Admiral Cockburn to Captain Barrie: Find Flotilla

May 30, 1814


30 May 1814

My dear Sir

Subsequent to our Conversation of last Night I have received Intelligence that Commodore Barney has again come down with his Flotilla to the Neighbourhood of the Potomac.

The Man who brings the Information states that he saw him the Day before yesterday a few Miles to the Northward of the Cape Lookout— I therefore send You the Auxiliary Force I before intended, but I must beg of you to make use of it to the Northward instead of the Southward by sending it with your own Boats, Tender & ca. to examine St. Jerome’s Creek & to the Patuxent, and covering them at such Distance as you may judge advisable with the Dragon, taking also to your Assistance the St. Lawrence if on communicating with her Commander you find so employing her will not be likely to clash with Promises or Arrangements made with the Blacks landed from her the other Day.

Should you neither gain Information nor see anything of the American Flotilla in or on this Side of the Patuxent, I would have you cause St. Mary’s & Yeucomoco to be looked into, & you may do any Mischief on either Side of the Potomac which you may find within your Power, if this Information which I have received turn out to be incorrect, I can only say in your Operations to the Northward of Point Look out or to the Westward of it, You will consider yourself at full Liberty to act as Circumstances may point out to You as being most advisable for the Service.

The high Confidence I have in your Zeal and Abilities assuring me that I cannot do better than Point out to You the Object, and leave the Rest to your Management, but should you not be able to annoy the Enemy in that Direction we will still hold in View our intended Attack on Cherrystone Creek and perhaps a further Attempt on the other Side opposite to it. The Jaseur has taken another Schooner loaded with Salt Fish, she is gone up to the upper Part of the Bay near Hooper’s Straights— What Capt. Watts has in View I know not.

Let me hear from you as occasion may offer. I am Dr. Sir With much Truth

Yours most faithfully
G. C.-


Gun-Boat Action


Copy of a letter from Com. Lewis, commanding the U.S. flotilla on the New York station, to the Secretary of the Navy, dated
New-York, May 29, 1814.
SIR-I have the honor to inform you that on the 19th I discovered the enemy in pursuit of a brig under American colors, standing for Sandy Hook I ordered a detachment of 11 gun-boats to proceed to sea and pass between the chase and the enemy, by which means to bring him to action, and give opportunity to the chase to escape, all which was effected; the enemy after receiving my fire bore away-and the brig in question entered the Harbor, proved to be the Regent from France with a very valuable cargo.
And on Monday the 23d I engaged the enemy before New London, and opened a passage for forty sail of coasting vessels; the action lasted 3 hours, in which the flotilla suffered very little: No. 6 received a shot under water & others through the sails; we have reason to believe that the enemy suffered very great injury as he appeared unwilling to renew the action the following morning; my object was accomplished, which was to force a passage from the convoy. There are before New-London three seventy fours, four frigates and several small vessels, the latter doing great injury from their disguised character and superior sailing.

I have the honor to assure you of my high respect.
Hon. Wm. Jones, Secretary of the Navy.


Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-June 10, 1814.


Admiral Cochrane to Admiral Cockburn: Chesapeake Force and Position

May 27, 1814


Private and Confidential

Asia 27 May 1814 Bermuda

My dear Sir,

As I daily look for the arrival of the Marines and it being probable from the lateness of the Season that nothing equal to what was intended can take place, the Troops being required for the Defence of Canada, I must therefore confine myself to minor objects, attainable by a force not exceeding 1,500 Men.

I have therefore to beg that you will endeavor to procure the most correct information possible of the Force and position of the Enemy within the Chesapeake and to the Southward with the Situations where Landings can be made to do them the greatest injury and facilitate the Escape of their Negroes— such information can be only come at by paying for it—you have therefore authority to do so.

It is of material consequence to know exactly their military force at the different Stations, as it may be necessary to make distant and partial attacks to draw off their force from the point of real attack. You will therefore see what consequence it is to obtain the best information on those heads which may be difficult unless you can find some enterprising characters who run all risks for money, with which you may assure them of being well remunerated if their intelligence is found correct.

Adieu my dear sir, ever most sincerely Yrs
A Cochrane— 


Letter to Andrew Jackson from John Armstrong

War dept.
24 May 1814


            In the event of your acceptance of the appointment {suggested in} announced by my letter of the 22d instant I have to suggest the wish of the President that you should proceed without delay to Fort Jackson and consummate the arrangements committed to Major Gen. Pinckney in relation to the hostile Creeks. A copy of the instructions given to Gen. Pinckney is enclosed. I enclose also a copy of his Gen. Orders of the 28th of April last, shewing the distribution made of the troops. If the hostile part of the Creeks is really broken down--If they are prostrate before us and even begging from us the means of subsistence, and if the friendly part of the nation has in itself any force & a disposition to employ it, (& of all these facts there is not doubt) why retain in service any portion of the Militia? The 3d. & 39th. of the line (with the friendly Creeks) will be amply sufficient to cover the negociation; & that terminated (as you think it may be) even these may be carried promptly to New Orleans, where their services may be wanted. I am Sir very respectfully your obed. hum. Servant

                                                                                             John Armstrong

P.S. Your letters of the 2d. & 25th. Ult. have been received.


Letter to Andrew Jackson from John Armstrong

22nd May 1814


       The vacancy produced by General Hamptons resignation, not having been filled during the late session of the Senate, cannot be supplied, constitutionally, during the recess of that body. All therefore that can be done at present, in reward for your able & gallant conduct during the campaign and in testimony of the public respect these have obtained, is to make you a Brigadier of the line, with the brevet of Major General,  and to invest you with the command of the 7th. Mil. District. Commissions of this character will be immediately prepared & forwarded, and I cannot but hope that they will be acceptable & accepted and that it will not be inconvenient for you to assume this new command without loss of time.
       I avail myself of this occasion to offer to you my great respect and best wishes.

                                                                                      J. Armstrong

Courtesy of the Andrew Jackson Papers Project 


Indian War


We have been favored with the following interesting extracts of letters by his Excellency Governor Hawkins:
Extract of a letter from Col. Benjamin Hawkins, U.S. Agent for the Creek Nation, to Governor Hawkins, dated Fort Toulouse at the confluence of the Tallapoosa and Coosa, 26th April 1814.
“I believe you know this is the name of the old French Fort at Tuskogee. We commenced to-day to build a permanent Fort on the ruins of the old one. Lt. Col. Atkinson’s division formed a part of the centre army which united with the army of Tennessee at Tooscehatchee. They, united, arrived here on the 17th. Colonel Person, with his division, arrived yesterday. My countrymen look well, and appear in good health. Being much occupied yesterday and today, I have not been able to get acquainted with them. The Tennessee army are on their way home-General Graham is in consequence second in command-he enjoys, apparently, fine health.
“The hostile Indians are retreating from us in various directions, mostly towards Ko-ne-cau a few miles above our line of limits. The terrible chastisement inflicted by the army of militia, regulars, Cherokees and Creeks, under Gen. Jackson, at Newyoucau, on the hostile Indians, has alarmed the whole party. Believing blood enough has been split to attone for past transgressions, Gen. Pinckney on the 23d communicated through me to the enemy the terms upon which peace will be granted them. “The United States will retain as much of the conquered territory as may appear to the government to be a just indemnity for the expences of the war, & as a retribution for the injuries sustained by its citizens & the friendly Creek Indians.
“The United States will retain the right to establish military posts and trading houses, and to make and use such roads as they may think necessary, and freely to navigate all the Rivers and water courses in the Creek territory.
“The enemy must, on their part, surrender their Prophets, and such other instigators of the war as may be designated by the government of the United States, and they must agree to such restrictions upon their trade with foreign nations, as shall be established by the government of the United States.”
“I have, and shall by various channels communicate these terms to those concerned. To the army of the friendly Indians with us did it here. Some few come in here, and many of those above us, to a place assigned them by General Jackson.”


Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-May 20, 1814.

Earl Bathurst to General Barnes


Copy Downing Street


20th May 1814


It having been judged expedient to effect a diversion on the Coast of the United States of America in favor of the Army employed in the defence of Upper & Lower Canada.

Admiral Sir A. Cochrane has received Instructions to direct a Squadron to proceed with a detachment of Troops and a Battalion of Marines towards those places on the Coast where it may appear to him most advisable that a descent should be made; and H.R.H. the Prince Regent confiding in your valor, enterprise, and discretion, has been graciously pleased to commit to you the command of these Troops in such operations as you may judge it expedient when on shore to undertake.

In addition to the force which may have been placed under your orders previous to your departure from the Gironde, you will on your arrival at Bermuda, take under your command one other Regiment of Infantry & one Company of Artillery which have been directed to proceed thither from the Mediterranean for that purpose. The amount of the force which will be thus placed under your command (& which is specified in the margin) will sufficiently point out to you that you are not to engage in any extended operations at a distance from the Coast. …

…When the object of the descent which you may make on the Coast is to take possession of any Naval or Military Stores, you will not delay the destruction of them in preference to the taking them away, if there is reasonable ground of apprehension that the Enemy is advancing with superior force to effect their recovery.
If in any descent you shall be enabled to take such a position as to threaten the Inhabitants with the destruction of their property, you are hereby authorized to levy upon them contributions in return for your forbearance, but you will not by this understand that the Magazines belonging to the Government, or their Harbours, or their Shipping are to be included in such arrangements; These together with their contents are in all cases to be taken away or destroyed.

You will not encourage any disposition which may be manifested by the Negroes to rise upon their masters. The humanity which ever influences H.R.H. must make him anxious to protest against a system of warfare which must be attended by the atrocities inseparable from commotions of such a description. If however any individual Negroes shall in the course of your operations join you or give you assistance, & if you have reason to believe that they would in consequence be exposed to the vengeance of their masters after your retreat, you are at liberty on their earnest desire to take them away with you, and you are authorized, if they are willing to enlist, to enlist them in any of the Black Corps; but if they evince no such disposition, you will consign them to the care of the Admiral commanding who has received instructions as to their disposal.
But you must distinctly understand that you are in no case to take slaves away as slaves, but as free persons not subject to any restrictions incompatible with the state of free persons.

I have etc.

(Signed) Bathurst


Letter to John Williams from Andrew Jackson

May 18. 1814

Dear Sir,

          This evening your very friendly letter, from Fort Jackson without date was handed me by Majr. Howell Tatum--I hasten to answer your enquiries. First, the limits I assigned the hostile Creeks, (who had sued for peace) for their present occupancy, was East of the Coosee river, and north of the road we opened from Ft. Williams to New-yauca Tehopeka: and in case the open land within that boundary--was not sufficient for the present year to afford cultivation for them--then they were to settle East of the old Pensacola road and above the Kealigan villages; of this old Chenebee and the Talladega chiefs were to be the Judges--
          I had cogent reasons for prescribing their boundaries: I knew it was important to settle them at once on the Territory that I did suppose government would reserve for the friendly creeks, and for those who unconditionally surrendered, and that it was al important to the final adjustment of the Territorial limits between the United states and the friendly creeks, that the Territory conquered, and intended to be appropriated to the discharge of the debt created by the Creek war, should be kept Clear of all incumbrances by a settlement of either the friendly or conquered creeks--
          You ask me what portion of the Creek country would endemnify the U States for the creek war. Would the lands on the North West side of the Coosee be a sufficient endemnity? I answer that the country west of the Coosee and North of the Allabama, is a valueable country and might endemnify the government fully for the expence of the war. But sir, this cannot be the only object of the government--The hostile Creeks have forfeited all right to the Territory we have conquered, and while Justice to the friendly part of the Nation require that they should be left in the peaceable enjoyment of their towns and villages with a sufficient appendage of woodland, humanity discates, that the conquered part of the nation should be alloted sufficient space for agricultural purposes Still the grand policy of the government ought to be, to connect the settlements of Georgia with that of the Territory and Tennessee, which at once forms a bulwark against foreign invasion, and prevents the introduction of foreign influence to corrupt the minds of the Indians The settlements should be so formed as to separate the strength of the creek nation, and the settlement of the whites between them would always keep them peaceable and faithful. To accomplish this object I would run a line from a certain point in the Georgia line that a due west course would strike New'yau'ca on the Tallapoosee, thence Westwardly to a point on the Coosee one mile and a half above Fort Williams, thence up the Eastern Bank of the Coosee to the Cherokee boundary, with the Cherokee boundary to the boundary of Madison County, thence West to the Chikesaw boundary, with that boundary to the Chocktaw boundary as far as the M Territory and with the same to the southern boundary of the United States, and with that East to the Georgia line and north to the point of beginning--
        The lands North and East of the first boundary is reserved for the uper friendly Creeks and those they have permited of the hostile Creeks to settle with them. It only then remains, to be designated, the bounds of the friendly Creeks, within this boundary, the balance rightfully belongs to the United States by conquest and will be sufficient to pay twelve millions of debt to the Government, and afford a settlement from Georgia to the Mobile and from Tennessee to the Southern limits of the United States--
       Government ought to adopt every means to populate speedily this section of the Union, and perhaps if she would give a preference right to those that conquered it at two dollars per acre of three hundred and twenty acres, it would be settled by a hardy race that would defend it.
       I am truely astonished that Colo. Hawkins is permitting the Indians to settle down on their former habitations. I did tell him the Territory I had assigned them; I did tell him that no Indians should settle East of the Coosee or North of the Allabama--and I am certain Government will not permit them to settle below the Allabama; at this point is the strength of the frontier of the Union to be established, by wealthy inhabitants unmixed by Indians--
       Now is the time and I hope government will seize hold of it, to extinguish the Cherokee and Chickasaw Claim within the state of Tennessee--It can be with truth said, to the Chickesaws, you have proved to us, that you cannot protect the whites on the roads through your country--The enemy you have permitted to pass through your nation; kill and plunder our nation and carry of our women and children captives: We must therefore extend our settlements to the Mississippi to cut off all communication of the Southern tribes with that of the North, and to give our citizans perfect safety in passing through their country We must give them a fair compensation for a surrender of their rights. Our national security require it and their security require it: the happiness and security of the whole require this salutary arrangement. It must be done, and they shall be endemnified Either in money or land gained by Creek conquest. Now is the time to obtain it and it ought and must be had--This then will give strength to the southern section of the United States, both in the councils of the nation, and against foreign invasion and foreign influence and create a fund competent to meet the expense of the whole war. I am very respectfully your mo. ob. serv.

                                                                                                               Andrew Jackson


"The Creek War...will rage tenfold fury"

Alabama Headquarters
May 17th, 1814


I enclose you the copy of a letter received from a Gentleman whose standing in society and public character in riding through his country to establish posts for its protection every feeling of the soldier has been roused. I could see nothing but bore mainly of savage barbarity. Here was to be observed a dejected plantation, the house laid in ashes & where once dwelt Industry, happiness, & content a little farther a rude stockade Fort presents itself inmates / Widows & orphans (made so by the merciless savages & the Governor of Pensacola the ready agent of the British Government) who call upon their country for protection & revenge. I have other information to the same effect with the enclosed but now more to be relied on. You wish to know when I can move for Fort Jackson Is impossible for me to do so before the first of June & perhaps this information I send you may induce a belief that my remaining here longer than May (at the time I left the Hickory Ground) supposed necessary-- save this frontier--depend on it sir; that the Creek War so far from being at an end--will rage tenfold fury-- The hostile Indians are supplied with everything necessary to carry it over, the Seminole ans, lower towns on the Chattahouchee will join them & present a formidable force, beside which British Troops will be at Pensacola to back them in the excursions--the supplies of this Indian being publicly given warrants this opinion allowing the information on which I ground this opinion to be correct-- does it not become our duty to take Pensacola? by doing this the enemy have no place of security & the war will (illegible).
   I am well aware that a negotiation for Peace is pending between America & Britain/the ally of Spain) this should not be done but from self preservation & that is the present situation of this Frontier -- it would require a force of at least ten thousand to form such a chain of Posts as would protect it fro the incursions of small parties of the Enemy who then pressed would retire to Pensacola-- but a few days past one of the citizens of the fort was killed by the Indians, & on Saturday last a party of our Choctaws killed one of the enemy within a few miles of the fort while about the same time one was fired upon by a centinel of Pierces Fort/ when the Boats are building there are spies sent out to ascertain weak points at which they may strike-- & fly to Pensacola with their bleeding trophies.
   Col. Russell had made a requisition on the Governor of the Mississippi Territory for six hundred men. I have understood some of the counties have refused their Quota-- the remainder have not arrived here they are on their way but move slowly-- & the frontier is exposed. The Choctaws will return home in a few days, members are at ready now & I have no doubt the Chickasaws will follow fifty seven of whom/ mounted men/ are upon a scout. This is the seventh day they have been absent. Their intentions were to discover the position of the Hostile Indians & report to me-- upon their doing so I shall march against them if they take refuge in Pensacola I shall be apt to drive them out or die in the attempt. I am concerned I shall have to fight thru lines, my numbers, be it so--my officers and soldiers are activated by feelings which no fear can conquer. If you are of opinion & with me meet half-way-- say at which point & let us revenge our slaughtered citizens.

I am Sir very respectfully your most Obt Servt

Brig. Genl. Graham


General Orders


Head Quarters, Sackett’s Harbor, May 12, 1814.

Major Gen. Brown has the satisfaction of announcing to the troops of his division that the detachment under the command of Lt. Col. Mitchell of the corps of artillery, have by their gallant and highly military conduct on the 5th and 6th inst. gained a name in arms worthy of the nation they serve and the cause they support. For nearly 2 days they maintained an unequal contest against ten times their numbers, and but yielded their post when the interest of their country made that measure necessary.
The companies composing this gallant detachment were Boyle’s,  Romayne’s M’Intire’s & Pierce’s of the heavy artillery, Melvin’s of the light artillery, and a few seamen under the command of Lt. Pearce of the navy-in all, less than three hundred men. The enemy’s force by land and water exceeded three thousand.


Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-June 3, 1814.

British Forces Advancing; Blockade of All Eastern US Ports

May 12, 1814

Maryland Gazette and Political Intelligencer


One of the first mercantile houses in this city has received a letter from the supercargo of a neutral vessel, in a long passage from Gottenburg, dated off New London, May 4, which states that on Tuesday he was boarded by the English ship Bulwark, of 74 guns, and informed that he could not go into any part of the United States. The Capt. Of the Bulwark informed that he was direct from Bermuda, and that the Adm. (Cochrane) had ordered the blockade of the whole American coast from Eastport to N. Orleans. That late accounts had been received from England announcing that an ARMISTICE was signed between Bonaparte and the allies on the 5th of March and that there would be peace on the Continent. That a formidable force was preparing in England for this country.


….Admiral Cochrane had extended the blockade to all the eastern coast. “from the point of land commonly called Black Point, to the northern and eastern boundaries between the U.S. and the British province of New Brunswick” which he declares in a state of strict and rigorous blockade.


Joshua Barney to Secretary Jones

May 11, 1814

Captain Joshua Barney, Flotilla Service to Secretary of the Navy Jones

Baltimore May 11th 1814


Since mine of the 4th Instant from Patuxent, I have been with the flotilla to Potomac, where I remained part of Sunday & Monday last.

I sent into St. Mary's to obtain information of the Asp but without effect, I then concluded to send my "look-out-boat" up the Potomac to join her if possible, and to remain with her until she got up the Bay.

Previous to my leaving Patuxent I sent Gunboat 137 to Baltimore for Provisions with orders to follow me down to Patuxent; when at Potomac I found my provisions nearly expended I determined to run up the bay in hopes of meeting the Gunboat, knowing that so long as the wind was from the Southward she could not get down, nor could I get up with the flotilla with the wind from the Northward; on my arrival in Patuxent I found she was not there, which compelled me to proceed further up, and yesterday I met her just below Annapolis, the Weather being bad I continued up and arrived here at 5 PM, which was very lucky as we have had a terrible night.

On examining the Bread put onboard the Gun-boat I found a great quantity has been wet by leaks in her deck, which Obliges me to take everything out and to have her caulked, before she can serve again; indeed Sir, she and No. 138 are both such miserable tools I do not know what to do with them, they cannot carry anything more than their own Armament, as 3500 lb. Bread [filled] bags filled her, the salt provision on deck where their men were obliged to sleep, and they sail so bad, that I am afraid to trust them out of my sight ahead or astern. I had to take everything out of the Barges of the 2d Class, even their shot (except 15 rounds) and put it into the large boats; In going down, and whilst laying off point look out at anchor, I was very near losing them, as they took in great quantities of Water; to remedy which, I have concluded to have Wash-boards put round them about 8 Inches high, which will keep out the water and of course make them more safe, I am Obliged to do this as the men are very unwilling to remain in them in their present state;

Could I have a vessel to carry provisions, to receive the Sick, and to put the Doctor and his Medicines on-board, it would be a great relief, as I found great Inconvenience respecting the sick when down, as there is no place on board the Barges for them, and the exposed situation of the men, causes sickness, more or less daily, indeed we must expect 20 or 30 always on the list, out of Six hundred men, in such a service, of this you can judge as well as myself.

The Enemy left the Potomac on the 30th Ulto, the last vessel being a large schooner, and carried off upwards of 100 Negroes, onboard the Dragon 74; they now lay at, and about Wats Island in the Tangier sound, and in the Bay below Smiths point. I suppose they got information of the flotilla from the Russian Secretary as we lay in the mouth of Patuxent when the flag went down and she was spoken by my look out boats, (Galley & pilot boat). Mr. Skinner informs me that the Admiral and also the Captain of the Dragon enquired where I was, & said, they had heard of me, they also took a schooner which went with me down as far as Patuxent; I got the same information from a gentleman who had been landed at Point look out, who also says, they have a fort of 17 Guns on Wats Island where they have their sick etc. and about 300 negroes, Men, Women & children, that the Admiral was much onshore fishing and amusing himself.

I shall get ready again without loss of time to proceed down, or as you may direct.

And am with respect your Obt. Servant
Joshua Barney


Letter to Willie Blount from Andrew Jackson

Fayettville Ten:
May 10, 1814


        Your Letter of the 5th. instant was handed me last evening by Colo. Andr. Hynes
        Having duly considered its contents & refering to the Secretary of War's Letters of the 3d January and the 15th. April, copies of which you have had the goodness to enclose. It appears to me that the orders for the discharge of the organized Volunteers under the acts of Congress of February 6th. and July the 6th. 1812 and the Militia; must come direct from major Genl. Pinckney or your Excellency There being no order or direction contained in either of the Secretary's Letters above alluded to, for me to exercise that power and it being admitted on all hands that the legal power of discharging rests with you or major General Pinckney, commanding the 6th. and 7th. Military Districts and not with me. Therefore to authorize me to act in this case, I must be authorized direct from the Secretary of War. This not being the case, you will pardon me for not exercising the power, which I conceive by the secretary of war's Letter to you  of the 15th. april is particularly confined to your Excellency. I Beg you to believe, that as your subordinate officer I will with pleasure promulgate any order on this subject, that your Excellency may think proper to address to me, barely suggesting that the order of discharge of the organized Volunteer Infantry might be directed to Brigadier General Hall--For the discharge of the Volunteer Cavalry and mounted Gunmen--which agreeable to your Instructions of the 24th. September 1813 I had organized into a Brigade, (the benefit of the public Service requiring it) and appointed Genl. John Coffee to the command thereof--to be directed to Brigadier Genl. Coffee and the order for the discharge of General Isaac Roberts's Brigade, to the Senior officer in commission in said Brigade; the General being under an arrest. The balance of the whole Troops from the state of Tennessee that I have had the honor to command (except those retained in Service for the protection of the Posts on the Coosa River and its branches, under the command of Colo. Bunch and at Fort Deposit) have been duly ordered to be mustered and discharged, and the District Paymaster has been ordered to pay the same. I am, Sir, very respectfully your most obt. sert.

                                                                                                       Andrew Jackson
                                                                                                       Major General

Admiral Cockburn to Admiral Cochrane

May 10, 1814

Admiral Cockburn on multiple observations and issues including means taken by the Americans to prevent Negroes from joining the British


Albion in Tangier Bay 10 May 1814

My dear Sir

The Narcissus which carried my last Letters to you, had scarcely got out of Sight when the Loire arrived with the victualling Transport and put an end to all my Anxieties respecting Provisions.

I have also to thank you for your two private Letters by Captain Brown under date of the llth & 13th …of which I was glad to learn that Sir Thos. Troubridge had had a good passage in and arrived so immediately after Lady Troubridge to whom I beg my best Respects.

By my public Letter No. 3,2 which accompanies this, you will observe that I am rather inclined to hope the Moschettoes (mosquitoes) & other plagues you have been told of as infesting Tangier Island, will not prove to be quite so bad as has been represented, and at all Events that having advanced so far in establishing a Post here (which seemed to answer in every other Respect previous to receiving your Letter,) I have not deemed this Report of sufficient Importance to induce me to give up all we have been doing and to relinquish a Place so admirably situated for forwarding all operations and Views against the Enemy in the surrounding rich & populous States.

In your Letter of the 13th you mention a Wish that I should send the Loire off New York as I have two Frigates here, but as in your public Letter of the 8th you direct me to send the Lord Collingwood Transport with as many Refugee Negroes as she can conveniently stow to Bermuda, under Convoy of One of His Majesty's Ships, and as I have certain Information of the Enemy's Squadron in New London being laid up & dismanded, which precludes any immediate necessity for increasing our Force there. And the Lives of the 150 poor Wretches embarked in this Transport depending on her getting safe in. I feel confident I am acting most in unison with your Ideas & Wishes by sending the third Frigate with Her to Bermuda, and suspending the sending of another Ship to New York till I again hear from you.

Symptoms of Scurvy having lately shown amongst the Crew of the Lacedemonian, which Ship has been constantly kept at Anchor here ever since her arrival on the American Station, and the Loire having been as constantly cruising, has inclined me to prefer the former for this little detached Service which I trust you will approve of, and if you agree with me in the Idea of the Mouth of the Delaware being now the part of the American Coast least guarded, you will perhaps permit me to send Lacedemonian on to that Station after she has returned to me with any Letters or Instructions you may wish to send me, and as she is only in want of a small quantity of some Species of Provisions which the Transport could not supply, I have ordered Captain Jackson not to take his Ship into Bermuda until he has waited upon you and received your further Orders.
The Narcissus which was on the Delaware Station would prefer I believe joining this, and as a Volunteer is always worth two prest Men, I hope you will indulge Lumley herein when he is ready.

I send by Captain Jackson a file of American Papers for April by which you will see the wretched State of this Country and how anxious they are to have an End of this foolish Mad War which they rushed so headlong into; by a Paragraph in the National Intelligencer of the 22d, it appears that the Retaliatory System is about to be abandoned and a proper Line of Conduct towards Prisoners is likely to be adopted, but as I have heard nothing on this subject yet from Coll. Barclay and as the Americans are so much in debt to us for People landed from our Ships for Receipts, I still refuse to suffer any of the Prisoners taken by His Majesty's Ships to be landed without having equal Numbers of Englishmen delivered at the Moment in Lieu of them, and I still continue sending our Prisoners into Port by every Opportunity as being the only efficacious Mode of inducing the Americans to restore our People which the chances of War have placed within their Power; if you would wish me to relax at all in this particular I will thank you to let me know it as soon as convenient, but my Ideas of managing Jonathan, is by never giving way to him, in spite of his bullying and abuse.

Great pains are taken along the Shores of the Chesapeake to prevent the escape of the Negroes, by securing all the Boats & Canoes and placing strong guards over them and on the different Points along the Shore, in spite however of all this we are continually getting a few, but not the Quantities you would do were you once fairly landed on the Main, Those whom you will see by the Returns, I have enlisted as Soldiers are getting on astonishingly, and are really very fine Fellows, and I think whenever you arrive you will be pleased with them, they have induced me to alter the bad opinion I had of the whole of their Race & I now really believe these we are training, will neither show want of Zeal or Courage when employed by us in attacking their old Masters: I am sorry to say some of those I landed to disseminate your Intentions respecting them have been taken, they managed however to tell so good a Tale & their Comrades kept so faithfully their Secret, that they escaped condemnation, & have only been sold for the back Settlements, and it is supposed by those who have since come off that they will not be carried far in land before they will contrive to elude the Vigilance of those who have charge of them, & that we shall probably see them again here ere very long— I have given to men I have sent on these errands forty Dollars in all which I suppose you will repay me, it is the only expense I have yet put Government to, on this Head, excepting the Slop Clothing I have ordered to be issued to those who volunteer as Soldiers, (as detailed in my public Letter on that subject) and the Cargo of Lumber I formerly mentioned to you I had delivered to the Engineer; the Rice I took from Captain Lumley I am now forced to issue to this Ship's Company in lieu of Pease, owing to the Transport having brought us so very small a Supply of that Article in proportion to others.

The Hundred Barrels of Flour which I kept back from One of the Prizes the Narcissus took in, I now send in the Perseverence, the Supply of that Article by the Transport being ample and precluding the necessity of my using the other, you have only therefore to pay the Captors for the Rice & Plank.

If you direct this Transport to be again loaded with Provisions for the Ships here as you say you intend it will be necessary for you to give Directions that she may have a very much larger quantity of Pease Spirits & Bread than of other Species, as she was this time deficient in these, particularly the two former, and she did not bring any Vinegar which is likewise wanted by these Ships, though we are not likely to be again in such absolute want as we were before Loire's Arrival yet I have no doubt by the time this Transport can be again got ready with convenience & sent here, we shall be able to unload her, at least if our Black Mouths go on increasing as I expect.

But I am not sanguine enough to think I shall want more Arms before I have the Pleasure of seeing you.
The American Papers tell me you have determined in the first Instance to attack Portsmouth & they add that they are quite prepared to receive you there, I doubt their being so anywhere & I am sure they are not equal to defend themselves against a determined attack in any part of this Neighborhood, and the Government not being able to obtain Money to go on with is not likely to improve their Means of Resistance; the Numbers of their Militia their Rifles & the thickness of their Woods still I believe constitute their principal, if not their only, Strength.

It appears they already know of your Intentions respecting the Blacks and it has caused a most general & undisguised alarm, they expect Blacky will have no mercy on them and they know that he understands bush fighting and the locality of the Woods as well as themselves, and can perhaps play at hide & seek in them even better.

I will endeavor to procure Some Stock to send you by the next occasion which offers, I have not enough by me at this Moment worth sending you—and it is not without difficulty & some delay that we procure it—
I am very Anxious to have our next news from Europe my Letters & Papers are more behind hand than usual, I hope you will spare something to bring them to me when they arrive.

Adieu My dear Sir Believe, me most truly Yours
G: Cockburn

P.S I am rather surprised at learning by your Letter that my Ideas were erroneous respecting your having brought Permission from the Admiralty for My Return to England, and the Number of Junior Flags you mention as intended for this Station (particularly if Beresford7 is to be so considered) renders it the more extraordinary,

Tho: if the War is to close with the year as expected it is perhaps as well to see it out and if it does not, you may perhaps be induced to Stretch a point for me by & bye in the fall of the Year when operations are over, but on this, when I have the pleasure of meeting you, will be time enough to enter more fully.


Letter to John Armstrong from Andrew Jackson

8th. May 1814


          The Creek war being terminated, the West Tennessee troops will be discharged at Fayetteville on the 10th. Those of the Eastern divission who are not left to garrison the posts, will be discharged at Kingston as soon as they can be marched there.
        The detachment I sent to scour the Cahawba in conformity with the order of Majr Genl. Pinckney have returned, bringing with them three new prisoners, who were thought to be unwilling to accede to the terms of peace which had been offered them. A considerable number of women & children, whom they also took, were sent to the east of the Coosa to that district which had been pointed out as the most proper for their present settlement.
         The famished condition of the friendly Creeks induced me to order 23000 rations to be furnished at Ft Williams & Ft Strother for their present subsistence.
         A portion of the Cherokees who fought very valiantly with us, having become very much reduced by what they parted with to my army I have directed the contractor to issue to them also, 14520 rations, which may enable them to subsist until the further wishes of the government can be known. I have the honor to be with great respect yr. Obt St

                                                                                          Andrew Jackson
                                                                                          Major Genl--

Letter to Rachel Jackson from Andrew Jackson

May 8th. 1814

My Love

       I reached this place on yesterday, where, I (with my officers) received every mark of attention, that could be bestowed on us, by a grateful people--we were met by the respectable citizens, escorted into Town, where a salute was given us, a sumptuous dinner, provided, and an elegant ball in the evening, a slight indisposition, occasioned by an overheat, in crossing the mountains, on 5th. rendered me somewhat disagreable, in participating in the hospitality and of the generous citizens of Madison county; and the Town of Huntsville--I shall be detained here to day, settling up the publick accounts--on to morrow  shall reach Fayettville, at which place I shall be detained, in having the men mustered & discharged, two days--from thence I shall proceed with my artilery company to Nashville where I shall expect to meet you on the 14th. instant I wish you to reach Nashville on the 13th. as I will be there on that day if within the reach of Possibility and the necessary duties I have to attend to--bring my little Andrew with you where I shall present him with Lyncoya--who I know he ill be pleased with--Miss Maria Pope, when presenting me with an elegant stand of Coulours, presented little Lyncoya with them dressed more like a poppet, than any thing else--I wish you to have andrew a suit of red--nicely made--say to fields--that I have a number of Fort Meams Negroes, that will be necessarily on my hand for a short time--and with them he can regain in his crop what he has lost by the sickness of his hands, and to have every foot of ground planted that he can--I wish houses or shelters to be prepared for them--a family of three--can remain in some of the cabbins, as I intend putting the women in the citchen, the husband in the field--the messenger is waiting, and with my sincere prays for a restoration of your health, and a speedy meeting I am affectionately yrs

                                                                                        Andrew Jackson

Letter from John Overton to Andrew Jackson

8th. May 1814

Dear Genl.

         By the mail early yesterday morning, your highly gratifying communication to Govr. Blount announcing the glorious termination of the Creek War arrived--
        I can but imperfectly communicate to you the feeling of the people here. I has produced a piece under the Rogersville head of the inclosed paper, which you will please hand to my friend Colo. S.D. Hays with a request that he will hand it to Thos. Bradford for republication
       Already General, it is the common theme of conversation that you must be our next governor. Sevier's friends about Jonesborough and Greenville, who were formerly inimical to you, speak of you in terms {of regard}, even, with affection There is not a word said in this country but is not in terms of respect, if not, of admiration
      Cocke, who has been here all week is perfectly silent, and disposed to be as concilliating as he can
      Still I know there are some who are whining and inimical to you in our end of the State, but you may rest assured they are the fewest number. I beg you my dear friend not to notice them let them write or speak as they may. I say this with the most thorough conviction, and in the most lively solicitude for your standing, which is now as high as any man in America--Your ground is far too elevated for the bickerings which sometime take place, in the pursuit of fame, wealth, honor, or in the preservation of either. You possess them, and the little spirits which infest the world cannot deprive you of them, when you view such efforts with silent contempt, and conscious rectitude. Dear Genl you will pardon these hints, as I know there are mean people whose greatest gratification, is to irritate you, and thus lessen your fame if they can I am sincerely yr. friend

                                                                                          Jno. Overton
My respects to Mrs Jackson


Extract of a letter to the War Department, dated at Sackett's Harbor May 6th, 1814.

Extract of a letter to the War Department, dated at Sackett’s Harbor May 6th, 1814.

“My letter of the 4th advised you that the British fleet had made their appearance on the Lake, and that I suspected Oswego was their object, as the navy stores, necessary for the large vessel were believed to be there on their way to this place. Colonel Mitchel of the 3d Artillery, who commanded there, was apprised (both of the fact of the British fleet being out and of my suspicions) by express. A letter from him of yesterday says, “the British fleet are now before this place.” A cannonading in the afternoon for three hours, and again this morning, was distinctly heard here, whence I conclude there have been two attacks. Mitchel and his detachment will do their duty; but as the naval ascendancy of the enemy enables him to bring his whole force upon the place, the issue must be held to be doubtful. The Commodore [Chauncey] has not ascertained that the new ships of the enemy are out.”


Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-May 27, 1814.


From the North...A letter from Plattsburg to the Editor

From the North…A letter from Plattsburg to the Editor, says-

In the affair of LaCole, and during that day, we had about 10 killed, 5 mortally wounded, and eighty otherwise wounded, or at most 100 killed and wounded. A flag who came in after the engagement acknowledged the enemy buried 12 who were killed near the mill.-Capt. M’Pherson, it is believed, will recover, and also Lt. Larrabee. A person from the lines states, the enemy’s large vessel is not launched and probably will not be off before ours. A number of batteries have been erected for the protection of this place.
A gentleman who arrived direct from Plattsburg on Sunday evening says, the British squadron on Champlain has not been out this season.


Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-May 6, 1814.

Alarm in Boston


At last, the Bostonians begin to apprehend some danger from their good friends, the British. The affair at Saybrook, and the alarm at Portsmouth, seem to have waked them from their dream of factious security; and we see, by the general orders of the 15th inst. they begin to make some preparations to meet the enemy. The system of signals for alarm is announced, & the other requisite preparations appear to have been made. We wish our quondam neighbors every success in repelling the attack; and eerily believe it may not be useless to them, that any event should impress on their minds the fact, that they have a country and owe allegiance to it.



Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-May 6, 1814.


Letter from Willie Blount to Andrew Jackson

May 5th. 1814


       By the last mail I received instructions from the War department, dated April 15th. authorizing me to discharge the Troops who had been in Service from Tennessee, acting against the hostile Creek Indians, from the commencement of hostilities in September last; and who at different periods from a want of instructions from the war department on the Subject of their term of Service, were at Several different times dismissed, according to the description of Corpse, and their express, or implied engagements until the Presidents decision on the Term of Service should be known: provided General Pinckney has not already ordered their discharge. I have heretofore transmitted to you, copies of the above mentioned letter, and of another, received from the War Department, dated January 3d. last, Containing the decision of the President as to the terms of Service, according to the respective Corpse; to wit, of the U.S. Volunteers enrolled under the acts of Congress respecting Volunteers; Militia, organized by law; and Corpse of Volunteers, not enrolled under any act of Congress, embodied, entered the Service, & Served tours of different lengths of time, under your command, and who entered Service, both from East, and West Tennessee, Since September last, and prior [to] the last levy of Troops, now acting under your command; all which, it is the wish and instructions of Government shall be paid, according to the Several Tours they may have Served. If, upon the receipt of this, you have not received an order from Genl. Pinckney to discharge said Troops from the Service of the United States, you will order their discharge; those of East, as well as of West Tennessee; the United States Volunteers, as of the 10th. December last; the Organized militia, as having Served a tour of three months; and other corpse, as of the same term, where their engagements & Service were not of a longer, or Shorter Term; in which cases, you will be governed in point of propriety, by your knowledge of their engagements, & actual Service, and discharge them accordingly--you will also give the necessary orders to the muster masters or inspectors, to receive the proper roles of the General, field, and Staff, as well as of Companies, of the Several Corpse, regularly made out, and Certified as correct; and direct, that they be without delay transmitted to the pay Master for this United States District, Capt. A Kingsley, resident at Nashville; to the end, that the payments for their important Services may be commenced, and completed, agreeably to the instructions he has received, as I am advised, from the War department to make said payments. I presume, that the proper rolls correctly certified, can be obtained from the Several officers, who might be required by your Order, to meet at Set times by you to be named; those of the first Division, at Knoxville, & those of the Second Division, at Nashville, with their Several rolls, without requiring an assemblage of the whole Troops, which assemblage, under all circumstances, could not be deemed practicable to effect, and therefore could not be expected.

                                                                                      Willie Blount

Pardon of General William Hull

May 5, 1814
The Maryland Gazette and Political Intelligencer:

Extracts from the sentence and other proceedings relating to the unfortunate Gen. William Hull:

Extract from the sentence of the General Court Martial:

The Court, in consequence of their determination respecting the second and third charges, and specification under those charges, exhibited against the said brig. General Wm. Hull, and after due consideration, do sentence him to be SHOT to death, two thirds of the court concurring in the sentence.

The court in consideration of brigadier general Hull’s revolutionary services, and his advanced age, earnestly recommend him to the mercy of the president of the U.S.

(Signed) Henry Dearborn, Maj. Gen. President of the Court.

April 25, 1814

The sentence of the Court is approved, and the execution of it remitted.

James Madison

Adjutant and Inspector General’s Office GENERAL ORDERS:
The roll of the army is not be longer dishonored by having upon it the name of Brigadier General William Hull. Signed, J.B. Walback, Adj. General


Detail For Guards

Head Quarters
Army of the Centre, 6&7 Mil Dist
Confluence Coosa & Tallapoosa 
May 2nd 1814

Genl Orders

Detail for Guards

For Fatigue

The stock of whiskey having been augmented, the Military Store Keeper will issue rations of Spirits, on returns authinticated in manner as prescribed in the orders of yesterday for Provisions, but not more than one days rations at a time, The Indians are not allowd. rations of spirits. The Genl regrets the sleepiness & security that appeared to pervade camp last night - on an alarm. In future the firing of a single gun at night, in camp or its vicinity, will be considered as an alarm, on which every person will promptly repair to his post. Officers will be held responsible, that those under command, duly observe this order.

By order
H.W. Connors

Courtesy of the Alabama Department of Archives and History


Copy of a letter from Com. Chauncey to the Secretary of the Navy

Copy of a letter from Com. Chauncey to the Secretary of the Navy.

U.S. Ship Gen. Pike, Sacket’s Harbor, May 1.
SIR-I am happy to have it in my power to in from you that the U.S. ship ‘Superior,’ was launched this morning without accident.
The Superior is an uncommon beautiful well built ship, something larger than the President and could mount 64 guns, if it was thought advisable to put as many upon her. This ship has been built in the short space of eighty days, and when it is taken into view, that two brigs of 500 tons each have also been built, rigged and completely fitted for service since the first of February, it will be acknowledged that the mechanics employed on this station have done their duty.

I have the honor to be, &c.
Hon. Wm. Jones,
Secretary of the Navy, Washington.


Published in the Raleigh Register and North Carolina Gazette-May 20, 1814.

Letter from John Williams to Andrew Jackson

Fort Jackson
[c May 1, 1814]

D Sir,

      Please communicate to me by letter the limits assigned by you to the hostile Indians who had laid down their arms--Also what portion of the Creek country would indemnity the U. States for the expence of the War--Would the land on the North side of Coosa be a sufficient indemnity?
          Genl. Pinckney & Col Hawkins will not be concerned in forming a treaty--The latter it is said is permitting the red sticks to return to their farms in this quarter--Did you communicate to Col Hawkins the limits you had assigned to the red sticks? Give me such other information as you may suppose to be useful--I expect to be in Washington city in July--I shall leave this in a day or two for Knoxville--In haste your friend

                                                                                      John Williams

Captain Barney Reports from Patuxent


Patuxent May 1st 1814


This morning I left the Patapsco with the Vessels mentioned to you in mine of the 29th. Arrived here at 4 P M, I shall send over land in the morning to "point look-out," for information respecting the Enemy; I am informed here, that a ship and two or three Schooners lay in the Potomac two days ago; my look-out boat is still below me, and I expect to hear from her tomorrow;

The information I shall receive from Point look out, will determine my movements; I shall be delayed here a day, to get a Mast for one of the Barges, which was carried away coming down, we had a fresh gale down, the Second rate Barges are unsafe, as they took in much water, and swim too deep, although I have lightened them very much since I was at Annapolis, by changing the 18 pounder for a 12, and having but a few days provision & water onboard,

I am Sir with respect your Obt. Servt.
Joshua Barney