognize such sale, it is made necessary by the sixth section of the act that a bond with one or more sureties shall be taken, in an amount equal to three hundred dollars for each ton of the ship or vessel, that such ship or vessel shall not, during the continuance of the act, contravene or infringe any of its provisions. The form of this bond, to be executed by the former owner, is given under the letter D.
By the tenth section of the act, the collectors are vested with the power to take into custody any of the articles there enumerated, whether on board of any ship or vessel, or in any vehicle used for transportation by land, or under other circumstances which afford reason to believe that they are intended to be exported… resorting to the means placed, by the twelfth section of the act, at the disposition of the President, for carrying its provisions into effect, or repressing attempts forcibly to oppose it. But if such dispositions shall at any time be manifested, and such steps taken in opposition to the law, as can only be prevented or repressed by the use of force, the collectors, by direction of the President of the United States, are hereby empowered to call to their aid any of the naval or military forces of the United States, or militia in the service of the United States, that may be within such convenient distance as to afford them the requisite assistance.
By order of the President of the United States.

Letter from Thomas Pinckney to Andrew Jackson

Head Quarters Sixth & Seventh Districts--Fort Hawkins
24th December 1813--


     Mr Cooper brought to me at Milledgeville on Wednesday last your dispatches of the 11th. 12th & 13th. of this month. The enclosed Copies of Letters the originals whereof I dispatched to Knoxville by the last Mail will shew you the measures I immediately adopted in consequence of the information contained in your last. Be assured, Sir, I sympathize sincerely in the mortification you must have suffered in finding the progress of  your career so suddenly checked by the want of provision and by short enlistments. I however hope that an enterprize wherein the zeal and bravery of the Tennessee Troops has been already signalized by two complete victories will still afford you fresh laurels, and that as you have observed, so you will finally obtain complete success.
      Until your re-inforcements shall arrive, if you find your present force, aided by such of the Cherokees as you can rely upon, will be adequate to effect temporary expeditions against such of the Enemy's Towns or Settlements as are within striking distance you will please to do so. You will find your Soldiers always best satisfied when employed; and unless you harrass the Enemy they will be tempted to plague you. If they should have judgment and enterprize enough to throw themselves in your Convoys of Provisions between Forts Deposit & Strother or between the Look out Mountain & Fort Armstrong they would do you incalculable injury.
      The great extent of this land carriage made me at first prefer the transportation by land of about ten miles, afforded by the approach of the Highwassee to Conosauga Creek: which I hope my Aide de Camp Lt. Morris (who has not yet returned) with the aid of Governor Blount may put in operation. If you should find difficulties in the way of your transportation on the Coosa below Talladega, You will be obliged to adopt the more tedious and less efficacious method of erecting a chain of posts on your way to the Fork.
          Inclosed you have a separate Letter authorizing you to draw on the Department of War for money to pay for supplies when the Contractors fail to furnish them. I think it probable the Knoxvile Banks will furnish money upon such drafts. I have no cash or I would send you a part of my stock for this purpose.
          Genl. Floyd commanding the Georgia Troops very properly opened your letter addressed to me brought by the friendly Indian, and by his return informed you of his situation. He is directed to advance a Post in Front of Coweta and his next movement will be on the Tallipoosa near the Fork.
          I fear your re-inforcements and provisions will not arrive in time for you to meet him there; but such operations as you can with safety carry on against the Enemy nearest to you may occasion a diversion in his favor.
          I have written to desire Genl. Flournoy to send from Fort Stoddart a Convoy of Provisions up the Alabama to the Fork as soon as he can procure it and can send a Detachment strong enough to fight its way up--but I know not when he will be able to effect it.
          Genl Floyd will accompany this by a Letter informing you of his present situation & intention.
          I have the honor to be very respectfully Sir Your Most Obedient Servant.

                                                                                              Thomas Pinckney


Letter from William Carroll to Andrew Jackson

Decr. 23rd. 1813

Dear Genl.,

          On my arrival at this place I found that there was no provisions at Camp Strother I therefore thought it prudent to remain 'till I recd. orders from you--
          The roads are uncommonly bad--The volunteers have not all arrived, it is therefore out of my power to say how many we will have--I hazard an opinion that we will have 600 nearly all well equiped--
          I hope you will do me the Justice to believe that every thing in the power of man has been done by me, but when oposed by influential characters of the country without even the approbation of the Govr. I fell far short of what I could have Wished--Dr. Shelby who has done much for the common cause, tells me that he had innumerable dificulties to surmount, the minds of the people are compleatly poisoned by a set of designing characters and the return of some of the volunteers--
          I have discovered since my arrival in this place that mutiny and discord reigns among the cavalry and mounted men; they have distroyed much forage have come on to Dittos landing  and are determined to start home to morrow, this confusion originated with Officers of high rank and is supported by more than you would immagine--You need not expect to have any more of their services--I have understood that an Officer dare not speak to them--An idea has suggested itself to me, which I beg leave to mention It is said the indians are embodying at the hickory ground-- Suppose you give an order immediately for us to form a Junction with you at headquarters that we proceed and defeat the indians at that place after which you will discharge those irritable men I mean the mounted men and cavalry--they will go home-- You cant stop them, I however will address them to morrow and indeavour to get them to remain 'till I receive your answer--The men I have brot on are mounted, they together with the cavalry & mounted men, can carry as much provisions and corn, as will accomplish the above object--I have understood that Genl. Pinckneys orders to you are to hold all the ground You take, a good plan could it be effected. I know the consequince of a retrigade movement--But would'nt it be better to fight the indians at the hickory ground while you have men; and fall back if necessary to your present position--than to remain where you are--the men to go home and nothing be effected--You cant form an idea of the restless disposition of the mounted men & cavalry. Genl. Coffee has been sick, & no opportunity has been lost to injure him--The men I have brought with me are anxious for the fight and I pray God you would order us as above. I know, and time and experience will prove it, that it is the last good West Tennessee will do. I wish I was mistaken--but when I have the honor of seeing you--I will tell you more than you could wish to believe--You have a coy of the order I issued, some officers obayed it, some did not--numbers of men collected for the purpose of coming on, but were stopt by the base insinuations of designing men--Genl. Roberts done the cause an injury by stating, that I had not authority from you to act and that even if I had, you could not give it legally--Whether I have acted agreeably to your wish or not, it was as I thought best and such as I thought would meet your approbation--I have deviated in no respect from your order except in getting mounted men--on that you were silent--and had I issued an order for footmen, I could not have marched fifty men to your relief--and you know that they are much the best for indian warfare--they can make quick excursions and carry their own provisions--no baggage waggons are necessary--While I wait you answer I will be engaged in mustering the men into service and having their horses valued--I will issue and order this night for camp police, disaffected volunteers shall no approach us--I beg your answer to the foregoing as well as the following--will the men after having been formed into a regt be under the command of Genl. Coffee? I will not elect field officers 'till I hear from you--will they be elected by the platoon officers? The men at least some of them want me to command them--Can you permit me to discarge the duties of Colo. of the line and Inspector Genl? I dont want it but am willing to do any thing for the Genl. good? will the three companies of Madison troops be organized with the Tennessee troops. They wont make more than a large regt.? I can prepare twelve days provisions--and come on against any time you please to order--
          Majr. Searcy is very sick at this place--he came out with me, and took ill on the way--I will remain at this place till I hear your answer to the foregoing and such orders as you may please to give--regulating the new troops as much as possible--If it is in my power to detain the volunteers and mounted men till I hear from you, I will do so--I do hope you will take one fight out of them before you go home--I will want some arms, I understand you have detained some--on that please advise me--I had to give an order for the impressment of arms--Thought it proper that the man who would not fight should at least furnish a gun if he had it--You can have no confidence in Colo. Stump--on my arrival at Nashville I gave him on order to raise volunteers--he notified me that he had 40 ready to march--he did not attend the day appointed--I sent him an order to report himself without delay or I would make known his conduct at Headquarters The truth then came out, he had'nt a man--many more acted in a similar way--I will make you an accurate return the moment I have it in my power
       I conclude, in haste, your sincere friend

                                                                                                    Wm Carroll

I have Just discovered that the officers commanding the new volunteer corps have enrolled them for only Sixty days now you will perceive that I did'not authorize a thing of the kind--but so it is and Cant be helped Good God I wish you knew every thing they can be actively employed during that time--I dont know what you will make of the Govrs. order about the discharge of the volunteers. I think I would send them home and discharge them
                                                                                               Wm Carroll


Letter from Andrew Jackson to John Coffee

Headquarters Fort Strother
Debr. 22nd. 1813

Dr. Genl

     I have the pleasure to acknowledge the recpt of your letter of the 18th. Instant--and with sincere regret I learn your indisposition, at this moment when your service was all important. But indisposition--and health are not within our control, and ought not to be subjects of inquietude, altho your present indisposition--fills me with regret, when I find your Brigades patriotism is as much indisposed, as you are in body, which in all probability would have been prevented had your health been such as you could have been at their head--their disgrace prevented, and also examplanary punishment to many--Can it be true what I hear! that the Voluntary defenders of their countries rights has been the first to Violate the laws of the Territory that they were called upon to protect-- insult their citizens and their laws, and instead of repelling and subduing lawless mobs, were the first to become riotters themselves--I have to request a report of every individual both officer and men that were engaged in overawing the Goeler of Huntsville, and compelling him to liberate the prisoners--and also a full report of every officer and man of your Brigade, who have deserted the service without a discharge, that I may take the most efficent means in my power to have them arrested and punished agreable to law--I have the pleasure to inform you that I have Just recd. a letter form Governor Blount, a copy of which with my order of this date I have sent you, and directed to be delivered to Major Shaw, at Fort Deposit there to be read to your Brigade by him. Should you not be there which I do not expect--and which will be forwarded by him to you. It will give the Volunteers & detached militia his Ideas of the law & their time of service, and I hope produce the former quietude and harmony, that has existed in our camp again to prevade it--and that no ideas will prevail but the chastise of the creeks, and cheerful services, untill honourably discharged. I have to repeat again that you will urge the contractors to send up ample supplies of breadstuff, on the pack horses, and in all waggons that can be had, and that you will order up your Brigade with it--Deerskins can be got in abundance, three skins will make three bags that will pack a horse, two side bags, and one on the Top, they are better than any other kind of bags, the hair will keep the meal dry, and they will last the campaign--I have ordered back the quartermaster general, to have them brought up with the asst D. adjutant General Major Antony with powers to purchase in case they contractors has not a sufficient supply on hand--A movement I must make, supplies I must have to make the movement, and with supplies you must order up your Brigade--you will find from the Governors letter the prospect of provisions on the allabama and ample supply of corn which is reallised by express recd from Genl Flouronoy & Genl Claibourne--could we get on we would soon reach the promised land that flows with milk and honey--use your utmost with the contractors and hurry on supplies--wishing you a speedy restoration to your health, and Junction with me, I am Dr Genl yr mo ob. Serv.

                                                                                           Andrew Jackson
                                                                                           Major Genl

Letter from Willie Blount to Andrew Jackson

Decr. 22d. 1813.

Dear Sir,

       I have recd. yours of the 12th. & 13th. Instant and had previously written to you by Express two or three times on several of  the heads mentioned--I much regret the situation of Affairs at your Camp occasioned by circumstances which neither you not I could controul with our best exertions--
       The U.S. volunteers from your Army have not yet arrived here--on their arrival I will endeavor to act for the best in some provisional or conditional way as I have no authority or instructions from Government about their discharge--it appears to me to be too great a responsability for me to take to discharge them absolutely--I cannot yet say what can be done respecting their return; however, from your request, & from my own feelings, I will do all I can to serve them, and to serve the public--I respect them as brave men, & for their services which have been important--I want them to get their pay--and hope that the President who alone can order their discharge will order that they shall be paid.
       I send you a copy of the Secy. War's letter to me of the 13th. July last, and of his chief clerk, Mr. D. Parker's letter of subsequent date to Col. Meigs, under which two letters, I acted in calling out the 1500 men, as you will see by a copy of my orders to Major Genl. John Cocke, now at your request sent to you--I also send the copy of my letter to the Secy War of the 10th. Instant, on the subject of instructions relative to the term of service of the Troops generally now with you and Genl. Cocke, and if to be discharged, enquiring when, by whose order, and how their places are to be supplied, which will show you & those with you that I have been endeavoring to get the necessary information respecting the term of service of the forces with you, and that I had written before respecting the volunteers--It is the clearest exposition that I can give of his instructions, or of the law of this State of the 24th. Septr. last--I send you copies of the Acts of our  Assembly respecting the 3500 men, and exempting them from process whilst in service--copies of all which I think you had best send to Genl. Pinckney--You will see by all those letter &c. &c., that I could not when calling out the men into service, know how long they were expected to serve, & that I have no instructions about their discharge--The Executive of a State cannot without orders from Government discharge U.S. Troops--I may surely expect an answer to my letters which I will make known to you when recd.--all Troops in the service of the U.S. must of course expect the President's order for their discharge--I have sent a copy of all the orders which I issued to you, and to Genl Cocke, on to the War Dept. for the information of Government, long since--I do most earnestly wish that all the Troops that have been in service, or that now are on this campaign may be paid: their services have been very important; they have done much; but if the Government should not think with them about the term of service I should regret it & the consequences to them may be serious, and they, to be sure on that head, had better continue a short time longer in service, than the time they consider to be a tour, than to jeopardize their pay; I say this as their friend; I wrote Genl. Roberts the other day to this effect in reply to a good letter from him on the subject of the term of service--it is in the power of the Troops alone, at this time, to obviate all difficulties on this head by waiting the instructions of the President in reply to my letter of the 10th. Instant, which I should have written sooner, if their wishes had been made known to me--advise them to think of this in due time--I know your feelings--don't fret--the Genl. Government will restore all things--they have much to do--
       I recd. a letter the other day form Mr. Morris Genl. Pinckney's aid informing me of the necessity of his appointing an A.D.Q. Master to attend the Troops, and that he should be advised by you as to the man he should appoint--Surely he ought to have been advised by the Secy War, if the appointment is to affect Mr. Lewis; that W.B.Lewis was appointed last winter by the President; and my orders to you shew that he is acting as such now--I have mentioned this to Mr. Lewis--He will write you-- Surely he ought to be continued, as no other man can settle his accounts--of there is to be no A.D.Q. Master here, supplies in that Dept. can not be from time to time forwarded from this; which is mentioned, that you may guard against such evils--would it not be well for you to write to Genl Pinckney about the propriety of appointing Mr. Lewis, either to stay here and act, or appoint him to attend the Troops? but if goes on with them, there should be one here, and one in Et. Tenn. also; his recommendation of the necessity for one in each Division, as well as for one to be with the Army,  would induce their appointments--the peculiar local situation of the State would shew the necessity--I am, your friend

                                                                                                     Willie Blount


Disastrous and Shocking


Albany, Dec. 24, 11 o’clock, A.M.
We stop the press to say that an Express has just arrived, who left Buffalo on Tuesday A.M. with the horrid intelligence, that on Sunday morning last, about 3000 British regulars, militia and Indians, crossed the Niagara river, carried the Fort by storm, and MURDERED THE WHOLE GARRISON except three, who made their escape over the pickets; that they had burnt the villages of Lewistown and Manchester, and every building between the latter place and Niagara, and on the ridge road 11 miles as far as the arsenal; and that it was expected they were proceeding to Buffalo. The express also states that several families had been MASSACRED, among whom were the names of Mollineux, Scot and St. John. The fact of the massacring of the garrison, is stated rather as an inference than as a certainty by one who escaped.

Extract of a letter from Gov. Tompkins to the Secretary of War,
Albany, Dec. 24, 1813.
“Upon my arrival in this place today, I was met by an express bringing despatches of which I send you a copy.
The express further informs, that on his arrival at Patavia he learned from Major Allen (the contractor’s agent at Niagara) and from Lt. Loomis, who with 2 or 3 others, had made their escape, that Fort Niagara had been taken by the British. The garrison was surprised. Capt. Leonard (1st regt. of artillery) had the command; but it is rumoured that he was not in the fort at the time, but with his family some miles off. What became of the rest of the garrison those who escaped do not know.
In consequence of this information Major Gen. Hall has been ordered to repair to that frontier with as many of his division as may be necessary to expel or destroy the invaders. The British have with them a number of Indians, and continue to sanction their massacres.”

Extract of a letter from Brig. Gen. Timothy Hopkins of the New York militia to Daniel D. Tompkins, Commander in Chief &c.

Head Quarters, Buffalo, Dec 20th 1813.
SIR-I would respectfully represent to your excellency that on the morning of yesterday, the enemy crossed over a little below Lewiston-they have burnt Lewiston, and every house from that place to within two and a half miles of Schlosaer, & the Tuscarora village is also burnt.
The last express stated that the enemy were fortifying on the mountain below Schlosser. The force of the enemy is differently represented-it is stated to be from four to eight hundred regulars, and six hundred Indians-It is further stated that the enemy are still crossing. The force the enemy can bring is not precisely known, it is probably from 1500 to 3000 including regulars, militia and Indians. Our force is about 200 regulars at Niagara, and about 150 near this place. I have ordered out my Brigade to repel the invasion. I am in hopes of success with the assistance of the Militia of Genessee.


Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-January 7, 1814.



Letter from Andrew Jackson to Rachel Jackson

Head quarters Fort Strother
Debr. 19th. 1813

My Dear--

         I have the pleasure to acknowledge the recpt. of your verry acceptable supplies by Colo. Hays--for a few days we have had ample supplies of bread & meat--and had it not have been for the disgracefull retrograde of the Volunteers, ere this you would have heard of our advance, again to have met the savage foe, and put an end to the campaign--but the scenes of sedition and mutiny has been such, throughout, the whole body of Volunteers both infantry and Cavalry together with the mounted men, that it is impossible for me to say, whether I shall have any force or what, from the whole boasted patriotism of the Volunteers--or mounted patriotts--The Phisic of the indians prophets must have curiously worked upon them to occasion those men, once so brave, once so patriotic to conduct so strangely and so disgracefully to themselves and country
       The time of the greater part of the militia from East Tennessee has expired and they are gone home one regt. alone remains, and whose time will expire on the 14th. of next month--My own militia has taken the home mania, and every man expects to be marching home on the 4th. of next month--and here I am within sixty five or seventy miles of the whole hostile strength of the creek nation, no force that I can count on to march forward to chastise them--And no information from Govr Blount whether any force is to be sent me to enable me to carry on the campaign--Should it stop here I feel for the Scenes that will be transacted on our frontier--The creeks, conquered and beaten, on a retrograde of our forces, will give them new vigor, and full confidence in their prophets and we will have to fight them on our frontier. I am here and by the orders of Genl Pinckney, compelled to remain, and expected to advance untill I form a Junction with the Georgia troops and I expect to be left from the present prospects to be left with my brave artillery company and the spies to defend the posts and prosecute the war--But fear not my better self--The guardian angles will protect us, and support us, under every trial danger and dificulty, so long as we are engaged in so riteous a cause--I refer you to Colo. Hays for further news, of my situation and my views, My brave friend Genl Coffee is verry ill in Huntsville if he should not be able to come on I loose my best prop--
     I have Directed Major White to carry to you, the little Lyncoya--he is the only branch of his family left--and the others when offerred to them to take care of would have nothing to do with him but wanted him to be killed--Quals my interpreter Took him up carried him on his back and brought him to me--charity and christianity says he ought to be taken care of and I send to my little Andrew, and I hope will adopt him as one of our family Kiss my little son and receive my blessing, and present me affectionately to all my friends--yr affectionate Husband

                                                                                                          Andrew Jackson

Letter from Andrew Jackson to William Berkeley Lewis

Head quarters Fort Strother
Decbr. 19th. 1813

Dr. Sir,

           The Blanketts has not reached this place as yet Whenever they come up, I will send you the order to cover the number sent on, and the quarter masters recpt for the Same--I fear before they reach me I Shall have no men to buy, or wear them--and my Camp will be deserted without any means taken by the Governor to fill their vacancy, by draft, I have wrote by several expresses, in due time to have reached him and his answer have been to hand before the 10th. instant, had is answer been such as I am now told it is the Tennessee Volunteer Infantry would have been still here doing there duty as good soldiers or receiving examplarory punishment for disobedience
          The East Tennessee Troop it appears was only brought into the field for three months, and not one under the requisition of the secratary of war all home & marching home but one regt. whose time will be up the 14th. proximo, and behold the militia from my Division has caught the disease, and home the must be on the 4th. next months-- I have said to them--that they are in for the campaign or under the act of Congress but I shall be governed by the oppinion of the governor--Thus a campaign so necessary for the safety and protection of the frontiers, so far as Tennessee has to take a part in it is likely to be shamefully abandoned, and the reputation of the State eternally disgraced, and no eficient act as I can learn to prevent it. ?What is the Governor about? is his feelings ready to submit to such a disgracefull scene, after our boasted patriotism, and fervent wishes to be permitted to carry war and destruction into the hands of the creek nation, and after the fortunate entrance made into it, contrary to the underhand endeavors to prevent me from opperating from the want of supplies, which I expected from Genl Cocke and his command  to Genl White (which I enclose to the governor and will explain all and every matter and thing as it respects the cooperation and supplies promised by Genl Cocke, all which is noted and in due time will be attended, to[)]--for the Lords Sake arouse the Governor from his Lethergy--bring to his view the disgraceful precipice, on which the credit of the State Stands and he will exert himself--let the militia under the requisition of the President, as adopted under the late law of the State be drafted for six months, and Sent on to fill up the disgraceful retrograde of the Volunteers--or let him preremtory, order the Vollunteers to return if he believes he has not the power to discharge them--and let him Issue a general order, directing all deserters to be apprehended, and transferred to the regular army there to Serve the balance of their time, let him do this and explain at what time Genl Roberts Brigade Service ends, and should it end on the 4th. proximo say to him unless at that Period our cooperation or aid from Tennessee as promised & expected by the President of the united States, and by Genl Pinckney the commander chief, is to end and our State eternally disgraced, that he must exert himself fulfill his powers and order a requisition to be up against the day, that Those in service expires, this is the conduct of the Georgians--and altho Genl Floyds Brigade time of service has expired having served 6 months, Till the express informs me, that the Governor o Georgia has the relief is at hand and wi reach him before the first requisition is discharged--this is proper and right--and I hope the governor will exert himself, and save our state from everlasting disgrace--I have ordered Genl Cocke back to fill up the requisition of the secratary of war made thro Governor of the State, had this been done at first regardless of the disgracefull retrograde of the T.V.V. Infantry I should been moving on and soon put an end to the Creek War--My respects to your lady Mrs. Lewis and all the family & receive my thanks for the cheese & Butter &c and believe me respectfully yrs &c &c &c

                                                                                              Andrew Jackson