1.29.2014

Call for Gentry to Enlist

January 29, 1814

Letter to the Editor of the Maryland Gazette calling for the “gentry” to enlist in the war effort:

“If the administration does not now succeed in getting men for the army, it will be wonderful indeed. In the first place, an embargo law has passed, the effect of which was to throw a great many of the laboring poor out of employment, and reduce them to beggary, so that they must enlist in the army, and now an enormous bounty is offered to get them to enlist.  But then what is become of the life and fortune gentry who were so eager to enter into this war, and to blow out the brains of all the British?  Surely these people must now know that this is the time to tender their services to the government and its officers.  If they have any thoughts of ever redeeming their pledge, let them now come forward and join in the ranks.  If they refuse, why then let them say not another word about their patriotism or readiness to support this war.” (signed) E.P.

Call for the Gentry to Enlist

January 29, 1814

Letter to the Editor of the Maryland Gazette calling for the “gentry” to enlist in the war effort:
“If the administration does not now succeed in getting men for the army, it will be wonderful indeed. In the first place, an embargo law has passed, the effect of which was to throw a great many of the laboring poor out of employment, and reduce them to beggary, so that they must enlist in the army, and now an enormous bounty is offered to get them to enlist.  But then what is become of the life and fortune gentry who were so eager to enter into this war, and to blow out the brains of all the British? Surely these people must now know that this is the time to tender their services to the government and its officers.  If they have any thoughts of ever redeeming their pledge, let them now come forward and join in the ranks.  If they refuse, why then let them say not another word about their patriotism or readiness to support this war.” (signed) E.P.

Maryland House of Delegates Resolution for More Government Support

January 29, 1814

As reported in the Maryland Gazette and Political Intelligencer

The Maryland House of Delegates passed the following resolution; copies to be submitted to the United States Senate, House of Representatives and the President of the United States:

The House of Delegates of the State of Maryland, …are impelled…to address the constituted authorities of the union on the awful condition of national affairs and the exposed and defenseless situation in which the state of Maryland has been hitherto left by the general government, under the impending calamities of war.

…..More than nineteen months have now elapsed since congress declared war against England. …we would ask, whether there is any portion of the union, with the exception of Long Island, more open and liable to the ravages of a maritime foe than the state of Maryland? And situated as it is, with the seat of the national government on its confines, so accessible to a hostile force, is there any part of the continent which it could have been supposed would more obviously attract the active operations of an enemy…

…We are next constrained to enquire, what has there then been done…for the security of a state, so precariously circumstanced… In addition…. The example of useless barbarity displayed under the command of the general of the forces that lately abandoned Fort George, in Upper Canada, in committing to the flames the whole town of Newark, of which our army had been in the undisputed possession, may, in the course of a few months, bring upon our coasts the most dreadful vengeance….may subject our towns and villages and farms and habitations, bordering on the water, to all the horrors of the most ferocious and extensive desolation.

We therefore earnestly entreat the national authorities to take these circumstances into immediate and serious consideration; to provide the means and munitions of defense and to furnish a real efficient regular force to be stationed in the state…The efforts of the state itself, for its own protection, have already been exerted in a manner necessarily burdensome and vexatious to its people…

From the progress and occurrences of the war, as far as it has been conducted, it must be obvious that the conquest of the Canadian Provinces is not to be effected without an immense effusion of blood and treasure. The conquest, if effected, we should be inclined to regard as worse than a doubtful boon. We want no extension of territorial limits; and the genius of our Republican Constitutions is not suited to offensive wars of ambition and aggrandizement….

The people whom we represent are suffering severely ….when we consider the still greater miseries of the people of New England, accustomed to live on navigation and now deprived of the ordinary means of subsistence….we are free to confess….that peace should be restored, without delay , for the relief of the people and the salvation of the Union.

"Peace should be restored, without delay"

January 29, 1814

As reported in the Maryland Gazette and Political Intelligencer

The Maryland House of Delegates passed the following resolution; copies to be submitted to the United States Senate, House of Representatives and the President of the United States:
The House of Delegates of the State of Maryland, …are impelled…to address the constituted authorities of the union on the awful condition of national affairs and the exposed and defenseless situation in which the state of Maryland has been hitherto left by the general government, under the impending calamities of war.

…..More than nineteen months have now elapsed since congress declared war against England. …we would ask, whether there is any portion of the union, with the exception of Long Island, more open and liable to the ravages of a maritime foe than the state of Maryland? And situated as it is, with the seat of the national government on its confines, so accessible to a hostile force, is there any part of the continent which it could have been supposed would more obviously attract the active operations of an enemy…

…We are next constrained to enquire, what has there then been done…for the security of a state, so precariously circumstanced… In addition…. The example of useless barbarity displayed under the command of the general of the forces that lately abandoned Fort George, in Upper Canada, in committing to the flames the whole town of Newark, of which our army had been in the undisputed possession, may, in the course of a few months, bring upon our coasts the most dreadful vengeance….may subject our towns and villages and farms and habitations, bordering on the water, to all the horrors of the most ferocious and extensive desolation.

We therefore earnestly entreat the national authorities to take these circumstances into immediate and serious consideration; to provide the means and munitions of defense and to furnish a real efficient regular force to be stationed in the state…The efforts of the state itself, for its own protection, have already been exerted in a manner necessarily burdensome and vexatious to its people…

From the progress and occurrences of the war, as far as it has been conducted, it must be obvious that the conquest of the Canadian Provinces is not to be effected without an immense effusion of blood and treasure. The conquest, if effected, we should be inclined to regard as worse than a doubtful boon. We want no extension of territorial limits; and the genius of our Republican Constitutions is not suited to offensive wars of ambition and aggrandizement…. The people whom we represent are suffering severely ….when we consider the still greater miseries of the people of New England, accustomed to live on navigation and now deprived of the ordinary means of subsistence….we are free to confess….that peace should be restored, without delay , for the relief of the people and the salvation of the Union.

1.28.2014

Letter to Rachel Jackson from Andrew Jackson

Fort Strother Headquarters
January 28th. 1814--

My Love

           on last evening I returned to this place, from an excursion against the Hostile Creeks who I had been advised was collected, in an new and fortified camp on the Tallapoosee river, near the mouth of a creek called emuckfa--their spies discovered my approach, and attacked me in my camp at 6 o'clock a.m. on the morning of the 22nd Instant--expecting no doubt, to make my fate the fate of Genl Winchester on that day 12th months--I was prepared--and my troops tho raw met their bold & ferocious attack with firmness and undaunted resolution--The Brave Coffee, Carroll, and Sittler flew to the point of attack--encouraged the brave men--who was no less bravely encouraged by Colo. Higgins who commanded them--The Battle raged, untill it was sufficiently light--to discover & distinguish our enemies from our friends--when I was informed that that part of the line where the battle waxed hottest was verry much thinned being many wounded; I immediately ordered the only reserve I had Capt Ferrell commanding about forty raw infantry to repair to the spot. the were led briskly by Colo. Carroll to the weak point, and Genl Coffee ordered and led on the charge, with Colos. Carroll & Higgins the enemy gave way at all points, the friendly indians entered the persuit which was continued about two miles in which was slain and counted twenty four Indians enemies--as soon as the pursuit was over, on examining I found we had five killed and several wounded It was impossible to move forward immediately, my wounded could not be left exposed. I ordered Genl Coffee, with four hundred white men, and about three hundred friendly Indians to follow to their Encampment and burn it if, it could be effected without too much hazard--but if fortified not to attempt it, untill the artilery could be brought up--he proceeded without delay explored the encampment--found it fortified, and immediately advised me thereof, and returned to guard the artilery up--this was a providential movement for he had not returned more than half an hour, when the enemy approached me on the right fired on some of Capt Gordons company who was out looking for an indian they on piquet the night before had shot. Genl Coffee came to me and asked for 200 men to go round and attack them, the order was given--but instead of 200, not more than fifty men went chiefly composed of his old officers, Capt. E Hammonds old company Capt Russle and a few of his Spies, Capt Elliott and a few of his company Capt Marr and a few of his of this I never was apprised untill after the Battle--as soon as the engagement commenced, I endeavoured to reinforce the genl with 150 indians, and whilst in the act I found it was intended as a faint to draw my attention to that point when they intended to attack my camp on the adverse flank--but before this could be done I was prepared to receive them--They officers & men recd them again with stuborn firmness, extracted their fire, immediately charged, and broke they enemy, which was persued a second time one mile and a half with slauter--twenty three being killed by the whites--as soon as the persuers returned and my lines closed I ordered Jame Fife a chief of the friendly creeks with one hundred and fifty of this warriors to aid Genl Coffee--he obayed, and as soon as he Joined the general a charge was made by the whites broke the Indians persuit made, they enemy entirely routed, the slain of the enemy by the whites estimated at from forty five to fifty on our side there was four killed & several wounded, amonghst the killed was our friend Major Alexander Donaldson who bravely fought and bravely fell and Genl Coffee wounded slightly--as all this little Spartan band did, who went out and fought with the general in that affair--both officers and men faithfully did their duty--in these three affairs my wounded was so increased, my horses starving my men in some degree began to be panic struck--I could not advance and burn the Town--but determined to prepare my litters and commence my march for this place on the morning of the 23rd. I had twenty three men in litters--my march was slow but cautious--I expected another attack--I had a harycane to pass, I wished to avoid an attack there, I passed it in safety and encamped for the night having taken the necessary precaution to secure my camp against a night attack--The night was rainy, and from the signals I expected an attack in the morning--to prevent the enemy from obtaining any advantage over me whilst crossing a large creek called enotechopco I ordered a new road to be cut, over it to avoid an ambuscade, and to draw the enemy after me over a piece of ground, that I cold slaughter the whole of them--all things cautiously prepared, every arangement made for the protection of front flanks & rear--I took up the line of march on the morning of the 24th. approached the creek the advance crossed, and the advance of the flank colums without interruption the sick in the center had also passed and whilst, the last litter was advancing up the bank, the alarm gun,  was fired. I felt rejoiced, the ground was of my own choosing--and I knew if the men would stand and fight, I would destroy every nine out of ten of the enemy--I had confidence in the rear guard--who was commanded by Colo. Perkins & Stump--with whom I had left the brave Colo. Carroll, to superintend the order of the rear, my little Spartan band, the guards and artilerist at the time of the alarm was about to descend the bank of the creek with Capt. Ferrells militia company who I had placed in the rear to protect the sick and support the rear in case of an attack, the guards was commanded by Lt. Armstrong in the absence of Capt Deadrick who had been for some time confined to his bed with indisposition--on the alarm gun being fired Lt. Armstrong with his wonted bravery ordered the guards to form--unharnish the artillery, before this could be effected the right & left column of the rear guard with part of the centre, broke like Bullocks with their Colos. at their head or centre, rushed precipitately forwarded, the left column, plunged down the bank of the creek, with their Colo. at their head threw several of the guards into the creek, rushed forward for the centre--throwing every thing into confusion I met this column on the bank of the creek, my salutations were harsh my orders preremtory to wheel advance to the aid and protection of the brave who had halted with the brave guards to aid in stoping the overwhelming hosts of Indians that they were bravely advancing to meet, but all in vain--I attempted to draw my sword, it had become hard to draw, and in the attempt I had like to have broke my left arm or I should have halted the fugitives--the right column fled around the right column, and got into the advance of the line of march, which was then the rear of the Battle--Colo. Carrol had halted about 25 of the centre column--and the Brave artilerists in obedience of their order advanced in a most galling fire in the face of the enemy to the top of the hill where the poured upon the enemy a tremendous fire--whilst the brave Lt with five or six men were draging the artilery to the top of the hill--it was then that my heart bled for those brave men--I had ordered assistance but in vain they were obliged to conquer or die--the cannon fired--the musquets roared, and the riflemen amongst whom was Small with carroll at their head did there duty--the cannon roared again, this Spartan band charged and broke the enemy by this time I had a few brave men across the creek, they with the indians, Joined in the persuit--Colo. William Cocke 65 years old had advanced to the front and Joined in the chase & killed an indian Capt. Gordon who was in front at {the head} of the head of the spies rushed, to the fight, and entered into the persuit which was continued for two & a half miles with considerable slaughter Capt. Russle of the spies who was in the rear says there were upwards of 500 indians in view--in the first of the action the carried off all their dead & wounded there were twenty five bodies found dead on the field--and I have no doubt but in all there has been actually killed on the field of Battle by the whites and friendly Indians, two hundred--and had it not have been for the cowardly conduct of those two officers (for the men were brave if the officers had shew the example) I should have killed the most of these barbarians without half the loss I sustained--the are now under an inquiry before a court martial--they ought to be shot--they were the cause of the death of several brave men--in this last affair we lost four killed and several wounded,  some of whom is since dead--this last was a signal victory over them, they lost all their packs and was never saw or heard of more--during my return march--on the subject of my private & domestic concerns you & Colo. Hays, with Mr John Hutchings must regulate it--I have not time to spend many thoughts upon worldly pelf or geer--My station is arduous and my duty severe--I will perform it--as to the vile slanderous vipers, I despise them as the crawling worm that rolls through the slim untouched, unnoticed by any--you may assure yourself and my friends, that intoxication is not a crime in me not have I been intoxicated since I left you and this thousands can prove, and the fiend is not in human shape that dare say to me that he has saw me intoxicated in camp or anywhere else since I left Nashville--I have only time to add that I do not wish you to permit Fields to abuse clum. I expect I shall take him &  keep him one hundred dollars is too little for him--but of this I shall say more hereafter when time will permit--I am anxious to see you and my little andrew, had I been aided with troops, and provisions I should have made every hostile village smoak before this--raw troops with officers at their head seeking for popularity will not do, but I am in the field I know I have the confidence of general Pinckney-I shall do my duty--and with the blessing of kind providence will conquer my enemies, both foreing and domestick [enem]ies--accept my blessing kiss my little [son] andrew for me, I will send him Lyncoya [giv]e my love to all friends and bel[ieve me to] be your affectionate husband

                                                                                                            Andre[w Jackson]

1.26.2014

Letter from William Berkeley Lewis to Andrew Jackson

Nashville
Jany 26th 1814

Dear Genl.

        We are in daily expectation of a messenger from Camp, communicating the pleasing inteligence of an other brililent victory over the enemy; this expectation is predicated upon a letter from camp, stating that you had taken up the line of march on the 15th. Inst for the confluence of the Coosee & Talaposa rivers.
        I have nothing very interesting to communicate, except the information recd. here of a vesel having arrived from England with a flag of truce, as it is supposed. We have also learned, (by report only), that Rufus King has been nominated, as minister plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James--the correctness of this latter information I cannot, however, vouch for but I have no doubt but a flag has been dispatched from England to this Country, and that, that flag has arrived.
        The Governor has at length ordered a new draft of militia of 2500 men from this end of the state. It is to be regretted that this had not been done earlier, as it would enabled you to have advanced much earlier, and with without the least danger of retrograding. I am apprehensive if you march to the Hickory grounds, you will not be able to maintain that ground, with your present force, unless the Georgians form a junction with you, as it would be necessary to detach a large proportion of your force, to convoy your provisions &c.
       The Volunteers have been doing every thing in their power, since their return, to injure you and Genl. Coffee; but, the injury which they wish to inflict on you will recoil with tenfold vengeance on their own heads--they have suceded too well I fear, in lessing Genl. Coffee in the estimation of his fellow-citizens. I am authorised to say from the best authority that you stand as high here in the estimation of the inteligent part of the community as you ever did,  and ten times higher in the East end of the state than at any former period. It seems that the White and Cocke connection has disolved, and the Genl Cocke has gone to the wall. I have seen, some merchants of Nashville just returned from Pittsburg, who say that Genl. Jackson and his Tennessee volunteers were the theme of public and private conversation, that in that Country the Kentuckians were completely put in the back ground by the Tennesseeans--What a pity the volunteers should have disgraced themselve after acquirind immortal honors! I would recommend those officers who reported themselves in the service of their Country, to form themselves into a Company, choose their officers, and join your army and continue in the service until the objects of the expedition shall be accomplished; if they will do this, they will immortalize themselves; Capt. Baskerville, the bearer of these dispatches, is willing to serve in that capacity.
         I have not time to say anything more, as Capt. Baskervillle is becoming quite impationent--give my respects to Reid and Capt Strother, and the rest of my friends. and believe yours unfeignedly

                                                                                                                        W.B.Lewis
P.S. If the volunteers should make any publications in justification of themselves, I should like to be put in possession of the whole of the information relative to the movements and proceedings of the army from the time it X Ditto's landing

1.25.2014

Congressional Permission for Nantucket to Negotiate with British

January 25, 1814

Permission given to the inhabitants of Nantucket by Congress (and later by President Madison) to try to negotiate with the British in order to get provisions to their island (the islanders were in danger of starving and had applied to Congress earlier for support):

“Be it enacted… that during the continuance of the act laying an embargo…grant permission…to any inhabitant of the island of Nantucket to employ any ship, vessel or boat for the purpose of conveying from the mainland to said island, fuel, provisions and other necessaries for the subsistence of the inhabitants…”

Plattsburg Jan. 25

Plattsburg Jan. 25.

To-day Gen. Wilkinson arrived here from Waterford. His arrival was announced by a discharge from the whole park of Artillery, and his return was extremely welcome to the inhabitants, because they are, from the concentration and preparation of the British at Isle-au-Noix, afraid of immediate invasion and conflagration.

January 30.
I understand Gen. Wilkinson has taken permanent lodgings in this village, and instead of returning to French Mills, will stay here till the campaign opens. Yesterday with an escort of fifty dragons, he took a view of the country between here and the Canada line, through which the enemy must pass if he attacks Plattsburgh, for the purpose of recognizing the best point at which to look him in the face, impede his progress, and thin his ranks. There are several points at which a single twelve pounder would let a vast deal of British blood if well served. Indeed since the General’s intention to stay have been known, we have considered ourselves safe, because being on the spot, he can direct the force both here and at French Mills, at his disposal, in such manner as to defend this place against any force the British can concentrate, in the neighborhood of Montreal, until he is prepared to act offensively.

 

Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-February 25, 1814.

1.24.2014

Knoxville, January 24

Knoxville, January 24.

On Monday last four companies of East Tennessee Infantry left this place for General Jackson’s encampment at the 10 Islands of the Coosa. On Thursday, four more and smaller detachments of companies and squads, (some mounted) have daily gone on. The whole estimated at near 2000.-The quotas from Anderson, Roane, Rhea, and Bedsoe, were to rendezvous at Highwassee garrison; the quota from Blount and one company from this county, have descended the river.-The men are in high spirits, and no doubt is entertained that when opportunity offers will distinguish themselves.
We are informed by a gentleman from the west on whose statement reliance may be placed, that a detachment of 12 or 1500 mounted men crossed Tennessee river at Ditto’s Landing, on Sunday the 9th instant, volunteers from West Tennessee, on their way to General Jackson’s camp, which they expected to reach on the succeeding Thursday-their arrival has, it is generally believed, enabled the general to recommence active operations.-It is said he is now supplied with provisions.

Gaz.

 
Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-January 4, 1814.

 

1.21.2014

Congressman Potter and Purpose of War

January 21, 1814

Congressman Elisha R. Potter in a speech to Congress

"…If the object of this war was the conquest of Canada, the Administration ought to have come out openly and honestly, and avowed it…and have pledged themselves to the Canadians that they would not lay down their arms until it was effected, and that they should not be delivered up on a future peace. The Canadians would then have had something to depend upon….”

1.19.2014

Admiral Warren to Captain Barrie

January 19, 1814
Letter from British Admiral Warren to British Captain Barrie
Private
Bermuda
Janry 19th 1814
Dear Sir,
I most earnestly hope that before this reaches you that Captain Jackson with his Two Victuallers will have arrived safe in the Chesapeake. Your South Sea Ship came in here very well & the Officers & men will be conveyed to you by Leiut. Croke who is ordered to continue the Blockade of Ocracocke; I learn that the Narcissus has left the Delaware to obtain provisions & water: & should the Lacedemonian be with you, pray send Capt Lumley back to his Station so soon as he has received his supplies.
With respect to the Brambles Dispatches I believe they merely relate to the prisoner Department and the System of Retaliation threatened by King Madison, a Taste of which in consequence of Genl. Armstrong’s order to burn Newark in Upper Canada & executed by Gen McClure: has been Repaid in Kind by our Troops under Gen Vincent at Niagara, Lewistown Manchester & probably Buffalo.
I should hope that with the St Lawrence & Lacedemonian you will now be enabled to cut off or stop the Sortie of the Clippers; & also capture some of the Vessels from France. All your Convoy of Flour Vessels arrived here: & I should expect that as you have kept our Friends within the Capes alive, now the weather may become more moderate and you will not forget the Virginians who are so hostile to us.
The Marylanders seem rather more moderate & have behaved in a much greater proportion than their Neighbours: you will no doubt hear that the President is out & also the Constitution, the latter pushed out in a strong Gale at N:W accompanied winds and snow: Whilst Majestic Tenedos & Junon were at anchor under Cape Cod: the first of these ships has followed in search of the Constitution: as well as the Goliath after Rogers: but they are such small & Difficult Objects to hit—that our chances are few indeed & the good Fortune of these Rascally privateer Frigates makes me almost Despair of ever seeing them: I wish you may have it in your power to cut off the J. Adams or one of their sloops: or a Schooner of the Baltimore Flotilla: but as to the Constellation I suppose She will not easily trust herself out of Hampton Road if she should Creep there; I think if you have something off Cape Charles with the St. Lawrence you must obstruct that passage: & so soon as you have cleared the Two Transports I wish them to be sent here under Convoy; as the Lady Delaval is employed in Conveying Bullocks to & fro to this Island; I suppose whatever supplies you now procure as the Embargo is so severe must be by Force; the Sheep you mention from Smiths Island for the Board of Agriculture should be sent in a ship of war to go home from hence: I shall be very glad if they can see England in good Health & Condition: The news from home as late as the 9 or 10th of November are glorious & gratifying to all who wish well to the Grand Cause: & I think Europe will now be Free & Independent & our old Friends & Allies the Spaniards are behaving Nobly & that Country will be saved: Lord Wellington is going to Catalonia with two Divisions of the Army to expel Suchet: with respect to the prize war here there are about 6 South Seamen in the Harbour valuable ships, a National Schooner the Vixen & about 45 other prizes.
With every kind wish for your health & welfare as well as my best compliments to all the Squadron with you.
I have the Honor to be with much esteem
Dear Sir Very sincerely yours
John Borlase Warren

1.12.2014

Leonardtown, Maryland, requests protection

January 12, 1814

Maryland Gazette reprints a letter of August 12, 1813

To the Commander in Chief of the Militia of Maryland

Sir,
On the part of a number of officers of the militia of Saint Mary’s County, assembled in Leonard Town on the 11th of August, I have been requested to ______ to your Excellency the enclosed memorial to the Secretary at War, stating the defenseless and exposed situation of Saint Mary’s county and praying protection from the General Government; and to solicit your Excellency to forward it to the Secretary at War, or to the War Department, as early as may be convenient; and, provided it meets your approbation, to urge the  propriety of affording to Saint Mary’s the protection required, and of making the arrangement for that purpose with as little loss of time as circumstances will permit.
An acknowledgement of the receipt of this letter and memorial is humbly requested.

I have the honor to be, Sir, 
Your most obedient servant,
ATHANS FENWICK

1.11.2014

News from Georgia

    The Legislature of Georgia have voted an appropriation of 820,000 to be applied by the Governor for the use of their frontier forces. The seaboard of the state is also to be protected by troops and forts, to be immediately provided. By the House of Representatives a resolution has been adopted for recommending an alteration of that part of the Constitution relating to the election of Senators to Congress, so as to make them electively every three years.

Published in The Clarion & Tennessee State Gazette - January 11, 1814

"...the general thinks it doubtful whether they will be paid."

Nashville
January 11, 1814

   The news from Gen. Jackson's army is to the 27th ult. The three months militia are said to be discharged, and the tender of others who went out under Gen. Roberts has been refused. The men who volunteered for sixty days under Col. Carroll's order, have been accepted, on condition that the individual risk their being paid by the government, as the general thinks it doubtful whether they will be paid.
   The headquarters of the army continues at Fort Strother; from the Georgia troops we have nothing since our last.
   The Choctaws have had some skirmishing with the Creeks, and succeeded in killing several.

Published in The Clarion, & Tennessee State Gazette - January 11, 1814

1.09.2014

Letter from Thomas Pinckney to Andrew Jackson

Head Quarters
Sixth & Seventh Districts
Milledgeville 
9th January 1814.


Sir;

            Your Letter dated the 26th of December did not reach me until the last evening. Your preceeding dispatches of the 14th December had led me to conclude what would probably soon be the diminished state of your force, I therefore immediately ordered to your support Col: Williams Regiment of 12 months men, and wrote to the Governor of Tennessee urging him to complete the requisition of the Secretary of War of 1500 men for the time authorized by Law. I learn from the Person who brought your letter that Colonel Williams' regiment is marching to join you; if the 1500 of the Quota should also be forwarded by Govr. Blount you will in my opinion have force sufficient for the object to be attained. the largest computation that I have heard of the hostile creek Warriors made by any competent judge is 4000.--at least one thousand of them have been killed or disabled, they are badly armed and supplied with ammunition, little doubt therefore can exist that 2000 of our men would be infinitely superior to any number they can collect: we have beside the assistance of the Cherokees (& now the Chickasaws) in your quarter; the friendly Creeks with the Georgians, & probably the Choctaws with the Mississippi Troops.
           If this should reach you in time, I would therefore recommend that you should not embarrass yourself with the 60 days mounted men, for admitting that you can obtain shortly a sufficient supply of bread stuff and corn for forage, which seems doubtful, and if each mounted man were to  lead with him a pack horse, that horse could not carry more than eight days scanty subsistance for himself, the man who leads him & the horse that man rides: it must therefore be impracticable with Troops thus provided to penetrate 150 miles at this season of the year into an Enemy's Country where you cannot depend on obtaining subsistance, fight at least one & perhaps more battles, destroy the hostile Towns in your route & return to your Deposit of Provisions in the above time: and if practicable the necessity of retiring would render the advantages obtained of comparatively little importance; as has been already proved by the victories gained by the Tennessee & Georgia Troops not having been attended with more decisive consequences. The only mode therefore in which it appears to me that you can obtain permanent advantages is to rely upon the States quota of detached Militia for 6 months & Col: Williams' regular Regiment: by the time they have joined you may probably have accumulated a supply of provisions at Fort Strother, and even then there are but two modes in which you can advance with security on account of provisions; the one is that which I originally suggested of embarking your provision, spare ammunition &c. on one of the Rivers & marching near the course of the River in concert with the progress of the boats; driving before you the Indians and destroying their settlements on your route to prevent them from impeding the progress of your boats or interrupting your communication with them--by these modes if any impediments should be in the navigation, the army might be marched to the shoals or fall & would afford a force sufficient to convey the boats with their lading beyond them. The other is to cut a Road for Waggons on your progress, and to intrench a Camp sufficient to repel Indians, which might be effected by the Army in two days in every thirty or forty miles of your progress, leaving a party of about 100 men in each with 6 or 8 waggons attached thereto, which waggons should be kept constantly running to & from the adjoining post to keep up an uninterrupted supply of provision, drawn from you principle Magazine at Fort Strother: about 5 such posts & 40 Waggons would insure your subsitance, secure the stores brought on & relieve the sick and wounded; these garrisons might also repair the imtermediate roads & furnish small escorts for the Waggons passing between & this at the expense of 10 or 12 days labour, and 500 men left as Garrisons, which would probably reduce your force to 15 or 16 hundred men, with which number well supplied I should have no doubt that you would be superior alone & much more so when united with the Cherokee & Chickasaw force, to any number the hostile Creeks could bring into the field. Both these methods will appear slow and perhaps not altogether suited to the ardent zeal & energy which you have hitherto manifested; but upon the fullest consideration I have been able to give to the subject, they have in my opinion the fairest prospect of being attended with permanent success.
          I am happy to inform you that Genl Floyd has so far recovered from the effects of his wound that he will probably take the command of his army: arrangements were made for him to commence his movement in advance from Coweta tomorrow; & I hope in the course of 10 days he will have established a strong post at the Tuckabatchie Town at the bend of the Talipoosa about 25 miles from the confluence with the Coosa: as he will then have his communications secured by a chain of posts from Fort Hawkins on the Okmulgee to the Talipoosa, he will be able to act with effect on the strong settlements in the Fork. The friendly Indians state to Genl Floyd that the army of Mobile on the 30th ulto.destroyed the Town of Chooksaputka on the Alabama between thirty & forty miles below the Fork & that a firing was heard afterwards near Tustigee.
           I wrote to Genl. Flournoy before I left Charleston by the mail to desire him to co-operate if circumstances would admit, by forwarding the 3rd Regiment, and a supply of provisions up the Alabama: I have however heard that the 3rd Regiment has been ordered to New Orleans, probably in consequence of the information of a meditated attack thereon from Halifax, but I am without any direct information from the General.
            The printed paper from Col: Boyer to General Claborne was not inclosed in your letter as therein stated, neither did you mention the date of Genl. Claborne's letter to you. I have desired Genl Floyd to endeavor immediately to send a party to communicate with the mobile Army provided it shall be near the position designated by the Indians.
        My last dispatches were sent by a friendly Indian through the Nation, lest they should have miscarried I inclose Copies of them.
         The conduct of Majr Genl Cocke appears to be unmilitary, and if you had previously issued contrary orders to him or to Genl White highly reprehensible: and such as would be a fit subject for the animadversion of a Court Martial: of this however you who are acquainted with all the attendant circumstances can form the most correct judgement. I have the honor to be very respectfully Sir your most obedient Servant

                                                                                                    Thomas Pinckney

1.08.2014

Russia offers to mediate


Annapolis, 
Saturday, Jan 8 1814

By a gentleman who arrived here yesterday, from Washington, we understand, that the communication from Lord Castlereagh had been read to the Congress of the U.S. The leading features of it are, that the British government had been apprised of the mediation of Russia, but had declined accepting it, because they could not submit their maritime rights to the interference of a third power. It states, however, that they are willing to treat with the American government on all points of difference between them, and will receive our ministers at London; but if that should not be agreeable to this government, they will appoint ambassadors to meet ours at Gottenburg.

1.06.2014

Letter from Andrew Jackson to Hugh Lawson White

Head Quarters Ft. Strother
Jany 6th. 1814


Sir:

        Your letter of the 26th was handed me last evening by Col. Williams express--I am exceedingly pleased with the promptness with which he is disposed to aid in the present campaign, & with his happy anticipation of Genl. Pinckneys order, which before this he will have recd--I am also pleased to hear that   Genl. Cocke is taking measures to raise an army of 6 months men, in conformity to the expectation & requisition of government
          The present situation of our affairs requires that the most efficient & prompt measures should be adopted--On the 4th inst. the whole Brige of Militia left me except one small company, & on the 14th. inst. I shall be abandoned by all or nearly all of Col Lillards Regt. The men whom Genl. Roberts had been detached to raise, to fill up the deficiencies  in his Brige., having arrived within two miles of my camp, all of a sudden took the stud, changed their course & returned home--This was done, notwithstanding, they had been regularly mustered into service, & not withstanding I had condescended to send them a written assurance--hearing that they entertained some doubt on the subject, that their services would be thankfully recd., for the term for which the had been tendered viz 3 months, & that after permitting them to return at the expiration of that period, I would use my utmost exertions to get them paid--Notwithstanding these untoward circumstances, or rather influenced by them, I have ordered up the new raised volunteers, now in Madison, who will arrive here on the 10th. instant--& immediately afterwards I shall again cross the Coosee, & recommence active operations--The enemy I learn are forting in at Oakfuskey on the Tallapoosee, whence I shall endeavor to dislodge them as soon as possible--Inclosed I send you some copies which you are quite at liberty to make any use of you think proper--You will see in them, some part of the foundation of my expectations when I entered the enemys country, but by no means at all--I had labored incessantly from the time the act of assembly was passed, authorising the calling into the service 3500 men, in addition to the 1500 required by the President, to provide the means of supporting them when they should have passed the Tennessee line--
          I had seen Genl Cocke in the month of Septr. at Nashville, & had urged him to use his best endeavors to have bread stuff provided in E. Tennessee: & he had assured me that he would--Afterwards & just before I left Nashville on the present campaign, I had written him upon the same subject, pressing him with the utmost earnestness--When I had gotten to the place of rendezvous near Fayetteville, I again wrote a joint letter to him & your father, pressing the same subject, & shortly after arriving there, I recd. his letter of the 2d. Octr. assuring me of approaching supplies. I, also, before I got to the Tennessee River, recd. your fathers letter of the 6th Octr. & Col. Meigs of the 30th. Septr. giving me similar assurances--Having gotten to the river, & finding that the supplies which I had expected had not arrived--I crossed it under the fullest belief that they would soon descend the river from E. Tenne. In addition to this hope I had the assurances of the contractors that twenty days rations would be immediately furnished me--I remained a week at Camp Coffee in the constant expectation of receiving supplies from Genl. Cocke & from the Contractors--Just when orders were given for marching, the contractors informed me, that they could furnish me no longer--They were superseded; & others appointed in whose assurances, it was believed reliance might be placed--The line of march was taken up--still under the full persuasion, that when I got to the next point on the Tennessee, (at Ft. Deposit, Thompsons creek) I should receive supplies from E. Tennessee, sent on by Genl. Cocke--I remained there several days & still none came; but confidence was still had in the new Contractors, & learning that the enemy has assembled near the Ten Islands, & where about to destroy Chenubbys Ft., which I was urged by the strongest entreaties to relieve--I determined on hastening to meet them--Before I left Ft. Deposit however, I wrote another letter to Genl. Cocke & your father, urging them again to send on supplies, & remonstrating on account of the disappointments I had already been made to experience--Before I got to the Ten Islands, it became evident that the new Contractors could not furnish me: & it was then necessary to appoint others--A man of known standing & wealth had signified a willingness to accept the appointment, & accordingly Col. Pope was appointed, connected with Jas Mitchell, remarkable for his industrious habits--Mitchell himself had come on with a letter from the Quarter Master, in which the willingness of Col. Pope to accept the appointment was expressed--& having given the most positive assurances, that they had the means, & would exert them, of providing for the army, he was sent back immediately to give notice of the appointment, & to aid in performing the duties which appertained to it--This however did not prevent me from continuing my entreaties to Genl. Cocke, & before I arrived at the Ten Islands, I wrote him again by express, urging him not only to send on the supplies which he had advised me he had on hand, but to use his utmost exertions to procure additional supplies in E. Tennessee--to send them down to the depot which I had established at the mouth of Thompsons Creek, & to hasten with his forces to form a junction with me, bringing along all the supplies me might have the means of conveying--Nor was I confined in my application or in my expectations to E. Tennessee alone--I urged the Govr. of Georgia & the commander of the Georgia forces--I urged Genl. Flournoy, Genl. Claiborne, & Col Mckee--I urged the Govr. of Tenne. I sent dispatches E. W. N. & South, entreating every man who could be supposed to have the means to furnish me with supplies--All this caution was used to provide against the bare possibility of the privations I afterwards experienced, but did not at that time expect--E. Tenne I knew abounded in supplies of the articles which I the most needed--& I could not doubt after the assurances I had recd., that the most effectual means of procuring & forwarding them on, would have been used--Yet I was dippointed, & because I was, I am charged with rashness--But I mind not the charge--Had I not been less supported than ever a general was, even my worst enemies would not have been impudent enough to urge it--I believe you will come to think with me concerning a certain great man of our land I know you will, when you come to know him as well-I should be very happy to see you again in {camp} my army--& I am sure I shall be gratified, unless you can be better engaged for your country--

                                                                                           Andrew Jackson

1.04.2014

Letter from Andrew Jackson to Robert Hays

Head quarters Fort Strother
January 4th. 1814--


Dr. Sir--

        On this eventfull day with the militia of Genl Roberts Brigade, who are risqueing all the penalties of desertion, sedition and mutiny, and determined to leave the encampment contrary to my orders, and contrary to my special order of yesterday--It becomes by duty to say to you, that you are not to muster them out of service, or muster them at all, unless by the special order of Governor Blount--whose officer you are--and from a letter recd. by express last night from Major Genl Pinckney, who commands not only this army but the 7th. District--which includes the state of Tennessee--he positively calculates on this Brigade being in service for the term of six months--enquiries will be made into the matters and things, they men and measures that had led to this, disorder, mutiny and delay of the expedition, so disgracefull to the state of Tennessee under the loudest pledges of patriotism--and which may lead to the loss and Destruction of the magazine stores at Fort armstrong and else where, for the want of men to guard them--under these circumstances it becomes me to give you the above warning so that you take upon yourself no responsibility that your duty does not require you to do, particularly when you mustered them as you have informed me for the campaign now the campaign can only end by the completion of the objects thereof, or from the order of the President of the united states Either to discharge the Troops, or his order for them to go into winter quarters--neither of these having been ordered I have no power to act only as ordered to prosecute the campaign with vigor by Major Genl Thos Pinckney commander in chief and whose orders I am bound to obay & execute--and will obay and execute at all hazards--I therefore repeat again that you are not to muster Genl Roberts Brigade out of service without an express written order by the {President of the united states} governor of the state--should any companies have been mustered into service and noted in your muster Rolls that they were mustered into service for three months only, on this information accompanied by a copy of the muster Roll, officially signed by your own hand I will discharge them--But having asked you the question whilst you were here and you telling me that there were none--I take it for granted that they whole was mustered into service for the campaign--
       The express last night brought me enclosed a c[opy of] t[w]o letters one to governor Blount, which will make him act promptly--the order is positive and tells him what I have been telling him for six weeks, and which he might have knew would be the case--that as the campaign was ordered, and the expence incurred, that it was his duty to keep the quota required by the secratary of war in the field untill the campaign was ended--how humiliating it must be to him the executive of a patriotic state, to hesitate under existing circumstances, to do his duty by keeping up the whole force ordered and required in the field, untill the whole campaign is Jeopardized--the magazine stores at risque and hazard, and then not act untill expressly ordered--The other copy contains instructions to Colo [John] Williams to Join the army with his (39) Regt. and report himself to me--when I get the 1500 ordered by the goverment--and Colo Williams Regt. with as many of the militia as will guard my rear without mutiny or sedition I will close the campaign successfully--and restore from disgrace the fallen Patriotism of the state--The express waits and I have to prepare another this evening to Genl [John] Floyd, to advise him that I will on the eleventh Instant if possible move forward, and speak to him across the Tallaposee. I shall certainly, with the late mounted men as soon as they come up, with my artilery and spy company, move down upon them and Teach my enemies to know, with all their desertions and exertions to stop the expedition, that I will fight and with the smiles of heaven beat my enemies
        I am so hurried I cannot write Mrs Jackson say to her I am well and I hope soon to be able to use my arm or at least to put my coat sleeve on--I wrote her the other day--and altho my situation has been for some time verry unpleasant still in the midsts of the darkest clouds my situation begins to brighten, and I see a hope of a speedy termination of the campaign and that it will be yet crowned with success. with my compliments to my good friend Mrs. [Jane] Hays, and every branch of your family to Mrs. [Mary] Caffery & all friends, I wish you adieu

                                                                                              Andrew J[ackso]n

P.S. the bearer Mr. Allen of the express w[ill] return to me shortly-by whom I expect you & Mrs. Jackson to write me--I will try to get Mr Allen to call and see Mrs. J and bring me a letter from her--I wish to know if little andrew has got his little Lyncoya--and what he thinks of him--
                                                                                                           A.J.

1.02.2014

Extract of a letter from Brig. Gen. Floyd to Maj. Gen. Pinckney

Extract of a letter from Brig. Gen. Floyd to Maj. Gen. Pinckney, dated

Fort Mitchell Jan. 2.
By Indians it is reported, that the Army from Mobile, on the 30th ult, destroyed Chooksapatka, an Indian town of 700 inhabitants, situated about 30 or 35 miles below the fork of the Coosau and Talapoosa, and that a heavy firing of cannon and small arms has been since heard in the neighborhood of Tustigee, still higher up,
“They also state, that the British had arrived at Pensacola, and are holding out inducements to the War part of Indians to persist in their designs, by abundant presents of goods and ammunition, and that M’Queen has sent a party to procure the latter article. I give this information as I received it.”

 
Milledgeville Jan. 12
From a letter received by Gen. Pinckiney on Sunday evening last, form the Tennessee army, it appears that Gen. Claiborne, who had advanced about 85 miles above Fort Stoddert, for the purpose of forming a junction with them at the confluence of the Coosa, where he expected them to be, was then encamped on the east side the Alabama, at Waterford’s.

 

Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-January 14, 1814.

 

Letter to Willie Blount from Andrew Jackson

Ft. Strother
{Decr} Jany. 2nd. 1813 [1814]

Sir:

      Yr letter of the 24th. Novr., containing yr opinion respecting the term of service of the Volunteers, which I was so desireous to receive before the 10th Ult. was handed me on the 31st. It had, by inattention, been left in Huntsville--The same express bore me yr. letter of the 26th Ult. According to yr. request, I have shewn it to Col Wynne & Major Turner, who, by permission, have made its contents known to the Brige of Militia--The effects which it was likely to produce were foreseen, but could not be prevented--
    They are determined to abandon the campaign on the 4th. inst. A disposition to do so, which had existed among them before I had labored hard to remove, & had in a great measure succeeded in the endeavor--I had reasoned with them upon the impolicy, & well as the risk & disgrace of the measure, at such a moment & under such circumstances: & had very candidly told them that if they did attempt to execute it, it was my duty, & that duty I would perform, painful as it might be, to oppose them by force--This Argument with the others which I used, had determined them, as I was assured by many of their officers, to remain, until they could be lawfully discharged--But the moment it was made known to the them that they had the sanction of yr. opinion that they had been called out, on a tour of only three months, they at once determined to remain no longer--& I have no means left to change this determination, but a resort to force, which under such circumstances, I do not feel myself at liberty to use--But altho, I shall not oppose their return by force, neither can I attempt the exercise of a power, which I do not possess--I cannot discharge or dismiss these men from service, having recd. no delegation of such authority, & believg as I do, that they are subject to 6 months service--In this opinion, I was greatly strengthened by yr letter of the 15th. Ult., in which you say expressly, when answering my inquiry upon the subject--"The militia were detached for 6 months service"--Nor did I know or suppose you had ever entertained a different belief until the arrival of yr. letter of the 26th. Inst. Even if I were invested with the discretionary power of discharging these men, with what propriety could I exercise it, in the present situation of our affairs? I am ordered by Genl Pinckney to advance fortify positions, & retain possession of the ground I shall have taken--Upon the belief, that I will do so, will his own arrangements for the prosecution of the Campaign be founded--& these may be all disconcerted by a disappointment in that expectation--Would it not be as much in violation of sound policy, as of my duty to exercise such a power--Even if I possessed it, at such a risk? The Genl. government too, is made to believe that we have at this time, 5000 men in the field; & is making calculations upon that supposition: & must they all be frustrated, & must I be the instrument to frustrate them? Will it be told me, that the men will return; whether they receive my discharge or not--& that therefore by withholdg. it I shall not avert the evils, which I seem to depricate--
     But is this a good reason, why I should do an unauthorisd. acts? Is it a reason why I should violate the orders of my superior officer, & shew a willingness at least to defeat the purposes of my government? And wherein does the sound policy of the measure which has been recommended, consist: or in what way would it be likely to promote the public good? Is it sound policy to abandon a conquest thus far made, & deliver up to havoc, or add to the number of our enemies those friendly Creeks and Cherokees who relying upon our protection have espoused our cause & aided us with their arms? Is is good policy to turn loose upon our defenceless frontier 4000 exasperated savages to reek their hands, once more in the blood of our fellow citizens? But our frontiers are to be defended! & by whom? by that very force which is now recommended to be dismissed!! for no effectual means, it seems are to be provided for raising others. No, Sir, the frontiers must be denfended in another manner & from a different place--It is by waging the war in the heart of the Enemys country that effectual protection is to be furnished to our frontiers--Here I am expected to wage the war by my Government, & here I am ordered to wage it by the commandg Genl. But indeed I shall be soon left with a very feeble force to wage it with--Genl. Roberts Brige. will leave me on the 4th. & Col. Lillards on the 14th, & I shall then be left with two companies of spies, & the company of Artillery--But with this force, feeble as it is, it will be my duty to remain until compelled to retreat or ordered to do so--& from my duty I will not shrink--It really seems to me that some Executive aid from the state of Tenne. might in such, an emergency be afforded--But I have heretofore expressed to you my ideas on that subject--& it is useless to repeat them--One thing however before I conclude, I would barely remark--You have said that having issued yr. order to Genl Cocke to bring into the field 1500 men in conformity to the requisition of the Secy War, you have not power to issue another, altho he has not executed that order--I really entertain a different opinion--I cannot but consider it yr. imperious duty, when the men called for by yr. order, founded upon the order of the Government are known not to be in the field, to see that they are brought there, or at all events to take some measures with the officer who was bound to execute that order, & has failed to do so--If I am wrong in this opinion, I really must admit that I am fundamentally mistaken in the measures which appertain to a state of warfare are justifyd by it, & rendered indispensible in it. I am &c

                                                                                       Andrew Jackson
                                                                                       Major Genl.