On the battle ground, in the bend of the Tallapoosie, 28th March, 1814

On the battle ground, in the bend of the Tallapoosie, 28th March, 1814.

Maj. Gen. Pinckney,

I feel peculiarly happy in being able to communicate to you the fortunate eventuation of my expedition to the Tallapoosie. I reached the bend near Emucfau (called by the whites the Horse Shoe) about ten o’clock in the forenoon of yesterday, where I found the strength of the neighboring towns collected; expecting our approach, they had gathered in from Oakfuskee, Oakchaga, New Yaucau, Hillibees, the Fish Pond and Eufaulee towns, to the number it is said of 1000. It is difficult to conceive a situation more eligible for defence than they had chose, or one rendered more secure by the skill with which they had erected their breastwork. It was from 5 to 8 feet high and extended across the point in such a direction as that a force approaching it would be exposed to a double fire while they lay in perfect security behind. A cannon planted at one extremity could have raked it to no advantage.
Determining to exterminate them, I detached General Coffee with the mounted men and nearly the whole of the Indian force early on the morning of yesterday to cross the river about two miles below their encampment, and to surround the vend in such a manner, as that none of them should escape by attempting to cross the river. With the infantry I proceeded slowly and in order along the point of land which led to the front of their breast-work; having planted my cannon (one six and one three pounder) on an eminence at the distance of 150 to 200 yards from it, I opened a very brisk fire, playing upon the enemy with the muskets and rifles whenever they shewed themselves beyond it; this was kept up, with short interruptions, for about two hours, when a part of the Indian force, and Captain Russel’s and Lieut. Bean’s companies of Spies, who had accompanied General Coffee, crossed over in canoes to the extremity of the bend and set fire to a few of the buildings which were there situated, they then advanced with great gallantry towards the breat-work, and commenced a spirited fire upon the enemy behind it. Finding that this force, notwithstanding the bravery they displayed, was wholly insufficient to dislodge them, and that General Coffee had entirely secured the opposite bank of the river, I now determined to take their works by storm.  The men by whom this was to be effected had been waiting with impatience to receive their order, and hailed it with acclimation.
The spirit which animated them was a sure augury of the success which was to follow. The history of warfare I think furnishes few instances of a more brilliant attack-the regulars led on by their intrepid and skillful commander, Col. Williams, and by the gallant maj. Montgomery, soon gained possession of the work’s in the midst of a most tremendous fire from behind them, and the militia of the venerable General Doherty’s brigade accompanied them in the charge with a vivacity and firmness which would have down honor to regulars. The enemy were completely routed. Five hundred and fifty-seven were left dead on the peninsula, and a great number of them were killed by the horsemen in attempting to cross the river; it is believed that no more than ten had escaped.
The fighting continued with some severity above five hours, but we continued to destroy many of them who had concealed themselves under the banks of the river until we were prevented by the night. This morning we killed 16 which had been concealed. We took 250 prisoners, all women and children except two or three. Our loss is 100 wounded and 26 killed. Maj. M’Intosh [the Coweteu] who joined my army with a part of his tribe, greatly distinguished himself. When I get an hour’s leisure I will send you a more detailed account. According to my original purpose I commenced my return march to Fort Williams to-day, and shall, if I find sufficient supplies there, hasten to the Hickory ground. The power of the Creeks, is I think, forever broken.
I send you a hasty sketch, taken by the eye, of the situation on which the enemy were encamped, and of the manner in which I approached them.

I have the honor to be,
With great respect,
Your obedient servant,
Major General.
Maj. Gen. Pinckney.


Published in the Maryland Gazette-April 21, 1814.

Letter from Andrew Jackson to Thomas Pinckney

On the Battle ground of the bend of the Tallapoosa
28th March 1814


        I feel particularly happy in being able to announce to you the fortunate eventuation of my expedition to the Tallapoosa. I reached the bend near Emuckfau (called by the whites the horse shoe) about ten OClk in the forenoon of yesterday, where I found the strength of the neighboring towns collected. Expecting our approach they had gathered in from Oakfuskee, Oakchoya, New Yauka Hillabees, the Fish-pond, & Eufaula towns, to the number it is said of a thousand.
       It is difficult to conceive a situation more eligible for defence than the one they had chosen, or one rendered more secure by the skill with which they had erected their breastwork, it was from five to eight feet high, and extended across the point in such a direction, as that a force approaching it, would be exposed to a double fire while they lay in perfect security behind. A cannon planted at one extremity could have raked it to no advantage.
      Determining to exterminate them, I detached Genl. Coffee & nearly the whole of the Indian force, early on the morning of yesterday to cross the river about two miles below their encampment, & to surround the bend in such a manner, as that none of them should escape by attempting to cross the river; With the Infantry I proceeded slowly & in order along the point of land which led to the front of their breast work. Having planted my cannon (one six & one three pounder[)] on an eminence at the distance of one hundred & fifty or two hundred yds from it, I opened a very brisk fire, playin upon the enemy with the musquetry & rifles whenever they shewed themselves beyond it. This was kept up with short interruptions for about two hours, when a part of the Indian force & Capn. Russels & Lt Beans companies of Spies, who had accompanied Genl. Coffee crossed over in canoes to the extremity of the bend & set fire to a few of the buildings which were there situated, they then advanced with great gallantry towards the breast work & commenced a spirited fire upon the enemy behind it. Finding that this force, notwithstanding the bravery they displayed was wholly insufficient to dislodge them, and that Genl Coffee had entirely secured the opposite banks of the river, I now determined to take their works by storm. The men by whom this was to be effected, had been waiting with impatience to receive the order, & hailed it with acclamation. The spirit which animated them was a sure augury of the success which was to follow, the history of warfare furnishes few instances of a more brilliant attack. The Regulars led on by their skillful & intrepid commander Col Williams & by the gallant Major Montgomery soon gained possession of the works in the midst of a most tremendous fire from behind them. The militia of the venerable Genl Dohertys brigade accompanied them in the charge, with a vivacity & firmness which would have done honor to Regulars. The enemy were compleatly routed. Five hundred & fifty seven were left dead upon the peninsula, & a great number were killed by the horsemen; It is believed that not more than 20 have escaped; The fighting continued with some severity for five hours, but we continued to destroy many of them until we were prevented by the night; This morning we killed sixteen who had lain concealed. We took about two hundred & fifty prisoners all women & children except two or three
     Our loss is 106 wounded & twenty six killed Major McIntosh (the Coweta) who joined the army with a part of his tribe greatly distinguished himself. When I get an hours leisure I will give you a more detailed account. According to my original purpose I commence my return march to Fort Williams today, & shall if I find sufficient supplies there hasten to the hicory ground. The power of the creeks is I think forever broken.
      I send you a hasty sketch taken by the eye of the situation in which the enemy were encamped, & of the manner in which I approached them. I have the honor to be with very great respect your Obt Servt

                                                                                         Andrew Jackson
                                                                                         Major Genl.


Privateers and Blockade

March 26, 1814
Niles Weekly Register

“The privateers Comet and Chasseur, of Baltimore, and other vessels belonging to this port, are doing a great business in the West Indies.  It is stated that the former has taken nineteen prizes; one of which was a gun brig belonging to "his majesty."  The latter has made six prizes; five of which she burnt, after divesting them of their valuable articles.
At the time the embargo was laid, from 60 to 80 of the celebrated schooners belonging to this port were at sea, laughing at the blockades of the enemy. The greater part of these have returned to other ports of the United States.  From what we learn, we feel justified to express the belief that, in less than four weeks, at least fifty of these vessels, carrying 500 guns and more than 5000 men, will be touching John Bull in his tender place.”

Request from Joshua Barnes re Purser & Eastern Shore Barges

March 26, 1814

Secretary of the Navy Jones responds to urgent requests from Barney for a purser and expresses concern that the Eastern shore barges arrive ASAP

Joshua Barney Esq.
Navy Department
Commt. U.S. Flotilla Baltimore March 26th. 1814


I have received your letter of yesterdays date. Nominations are now before the senate & you will have a Purser in a few days.

I am extremely desirous that the Barges from the Eastern Shore should be with you without delay as danger and difficulty will every day increase.

I hope to be able to increase the number of your men ere long. The Fencibles I can say nothing about nor do I believe you can calculate upon them. The Accounts you require shall be sent on.

I trust Capt. Ridgeley will run no imprudent risk. A few days will determine whether it will be at all prudent to attempt to proceed down the Bay. He will remain a few days off Annapolis. The Asp will return to you but she will first take a load of ordnance stores to Frenchtown.

Respectfully etc.

W. Jones

Admiral Cockburn to Admiral Warren

March 26, 1814

British Adm Cockburn to British Adm Warren:

“…The flotilla of small craft for the defense of the upper part of the Chesapeake is I understand no longer kept up.  The large armed schooners which were hired by the government being now again in the employ of the merchants as privateers or Letters of Marque, and there being only a few gun boats kept for the defense of the upper parts of the rivers.

Nothing therefore is to be seen moving in any part of the Bay; there are however (I am told) two sloops of war nearly ready for sea in the Patapsco, though the large frigate building there gets on but slowly….”


Indian War


On Saturday last, a detachment of 450 of the North Carolina militia passed through this place on their march to the Creek Nation. They were commanded by Lieut. Col. Atkinson-Maj. Furrentine, who unfortunately had his leg broken by the fall from his horse, was conveyed along in a waggon. On Sunday, Brig. Gen. Graham and suite, and the other part of the regiment, (650 men) under Col. Pearson, passed through. A company of riflemen, under Capt. M’Lean, passed on Friday morning, with whom was Maj. Kerr. This company was so far behind the others, owing to the late period it was called out. We were highly pleased with the conduct and appearance of the officers; and with the order, sobriety and discipline of the men of this body. We learn that the same good order has seen preserved since the detachment marched from Salisbury.

Washington, (Gen.) Monitor, March 25.


Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-April 15, 1814.


Death of Tecumseh


We extract the following (says the Farmer’s Register, of Troy) from a valuable work, entitled-Views of the Campaigns of the Northern Army, &c.” written by Mr. Samuel R. Brown, and just issued from this office. This extract is from the narrative of the overthrow of the British and Indian armies at the Moravian town on the 5th October last. Mr. Brown was a volunteer in Col. Johnson’s corps of mounted riflemen, at the time of the event he speaks of, took place. The greater part of the work is the result of actual observation.
“On the left the contest was more serious. Colonel Johnson, who commanded on the left flank of this regiment, received a terrible fire from the Indians, which they kept up for some time. The Colonel most gallantly led the head of his column into the hottest of the enemy’s fire, and was personally opposed by Tecumseh.-At this point a condensed mass of savages had collected. Yet, regardless of danger, he rushed into the midst of them. So thick were the Indians at this time, that several might have touched him with their rifles. He rode a white horse, and was known to be an officer of rank-a shower of balls was discharged at him-some took effect-his horse was shot under him-his clothes, his saddle, his person, were pierced with bullets. At the moment his horse fell, Tecumseh rushed towards him with an uplifted tomahawk, to give the fatal stroke-but his presence of mind did not forsake him in this perilous predicament-he drew a pistol from his holsters and laid his during opponent dead at his feet. He was unable to do more, the loss of blood deprived him of strength to stand. Fortunately, at the moment of Tecumseh’s fall, the enemy gave way, which secured him from the reach of their tomahawks-he was wounded in five places-he received three shots in the right though, and two in the left arm. Six Americans and twenty yards of the spot where Tecumseh was killed, and the trains of blood almost covered the ground.”


Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-March 25, 1814.



From Erie


The latest account is from a correspondent by express mail, dated

U.S. Sloop Niagara, Feb. 28.
We are under no apprehension of an attack here this winter. The season is so far advanced, and the Lake so open, that to attempt it on the ice, or in boats, would be the height of folly in them; and if they intend to march from Buffaloe to this place, the brave Pennsylvania militia will give them a warm reception, before they can possibly get at us.
Our new block-house on the Peninsula is finished. It is an octagon, and mounts eight guns, and is completely adequate to the defence of the fleet.



Published in the Maryland Gazette-March 24, 1814.


Letter to Thomas Pinckney from Andrew Jackson

Ft. Williams.
23d March 1814


        I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letters of the 11th. & 13th Inst:--they reached me last evening.
        Accept,  I pray you, my best thanks for the kind wishes you have had the goodness to express for my welfare & success.
        I shall, without delay, take measures for having Genl. Cocke proceeded with, in the manner you have been pleased to direct. I had previously however required Govr. Blount to cause him to be arrested upon the charges of disobedience of orders, mutiny, exciting mutiny, & unmilitary, unofficerlike, & ungentlemanly conduct.
        I have been requested by Governor Blount, in a letter which I received from him yesterday, to learn from you " the number & kind of troops you may require in future; & for what term of service"; & to forward him the information when it shall be obtained.
       After taking out a part of their lading I was enabled to get the boats to the mouth of Cedar Creek on yesterday, where they are now safely harboured.
       A detachment which I sent out on the eveng of the 21st. to scour the surrounding country, returned this evening--having burnt a couple of towns situated 12 or 15 miles below this, which had been some time before abandoned. They had not the good fortune to discover any of the enemy, tho, they frequently fell in upon the fresh trails of small stragling parties, who had, probably, been sent out to gather the remains of their stock.
     I have found it a very serious tax on my provission-stores to feed the friendly Indians who, in considerable numbers have flocked to my army to partake in the war; & the very moment I can rid myself of them with a good grace, & without leaving improper impressions on their minds, I shall certainly do so. At Emuckfau I must find or make a pretext for discharging the greater part of them; & perhaps the whole, except my guides.
     I am happy to learn by letters this moment received from the ass: Dep: Quar: master (Majr. Baxter) & from one of the Contractors at Ft Strother that there is a likelihood of plentiful supplies of breadstuff being soon forwarded me. From the assurances they give, I have now no fears in regard to this article except what arise from the difficult navigation of the river.
     The letter which I yesterday received from Govr. Blount was accompanied by a pacquet for you, which I herewith send.
     I also send you the proceedings of the court martial, on the trial of Brig: Genl. Isaac Roberts; a copy of which has been forwarded to the Sec: of War. I have been busily engaged all day in making the necessary arrangements for an early march in the morning. I have the honor to be very respectfully yr. Obt St

                                                                                                            Andrew Jackson
                                                                                                            Major Genl

P.S. Ft Williams is situated on the point of land between the mouth of Cedar Creek, & the Coosa river. This creek is laid down on the map which I sent you, tho, it is not there named: it empties about 14 miles below the mouth of Natchez Creek, which you will find on the map. A.J.


General Order to John Wood from Andrew Jackson

Fort Strother
144th march 1814

Genl. order,
John Woods,

              You have been tried by a court martial on the charges of disobedience of orders, disrespect to your commanding officer, & mutiny; & have been found guilty of all of them. The court which found you guilty of these charges has sentenced you to suffer death by shooting; and this sentence the commanding General has thought proper, & even felt himself bound, to approve, and to order to be executed--
            The offences of which you have been found guilty as such as cannot be permitted to pass unpunished in an army, but at the hazard of its ruin--
            This is the second time you have violated the duties of a soldier--the second time you have been guilty of offences, the punishment of which is death. when you had been regularly mustered into the service of your country, & were marching to head Quarters, under the immediate command of Brig Genl. Roberts, you were one of those who in violation of your engagement--of all the principles of honor, & of the order of your commanding General, rose in mutiny & deserted. Your were arrested, & brought back; & notwithstanding the little claim you had to mercy, your General, unwilling to inflict the severity of the law, & influenced by the hope that you would atone by your future good conduct for your past error, thought proper to grant you all a pardon. This ought to have produced a salutary impression on a mind not totally dead, to every honorable sentiment, & not perversely & obstinately bent on spreading discord, & confusion in the army. It unfortunately produced no such impression on yours. But a few weeks after you had been brought back, you have been found guilty of offences not less criminal than those for which you had been so lately pardoned & which if the law, had been rigidly enforced, would have subjected you to death. This evinces but too manifestly, an incorrigible disposition of heart--a rebelious and obstinate temper of mind, which, as it cannot be rectified, ought not to be permitted to diffuse its influence amongst others--
           An army cannot exist where order & subordination are wholly disregarded--it cannot exist with much credit to itself, or service to the country which employs it, but where they are observed with the most punctilious exactness. The disobedience of orders, & the contempt of officers speedily lead to a state of disorganization, & ruin; & mutiny; which includes the others aims still more immediately at the dissolution of an army--Of all these offences you have been twice guilty; & have once been pardoned. Your General must forget what he owes to the service he is engaged in, & to the country which employs him, if by pardoning you again, he should furnish an example to sanction measures which would bring ruin on the army he commands--
         This is an important crisis; in which if we all act as becomes us, every thing is to be hoped for towards the accomplishment of the objects of our government; if otherwise, every thing to be feared. How it becomes us to act, we all know, and what our punishment shall be, if we act otherwise, must be known also. The law which points out the one, prescribes the other. Between that law, & its offender, the commanding General ought not to be expected to interpose, & will not where there are no circumstances of alleviation. There appear to be none such in your case; & however as a man he may deplore your unhappy situation, he cannot as an officer, without infringing his duty, arrest the sentence of the court martial

                                                                                                Andrew Jackson
                                                                                                Major Genl.
Copy, attest
Joel Parrish Jr. Secratary

Captain Robert Barrie to Dolly Gardner Clayton

March 14, 1814

Extract of a letter from British Captain Robert Barrie to his sister, ELIZA CLAYTON

HMS Dragon—Hampton Roads

March 14th

My Dear Pious

A signal has just been made from the Marlbrough to signify that there will be an opportunity to send Letters to Bermuda to be forwarded to England I therefore take up my Pen to acquaint the Lostockonians that I am alive & well and am quite pleased with my ship which out sails all the squadron—but the crew are a rum set— at least they are very fond of setting to at the Rum & give me a deal of trouble—we are here three sail of the line viz. Marlbrough Victorious & Dragon—literally doing nothing but blocking up a Yankee Frigate and almost twenty gunboats— I do not think we can get at her & feel as if we were idling away our time below in Lynnhaven bay we have a squadron of Frigates & there is another squadron cruising within the Capes so that the Chesapeake is completely blockaded— I hope soon to be ordered on a Cruise off New York unless some troops be sent out to enable us to attack Norfolk— I long to have a dash at Nathans towns for though I do not think we can hold any of them I am sure we can very soon make them not worth holding—

News I have not a word of for we never get hold of a Paper and as yet we have done very little in the Prize way—Dragon has captured three very fast sailing schooners—but they are not of any value— she has also picked up at sea a fine Yankee brig the Industry of Savannah—without a person on board her—the Brig is loaded with Cotton about 75,000 Lbs—Burr stones & hardware— she had been captured by some of our Frigates but bad weather coming on she was abandoned & found by Dragon in a sinking state—I expect we shall have a little law—or at least Lawyers work about this Vessel as I will not allow either the admiral or any of the ships to share for her—for as she was never condemned to the original captors I regard her as a god send to the Dragon— I know nothing of the fate of my Yankees at Gibraltar but fear they are given up—which is a clear ten thousand out of my pocket—occasioned by the ignorance of my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty—as they have now given orders for all Vessels under similar circumstance to be condemned— since we have anchored within the capes we have turned back at least fifty vessels so the trade within the Chesapeake is done up while we remain here—but without more force to enable us to land we can do nothing against Norfolk—& I am tired of blockading & long to be sent to the Eastward to cruise—.... here we are very cold & entres nous very dissatisfied at doing nothing. I am sorry to say that the Frigate ordered to Bermuda has just struck on shore—& she will not be got off without loss— it is the Acasta one of the finest frigates we have, fortunately the weather is not very bad—

Farewell my dearest Pious ever believe me your faithful friend & affectionate

Robert Barrie


Plattsburg, March 12

Plattsburg, March 12.

It is with pleasure we inform our readers, that General Wilkinson seems determined to destroy the traitorous intercourse kept up by men who call themselves Americans, with our enemies in Canada; small detachment of one thousand infantry and one hundred mounted riflemen, all Green Mountain Boys, to take possession of the frontier, from the lake east to Connecticut river; and on the 10th instant, another detachment of 300 prime riflemen and 60 dragoons marched under Major Forsythe, whose name carries terror to the enemy, to guard the lines west of the Lake.
We understand the orders of those officers are to make prisoner every British subject detected within the limits of the United States, and to apprehend and deliver to the civil authority, for real and punishment, every American citizen found in Canada.


Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-April 1, 1814.

Treatment of Wounded British Prisoners

Article from American surgeon on board the US Constitution re treatment of British wounded prisoners; written in response to an article in the British Naval Chronicle in May 1813:

“accusations of ill treatment towards the British wounded prisoners, while on board the US frigate Constitution…I conceive it my duty, least silence should be construed in an acknowledgement of its correctness, to expose some of the falsehoods composing that statement.
After introducing himself (Thomas Cooke Jones, surgeon of British ship Java) with considerable egotism and much parade of professional skill, he makes the following observations.

“Their (the British wounded) removal to the Constitution, the deprivations they there experienced as to food, and the repeated disturbances they suffered by being carried below, and kept there for several hours three different times on the report of an enemy heaving in sight; when these, I say, are contrasted with those of the American wounded, four of whom who lost their limbs, died when I was on board, were laid in cots, placed in the most healthy part of the ship, provided with every little luxury from competent and attentive nurses, and not allowed to be removed when ours were thrust into the hold with the other prisoners, the hatches at once shutting out light and fresh air…..

The Americans seemed very desirous not to allow any of our officers to witness the nature of their wounded, or compute their number. I ordered one of my assistants…to attend …and he enumerated 46 who were unable to stir from their cots…Commodore Bainbridge was severely wounded in the right thigh and four of their amputations perished under my own inspection.

I have noticed these facts that your readers may be convinced of the falsity of their (American) official dispatches ….

I…remained myself in the Java till within a few minutes of her being set on fire; one poor fellow only remained, who had received a musket ball, which entered the right orbit, and remained imbedded in the brain, he was in articulo mortis, and I begged the American lieutenant to let me stay with him undisturbed for a few minutes, as I expected his immediate dissolution. This Yankee son of humanity proposed assisting him into eternity – I instantly dragged him into the boat and he expired alongside the Constitution.”

It is not true that there was any distinction made between the British and American wounded. They were slung promiscuously together on the gun deck and everything which humanity could dictate that the ship afforded, was provided for their comfort and convenience. The ship was cleared for action but once during the time they were on board; that was when the Hornet hove in sight, and as soon as her character could be ascertained, all the wounded, British and American were brought on the gundeck together. Captain Lambert and Mr. Waldo were the only wounded persons not removed to the birth deck on this occasion; the former was left till the last moment from principles of delicacy as well as humanity. Every exertion was made to land the prisoners at St. Salvador as soon as possible that they might be “provided with every little luxury from competent and attentive nurses” that our men of course could not receive on board.

It is equally false that we had 46 men wounded. Slight hurts and all others included there were twenty five only. Why request his assistant to attend for the purpose of counting them, when Dr. Jones himself, or any other officer on board, could have enumerated them if he chose, a hundred times a day?

The doctor says four of our amputations perished under his own inspection. We had but five amputations altogether; four of them are now receiving pensions from their country and may be seen almost any day about the navy yard in Charlestown; and the fifth died of a malignant fever north of the equator, one month after the action. It is a fact, susceptible of the clearest and most positive proofs, that not one of our men died during the time the doctor was on board the Constitution, nor, until some time after we left St. Salvador.

“This yankee son of humanity proposed assisting him into eternity etc.”… No man who knows Lieutenant Hoffman, will hesitate to pronounce Dr. J. an infamous calumniator. He (Lt. H.) is as remarkable for goodness of heart…as Dr. J. is for his capacity to assert base ... falsehoods…. Lieutenant German…repeatedly solicited Dr. J. to visit the man then spoken of, and endeavor if possible to relieve him; but that he neglected ever to see him until they were ready to leave the ship, when he was removed into the boat at the doctor’s request….The ward room officers of the Constitution will recollect to have heard Dr. Jones frequently spoken of during the cruise, as an inhuman monster for his conduct to this same unfortunate sailor.

I leave the punishment due his presumption for calling in question the “official dispatches” (after having fabricated himself such a tissue of assertions, without even a coloring of truth) to the first officer of the Constitution who may have the good fortune of an opportunity to take him by the nose.

When the officers of the Java left the Constitution at St. Salvador, they expressed the warmest gratitude for the humane and generous treatment they had experienced; nor was this contemptible hypocrite sparing of his acknowledgements on that occasion. After having suffered everything from the officers of the Constitution that “oppression could inflict” why come forward then and offer thanks for kind and handsome treatment? (see letters of General Hislop and others.) I challenge the British to produce a solitary instance where they have given a faithful and candid relation of their actions with us, since the declaration of the present war. They have of late, established for themselves, a kind of national character, that I trust, none will envy them the possession of; they have proved that although they may not always be able to conquer in battle, they can prevaricate, defame or mistake with as much ease as any nation on earth.
Amos A. Evans, Late surgeon of the U.S. frigate Constitution


Admiral Cockburn and a Case of Treason

The enemy force now in the Chesapeake under ruffian Cockburn, consists of two 74's, 2 frigates, 2 brigs and a schooner. They have done very little business lately.

A New York paper says—"Captain Darby Allen, of the British navy, has made a rude attack on Commodore Rodgers, in a British paper and concludes in the following manner:—"And that Commodore Rodgers may not altogether condemn the humble name of Darby Allen, he may be assured that the writer of this letter is of equal rank to himself in a much smaller ship than the President, but would be very happy to have an opportunity of making himself better known to him."

Well—well; we hope that Capt. Darby Allen may be gratified, for we should like to see what sort of a man this Darby Allen is.

More Treason – From the Boston Yankee

Abijah Bigelow, Jacob Bigelow, and Mr. J.W. Jenkins, of the town of Barre, (Worcester county)
were yesterday examined before the honorable judge Davis on a charge of traitorously giving aid and comfort to the enemy, and assisting in the escape certain British prisoners, lately confined in Worcester goal. The evidence was numerous—and as follows:

Mr. Underwood testified, that seven British prisoners came to his house on the morning of the 13th January, and demanded breakfast, which he gave them, and" received a five dollar bill in payment.—The prisoners enquired "for the Bigelows, of Barre, for Marshal Bigelow and for Jacob Bigelow. Mr. Underwood stated that he had heard of Mr. Prince's proclamation after the prisoners breakfasted at his house—he went himself in pursuit of them on the road to Barre, and saw four of them taken at Bigelow's house.

Mr. Oliver Brooks, deputy sheriff of Barre, testified—That Mr. Adams asked him to serve a search-warrant on Jacob Bigelow—he refused to do it at that late hour—At 8 o'clock Mr. Brooks said he went to Bigelow’s house and asked Jacob Bigelow if it was probable the other three prisoners would be taken. Bigelow replied, "That they were safe—and the other four might be released through my means."

Bigelow also said, "They were under an obligation not to tell where they were—if it had not been for the d__d guard that came after them, they would have had them away sleek." He gave the deputy sheriff the watch word, "all's well," and went to Hunt's house, where the four prisoners were that had been taken. Jacob Bigelow offered him $100 for every one of them he could get clear out of the house. Jenkins said he would guarantee the money. He went into the house and found the guard, 13 in number, and told them what Bigelow and Jenkins had offered him to assist in their escape;—that during the time he was in Hunt's house; Bigelow and Jenkins were waiting outside with sleighs to carry off the prisoners.

Joseph Dale examined—He testified that Jacob Bigelow had acknowledged to him, that he had aided and assisted the prisoners’ escape from Worcester and that he had received a thousand dollars for it— that he would do it again. Next morning be told him the same, when he arrested Jacob Bigelow, on the marshal's proclamation, and carried him to Worcester—that Mr. Hurd the gaoler refused to receive him, after which he was arrested himself by Bigelow.

Archibald Fobes, Esq. examined—testified that he was at the taking of the prisoners at 'squire Bigelow’s house—that he heard Jacob Bigelow say at Hunt's tavern, 26th January, after Dale's affair, that he did aid and assist in the escape of the British prisoners, and received a thousand dollars and would do so again.

Mr. Houghton, of Barre, examined—testified that he was at Bigelow's house, 13th January at 8 o'clock in the evening, that he was requested to go there and look after the British prisoners. Jacob Bigelow said he would use all the means in his power to transport the British prisoners out of the United States— that Bigelow told him it was improper for him to be there- both of the Bigelows told him so.

Doctor Walker examined—Testified that one of the prisoners, major Valette, was brought into his house, and delivered to him a pair of pistols marked A. B. ([which were here brought into court and identified.] He said he gave the pistols into the care of Mr. Love], of Worcester, one of the men that carried the prisoners to Worcester gaol, that he knew Mr. Bigelow well—he had two sons who had resided in Canada, occasionally, for several years back.

Mr. Hurd, the gaoler of Worcester, testified, that Jacob Bigelow had been in the gaol with the prisoners three weeks before their escape—and a second time, ten days before their escape—and a third time, on the Monday preceding the Wednesday they effected their escape.

The counsel for the prisoners, Mr. Francis Blake and Mr. Prescott, contended that there was no existing statute law that provided for the punishment of the offence described in the warrant. Much time was taken up by the counsel to convince the court that their positions were correct. They were ably replied to by the district attorney who contended that even if the crime committed by the prisoners was not described by any statute, yet nevertheless it would come under the description of a misdemeanor, and cited Cooledge's case of a forcible arrest of a vessel legally captured —and although the offence was not described in the statute, the court had decided it to be a misdemeanor. The judge, after an examination that took up the whole day, discharged Abijah Bigelow, and ordered Jacob Bigelow, his son, to be recognized in 2000 dollars, with two sureties in 1000 each, to appear at the district court to be holden in May next.

The above mentioned Mr. Jenkins did not appear in court, having made his escape to Canada.

Published in the Niles Weekly Register - March 12, 1814


Letter from Admiral Cochrane Outlining Strategy in the Chesapeake Bay

March 11, 1814

The British admiralty replaced Admiral Warren with the more aggressive Admiral Cochrane. In this letter, Admiral Cochrane tells British Governor General Prevost of the strategy Cochrane intends to pursue.
HMS. Asia, Bermuda 11th March 1814


I have the honor to acquaint Your Excellency of my arrival at Bermuda, to Succeed Admiral Sir John Warren in the Command of His Majesty's Ships on the Coast of America, from the St: Lawrence to the Mississippi, and I take this early occasion of assuring Your Excellency of my most cordial concurrence in
every measure that can be conducive to the good of His Majesty's Service; Rear Admiral Griffiths will have my directions to Second your views to the utmost of his power,—

And I hope to be able to make a very considerable diversion in the Chesapeake Bay, to draw off in part the Enemy's efforts against Canada—

It is my intention to fortify one of the Islands in the Chesapeake, to facilitate the desertion of the Negroes, and their Families, who are to have their choice of either entering into His Majesty's Service, or to be settled with their Families at Trinidad or in the British American Provinces— Recruiting Parties are to be sent from all the West India Regiments to Bermuda, and those who may choose to enlist, are to have their Wives and Families Provided for in the same manner, as those permitted to attend the Regiments abroad, by which it is hoped in a certain time the Regiments will furnish their own Recruits—

As two additional Battalion of Marines are on their way out, with the Recruits I expect to raise from the Negroes joined to the 102 Regt. all of which will be under the immediate Command of Major General Conran, I hope to be able to Keep the Enemy in a constant alarm so as to prevent their sparing any part of their Military force from the State, South of the Delaware, which if I succeed in, I do not believe from the temper of the Eastern states that they will be able to recruit their Army from thence—

I have the honor to remain etc.

(Signed) A. Cochrane March 11, 1814

Letter to Andrew Jackson from Thomas Pinckney

Head Quarters
Sixth & Seventh Districts
Fort Hawkins 11th March 1814


           Your Letters of the 2nd and 4th of March are before me: I am glad to find that your prospects of supplies of bread stuff is favorable, and I trust you will soon be able to collect a sufficient quantity of meat to attend your progress on the hoof: the Depot you will establish below the three Islands on the Coosa will be a great step to the favorable termination of the Campaign: we find difficulties with respect to meat in this quarter, but I hope in the course or 8 or 10 days to be able to give you information that we shall have flour enough at Fort Hull to furnish a small supply to your Army, when you come down, and exertions are making to throw in a quantity of bacon and procure fat Cattle from the Indians to the South of this where the winter range is good. As soon as I shall receive an authentic return from the Deputy Quarter Master General of the United States who is going to our advanced Post for the purpose I will communicate it to you--
       I much regret the embarrassments with which you have to contend from the misconduct of Men who to gratify personal envy or resentment, or to obtain transient popularity would sacrifice the best interests of their Country: the directions you have given to Brigadier General Doherty to crush at once every act of mutiny and sedition among the Troops under his command are correct: the laws are sufficiently strong for this purpose if administered with decision and firmness. I would however advise you not to give your personal Enemies advantage over you by measures, in which it is not well ascertained, that the law will support you: and as I presume that General Doherty is still within the State of Tennessee it would be safest and nearly as effectual, either to drum out of Camp with ignominy, individual Citizens not of the Army engaged in the practice you describe, or to deliver them over to the civil magistrate with an accusation on Oath of the offences they have committed; all of which I presume would be punishable as misdemeanors: and the act of persuading Soldiers to desert, is made particularly penal by the 19th Section of he act of 1802 fixing the military establishment of the United States.
      If individuals follow the Army into the Enemy's Country where the civil process of the Courts cannot extend, they can only then be restrained from their misdeeds by the military power to which they would in that case render themselves liable. The Jealousy which prevails in our Country against all military Authority is the foundation of the above advise; for I would no more give my civil opponent a legal adavantage over me, than I would willingly suffer an enemy in the field to throw himself on my flank.
          Be assured, Sir, that in both lines you have my best wishes for your successfully terminating the difficulties opposed to your progress--I have the honor to be very respectfully Sir your most Obedient Servant.

                                                                                           Thomas Pinckney


On board of the Prison Ship, port of Nassau

From the Aurora

<i>The following extract of a letter from an American prisoner in Nassau, N.P. to his mother in Philadelphia exhibits another evidence of the cruelty with which our citizens are treated by the British-and forms a remarkable contrast to the generosity and delicacy which such of our enemies as have been so lucky as to fall into our hands, have experienced. Whilst our citizens have not a second shirt to their backs, and are kept in a state little short of starvation, it appears that British prisoners are permitted to revel in every luxury, and to enjoy such privileges as it would be extraordinary indeed if they did not use as the means of effecting their escape.</i>

"On board of the prison ship, port of Nassau, March 10, 1814.
"Myself and a great many of my brave countrymen have been suffering every deprivation, on board of this old prison ship, for 12 months, and more-our allowance is 1 1-2 pound of bread, half a pound of beef, and on gill of rice per day, the weight very scanty, and the provisions of the very worst kind- we have not a second shirt to our backs, and those we have on mostly in tatters. We are used with as much barbarity as though we were Turks, and are obliged to fetch wood and water with a gang og African soldiers with naked bayonets at our backs, and are hardly allowed to say our lives are our own. If this is the way American allows her defenders to be treated, she ought no longer be called a free country-but we have every reason to believe that our government knows nothing of our sufferings, otherwise they would have taken measures to bring us away from this wretched place. We stll indulge ourselves with the hope that something will speedily be done for us." SAMUEL DAVIS.

For the Maryland Gazette

For the Maryland Gazette.

It is supposed that the determination of our president to treat with England upon her own terms, was produced by the conduct of those who pledged their lives and fortunes in support of the war. Finding that these people are the most backward to enter into the service, he has despaired of raising a sufficient army again to attempt the conquest of Canada. The president is aware, that town-meeting resolves are as little calculated as presidential proclamations to conquer the territory of the enemy, and he is sick of men who will support the war only by their votes, while the war can only be supported by hard fighting. The war is to be concluded, and the blame of its so speedy termination is to be thrown upon those who, by their resolves, and pledges of life and fortune, induced the president to believe that they were eager for the war, and as soon as it was obtained, so shamefully abandoned him.

Published in the Maryland Gazette-March 10, 1814.


Letter to Willie Blount from Andrew Jackson

Head Quarter Fort Strother
March 10th. 1814

Dear Sir,

         On the 7th. Instant I enclosed you a copy of a letter from Genl. George Doherty, which advised you of the strange, and unaccountable proceedings & conduct of Major Genl. Jno. Cocke: & in the letter which covered that enclosure, I called upon you as the executive authority of the State, to have him immediately arrested under the act of congress, making it penal, for any individual to entice or persuade soldiers in the service of the united States to desert--I now inclose you a statement of Genl. Dohertys further detailing the acts of Major Genl. Cocke: and the desertion & conduct of the troops acting under the influence of his advice--
       It is certain if such conduct be permitted to pass unpunished, the character of our State must sustain an irreparable injury: & our boasted patriotism be viewed as a mere pretence, & a bubble--As the executive authority of the State, it surely appertains to your duty to see that the requisitions of the Genl. Government upon the state be carried into effect
       Now the requisition of troops to be raised in Tennessee which was made by the Secratary of war through you, & by you ordered to be filled from the first division, has not been complyed with by Major Genl. Cocke in conformity to that order--Nay he openly declares, he has not executed that order, and that the draft was illegal, & has laboured in various ways to thwart & defeat the present expedition It therefore becomes a duty I owe the public service to demand of you the immediate arrest of Majr Genl. John Cocke for disobedience of orders--Mutiny--Exciting mutiny & not suppressing the same--for unmilitary--unofficer like, & ungentlemanly conduct.
      So soon as I shall be advised of his arrest & of the appointment of a court Martial for his trial, I will forward the specifications & the proof; & it is fair to give him notice, that in the specifications will be embraced his conduct, as an officer, from the 1st day of October 1813 to the 8th day of March 1814, in which will be particularly included his order to General White of the 6th of November 1813
      I requested you sometime since to advise me out of what troops the requisition of General Flournoy on you for five hundred men, was to be filled. It cannot be from the Western end of the State as all the troops ordered by you from that division are for three months; & there are not in the field from the Eastern division, a sufficient number of men to fill the requision for the 1500 to be imployed in the Creek expidition under the order of Major General Pinckney founded on the order of the Sect of War & at the sametime to fill up Genl Flournoys requisition for five hundred men. In fact you will find that Genl Cocke has not in the field the full quota of the first requisition, expressly required to be kept in the service of the United States in the Creek nation Both those requisitions were founded on the Act of Congress authorising the president to call into service one hundred thousand militia for six months--It is singular that Genl Cocke should have boasted that he had procured the first requisition to be filled up in his division, whose pay would be secured them by the General government whereas those raised in my division must rely on the faith of the State; & that now he should be pleased to, say you had no authority to order the requisition to be filled from his divission.
      It is necessary you should direct me out of what troops Genl Flournoys requisition shall be filled. I shall thank you for an early answer to this letter I am very respectfully yr obt St

                                                                                            signed Andrew Jackson
                                                                                            Major Genl


Letter to Thomas Pinckney from Andrew Jackson

Fort Strother
March 7th 1814


      I have Just received from Genl. Doherty the letter, a copy of which I inclose you. This proves to me what I long since expected that this personage has been doing all in his power to distroy the campaign, that to him was asscribable all my wants of bread stuff--and to this source may be looked, for, the non compliance of McGee with your requisition--I cannot reconcile it to my duty to the Government, to Suffers the conduct of Genl Cocke to pass unnoticed--If such conduct is not punishable & punished may close our exertions to carry on the War, and indeed Sir I am at a loss on this Subject, and ask your advise--Genl Cocke not being in the Service of the United States being a militia officer of the State, and Coming into a part of your {camp}army, whither you were not the proper and competant power to demand his arrest by the Governor of this State, or whither he is only to be viewed as a Citizen, and was only subject to be indicted under the act of congress for enticing the Soldiers to desert--and lastly whither his various illegal acts and disobedience of orders when he was in the Service of the United States under your command is now in the reach of the enquiry of a Genl court martial.
            It is a law maxim that there is no injury without a remedy, and if such injurious acts to the service of our country by persons in high stations is not some way punishable we cannot calculate to carry on the war with energy--I am sorry my order had not reached Genl Doherty before the bird flew. I had ordered him preemtory to apprehend, every officer Soldier or citizen that he found exciting sedition mutiny & disobedience of orders in his Camp, confine & send them to head quarters to be dealt with according to their deeds--He has done all the mischief he could and is now gone--The question is, the legal mode of punishing him--and on which I take the liberty to ask your advise--
          The trial of Genl Roberts has closed, finding from the rules and articles of war that the Sentence of the Court could not be disclosed until approved of by the president of the United States, I directed the Judge advocate to forward it on direct to the Secretary of War the proceedings of the Court, he has forwarded to me which I will forward to you, as soon as I can have them copied the testimony is very voluminous & if I was to Judge of the Sentence of the Court from the testimony & the prisoners defence I have no doubt b they have found him guilty of every charge--I learn this evening that the enemy have concentrated their forces on this side the hickory ground in considerable force. my rear is moving briskly & I hope shortly to be able to give a good account of them. my supplies are coming on. I will endeavor to make a final stroke notwithstanding the exertions that have been made to distroy the campaign & protract the Indian War I have from exposure taken a bad cold which has produced an indisposition, but I hope it will not be of long duration, or yet prevent me from attending to my duty. I am Sir with due respect your mo: obt. Sert

                                                                                              Andrew Jackson
                                                                                              Major Genl.


Massachusetts Talks of Secession

March 5, 1814

NILES WEEKLY REGISTER editorial remarks on current lobbying by those in some states to secede from the union because of the war and the embargo:

“…The high tone of the anti-federal, or British gazettes at Boston, and some other towns in Massachusetts, for several months past, led us to expect a storm on the meeting of the legislature. The right and expediency of separating from the union had been freely discussed and decidedly advocated, by the ablest writers on the British side; and every effort of genius and of falsehood had been exerted to prepare the public mind for rebellion against the United States and alliance with England as its natural consequence. The most barefaced lies and outrageous misrepresentations were diligently used to excite state jealousies and partial sympathies; all that was base and detestable was ascribed to our own government; all that was religious (gracious heaven) and magnanimous attached to the enemy – a character that no more belongs to him than to the tiger who, of his own savage propensity, having gorged himself to the full, yet nestles in the bowels and blood of his victim, insatiate of murder and delighting in death. Truth stood in the background, mourning at the degeneracy of the times and patriotism seems appalled with the force and fervor of treason. But there was a redeeming spirit in the people.

Such were the circumstances under which the (Massachusetts) legislature convened. The governor’s speech was not calculated to still the wicked passions that had been stirred up; respect for the office forbids that I should speak of it as it deserves; - It has been inserted in the REGISTER and the people have judged it. The replies of the two houses went much further than his Excellency had done; they appear as if drafted for the chief purpose of provoking civil war……”

Massachusetts Resolution Objecting to U.S. Embargo

March 5, 1814

Niles Weekly Register reports on opposition in Massachusetts to the recently announced embargo

Massachusetts House of Representatives Resolution:

February 18, 1814

Resolved, that the act laying an embargo on all ships and vessels in the ports and harbors of the United States passed by the Congress of the United States on the 16th of December, 1813, contains provisions not warranted by the constitution of the United States and violating the rights of the people of this commonwealth. 

Resolved, that the inhabitants of the state of Massachusetts have enjoyed from its earliest settlement the right of navigating from port to port within its limits and of fishing on its coasts; that the free exercise and enjoyment of these rights are essential to the comfort and subsistence of a numerous class of its citizens; that the power of prohibiting to its citizens the exercise of these rights was never delegated to the general government and that all laws passed by that government intended to have such an effect are therefore unconstitutional and void.

Resolved, that the people of this commonwealth “have a right to be secure from all unreasonable searches and seizures….” That all laws rendering liable to seizure the property of a citizen…without warrant…..are arbitrary in their nature, tyrannical in their exercise and subversive of the first principles of civil liberty……”

Resolved, that the people of this commonwealth “have a right to be protected in the enjoyment of life, liberty and property, according to standing laws” and that all attempts to prohibit them in the enjoyment of this right, by agents acting under executive instructions only, and armed with military force are destructive of their freedom and altogether repugnant to the constitution.

Resolved, that as the well grounded complaints of the people constitute a continued claim upon the government……request the ….same be laid before the next general court…”

Letter from Andrew Jackson to William Berkeley Lewis

Head quarters Fort Strother
March 5th. 1814--

Dr. Sir

      I wrote you some time since, requesting you to apply to Mr Dickison, for funds, and pay off the Board and schooling of my little ward, Edward G W Butler and I have now to request, that you will apply to Mr. John H Smith, for such cloathing, on my account as the child may want--having an eye to oeconomy
     I wrote you on the subject of some enclosure some time ago--the copy of the letter from Major Genl Pinckney, ought to be made publick, it is a Just tribute to the late volunteers--But the other there is a great delicacy in, in having it published--and perhaps it is not yet time--I have another of a latter date from the secratary of war--whenever, any thing is said by my enemies, on the score of acting contrary to the orders or wishes of the secratary of war--I will forward it
     Having Just heard, that there is a peace published, called the age of wonders, in which there is some alusion to my arresting Colo. Bradly,  & offerring him his sword,  and he would not receive it I enclose you his Humble apology, on the recept of which,  as his conduct related personally to myself I withdrew his arrest--I am told it is currently circulated that I had to press the Colo. verry much before he would receive it--the publicity of his apology will put down, Colo. Bradly and his lies--
      I have not seen any of their publications, & if I did, I have better employ at present than to notice them--I have the end of the creek war in view--I hope shortly to see it--
      with compliments to your Lady Mrs. Lewis & all her family believe me to be respectfully yr. mo. ob. serv.

                                                                      Andrew Jackson'

P.S. I am Just informed that Doctor Moor has presented an account for his attendance on the sick at Huntsville I am Told it is exorbitant, and unusual--I have to request that you will not admit of it--should it be as represented untill I am advised thereof, and make inquiry into the same
                                                                                                      A. Jackson


Latest from Gen. Floyd's army


We have learnt with equal surprize and regret that an alarming spirit of insubordination has made its appearance in our army. Such an event, at the present juncture is much to the deplored. The two last letters from General Floyd, however, are of an encouraging nature, and give reason to hope that he will be able to hear up against the numerous and embarrassing difficulties which encompass him. But it is feared the present disposition of the troops will deteriorate from a blunder in the stuff department, by which they will be deprived of meat for some days. A soldier’s life being a life of privation and peril, no man should enter the service of his country unless prepared to brave every danger, to face death to every shape. The sufferings of the men now in the field have doubtedly been great; but no circumstances should induce them to abandon, at a time like this, the cause in which they have engaged.

Geo. Journal.


Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-March 4, 1814.



Secretary Jones' Denies Third Request of Captain Spence

March 3, 1814

(Secretary of the Navy Jones’s third letter to Captain Spence denying his request to recruit sailors in New York for Chesapeake Bay service:)

Captain R. T. Spence
Navy Department
Commanding U.S. Ship Ontario
March 3d. 1814

If you cannot get men in two of the principal Cities of the Union, how are we to replace those which you propose to draught from the Flotilla. Whatever importance you may attach to the manning of your own Ship, that of the flotilla is deemed equally so to the public safety, and may soon even deserve a preference should the enemy advance.  Each commander confines his views to his distinct command, but those of this Department embrace the whole.

This question had been distinctly and I had thought sufficiently answered before.

Captain Bainbridge I apprehend, informed you that when the nominations of Pursers took place, the merits and claims of your Brother would be duly considered along with those of other candidates and that his recommendations were satisfactory, which has I presume been construed into a promise to appoint him.
I make no promises of the kind. I have no doubt of his merits and fitness for the station, but there
are several Candidates who appear to have equal claims. An acting Purser can only be appointed in some extreme cases, when the public interest will not admit of delay.

The law is very particular in regard to the appointment of Pursers.

 I am respectfully
Your obedient Servant
W. Jones


Letter from Andrew Jackson to Thomas Pinckney

Head Quarters Fort Strother
March 2nd. 1814


     At 7 oclock this evening I recd. a Letter from Brig Genl. Doherty, commanding the East Tennessee Brigade, stating to me that ample supplies of bread stuff had reached camp Ross, but that they had not more than three days rations of meat, and notwithstanding the assurances of McGee, that there was not any coming down the river, nor can any be bought in the nation. I had from former disappointments strong suspicions, that there were a combination, to starve the army, and defeat the campaign--I therefore had my Eye upon McGee had instructed Major Baxter, to have but little confidence in any of his promises, and had ordered him to purchase on first failure of his, or noncomplyence with your requisition upon him--I have secured a sufficient live stock to support my army, untill a purchase can be made, to remedy the failure of McGee, and I have sent agents to purchase Bacon & pickled pork to make up the deficiency. Genl. Doherty writes me also, that great disquietude has lately made its appearance in his Camp--Major Baxter writes me, that Genl. Cocke, has lately visited Genl Dohertys camp, and shortly after great dissatisfaction began to show itself--I have ordered Genl. Doherty at all hazards, and consequences, to put down sedition, Mutiny, and every kind of disobedience, and confine all and every description of persons, either officer, soldier, or citizen, that is guilty of exciting sedition, mutiny, or desertion, and to send them under a strong guard to me--whether the suspicions, that has arisen against Genl. Cocke, be well founded or not I cannot say, but will be unfolded in a few days. The gods may decide against me but those earthly fiends shall not defeat the campaign, nor long delay it--could you only know the difficulties I have had to encounter--the intriegues and combinations I have had to counteract & defeat you would be astonished, how I have progressed as well as I have--as soon as the trial of Genl. Roberts reaches me, I shall inclose it, in which you will discover some of the causes of the difficulties, I had to surmount--
       I have just heard from the detachment, I had ordered in pursuit of a party of hostile creeks--It appears when the detachment reached the village, they found the negroes there--no sign of Indians, and were told by the negroes that none had been there--they have taken a squaw and child who states, she had been taken prisoner by the red sticks and had made her escape--Capt Walker who commands the detachment will reach me tomorrow--The weather continues inclement, and may prevent my rear, and supplies reaching me as soon as I calculated on--The experiment I made to force a navigation up Littefutchee has not succeeded to my wishes, I am endeavoring still to force it I am Sir very Respectfully your mo. ob. Servt.

                                                                                                     Andrew Jackson
                                                                                                     Major Genl.

Letter from George Doherty to Andrew Jackson

Four Spring Camp
2nd. March 1814


     I have forwarded on two dispatches by Express, of which I have not, as yet, had a return. In them I mentioned the prospect of supplies,which I am happy to state have since been realized--Flour and meal are here in abundance--I think sufficient to warrant the commencement of active operations, if the means of conveyance to Fort Armstrong do not fail, the high stage of the water, rendering as yet, the transportation a little tardy--The prospects of the arrival of waggons have failed in consequence of high waters but are expected in a few days--
     I received advices from Major Thos. C. Clark commandant at Fort Armstrong, in which he mentioned the deficiency of gun smiths at that post. I immediately dispatched four ingenious workmen to repair the arms at that place, which I learned were considerable, and have several good workmen in employ at camp Ross to repair those on hand at this place, which I think will be completed in five or six days. Major Bradely (whom I mentioned in one of my last to have been sent to procure arms) had returned with one hundred and ten Rifles & Muskets, those procured by other parties sent for that purpose amount to about ninety--The balance lacking, I have taken the same measures to furnish, which I think will be completed in ten days. I have directed the parties in the event of my having marched from this place, to pursue after with all possible dispatch--All seem anxious to hasten our departure, and I believe would do credit to themselves and the state, were they not infatuated by incendiaries not attached to this army--I mentioned in my last, the uneasiness of the troops under my command, which I attributed to my remaining so long in a state of inactivity, as you know, Sir, is a never failing cause in the minds of the militia, but to my astonishment I have recently found by indefatigable pursuit, that Major Genl. John Cocke has been the chief instigator of their mutinous resolutions--
          I would have given you the items of their proceedings in my last dispatches, but did not like to trouble you with a relation of things, which I thought came immediately within the limits of my own jurisdiction, and of course my duty to suppress any insurrection which might take place within it, and upon investigation punish the ring leader, which I have found to be the aforesaid Genl. John Cocke. His insiduous expressions which had like to have proved fatal to this part of the army, and which can be maintained by those, whose names will be annexed--I will give you near verbatim--
         On his first arrival at this camp, on being asked he observed "that the quota of six months men from E. Tennessee was not in proportion to that of west Tennessee--that he did not think the govenor was correct in calling out the whole number from East Tennessee"--On being asked whether he would go on in command, he observed, the "he would not, for if the men were taken to Jackson, they would be placed in a situation he did not like to mention, which he could not endure to witness, as it would not be in his power to extricate them"--that "they would suffer for provisions as the Genl. had not five days provision on hand"--that "those who had a desire to serve a six months tour, would be compelled to serve it in mobile, and those who had not, had better return home now from this camp"--that["] Jackson had the Regulars under his command, and would turn his artilery upon them--call to his assistance the 3rd. U.S. Infantry, commanded by Colo. Gilbert Russell making in all about fifteen hundred, and would compel them to serve six months--nine months-- and a year if he chose"--He has also stated to them, "that they (by law) were intitled to 1 1/4 lb of fresh pork per day, and if they stayed much longer, they would be compelled to take 1/2 lb bacon, for that McGee had written to you to that effect," with many insinuations, which appear to have been intended to induce the troops to return home, and thereby defeat the objects of the campaign--What could have engaged the Genls. assiduity, to render abortive the designs of government, I am at a loss to know, but certain it is, that he has used every exertion, to diffuse anarchy and revolt among the troops from the Colonel down to the cook--I was about to take rigid measure with him, when this morning he left camp for home and I am happy he is gone, for during his stay the camp was in incessant confusion--
        I shall be happy to hear from you, as I am anxious to hear the glad tidings of a march, if in your judgement it would be advisable--I am Sir with high your Most obt. servt.

                                                                      (Signed) Geo. Doherty, B Genl.

N.B. I annex a small list of Testimony to the above statement as respects Genl. Cocke

                                                                 Colo. Ewen Allison
                                                                 Major Robert Rhea
                                                                 Major James Ellis
                                                                 Major E F Spoor
                                                                 Capt. John Hampton
                                                                    "    Geo. Gregory
                                                                    "    [Jonas] Griffin
                                                                    "    [Adam] Winsell
                                                                    "    [James [Jonas] Laughmiller
                                                                    "    James Everitt
                                                                 Adjt. Wm. Shields, and many others

A true copy
attest Joel Parrish Jr. Lt. & Secratary