British Captain Alexander to Captain Barrie in the Chesapeake

His Majesty's Bomb Vessel Devastation, off Poplar Island in the Chesapeake
October 31st 1814.
In obedience to your Order of yesterday, I this Morning proceeded to Parkers Point, with the Boats, and detachment of Royal Marines you did me the honor to place under my Command; on finding the Houses deserted, I made dispositions for driving in Lieut. Frazer of the R.M. and Lieut. Alexander of the R.N. in advance with the Skirmishers.

On reconnoitering, I perceived the Enemy to be in considerable Force in Cavalry, therefore directed Captain Cole (Royal Marines) to bring up the Main Body, to support the advance, and the favorable position we had taken up, induced me to throw the Skirmishers forward, to entice the Enemy to make a Charge, which I am happy to say had the effect, but the steady and gallant reception, which I felt confident they would meet with from the Royal Marines, who threw in a destructive volley, put them to flight, leaving two Killed, two Prisoners, and twenty Horses with their accoutrements etc. in our possession.

I only regret a body of Infantry (chiefly Militia) from eight Hundred, to one Thousand with field Pieces, supported this Squadron, in their attack, or I have not a doubt, from the gallant Intrepidity of the detachment, the whole destruction of this Squadron, consisting of one hundred & fourteen would have been effected.

Perceiving the Enemy’s intention to cut us from the Beach, his very superior Force, the difficulty I experienced in Landing, the Shoal water not admitting the Boats to approach sufficiently near to cover us from their field Pieces, I judged it prudent to embark, which I am happy to say was effected without the loss of a Man, under the judicious arrangement of Lieut. Fitzmorris of the Dragon.

…Considering the Force we were opposed to, I feel great satisfaction [in] stating our loss to be trifling, three Seamen two Marines missing, and I only hope the Service performed by the detachment under [my] orders, will meet your approbation. I have the honor to be Sir, 

Your obedient humble Servt.
Thos Alexander Commander

Statement of American Cavalry Commander at Bladensburg

October 31, 1814

Statement of Lt. Col. Lavall, commander of the American cavalry at Bladensburg:

“Our being elevated, and in a conspicuous position, the balls and rockets soon showered around us. I had no other chance to form any idea, having never been at the place before. We were too late to form any judicious arrangements, not knowing how the troops and batteries were disposed at Bladensburg…. Yet it has been wondered at why I did not cut to pieces four or five thousand British veteran troops with fifty-five men, all recruits, and upon raw horses; the most of them had not yet been purchased two weeks; the consequences are so obvious that I did not think myself justifiable to make so certain, so inevitable a sacrifice, without a hope of doing any good; there is a distinction between madness and bravery.

Letter to William Carroll from Andrew Jackson

Pierces Mills near Ft. Montgomery 7. M D.
October 31. 1814


          Advices received from the Adjutant General of your State last night informs that the Secretary of War has ordered the requisition of 5000 into the Field--News from abroad makes promptness and Dispatch necessary. Arms must be obtained from New port Kentucky to meet your troops at Natchez or Baton Rouge. You must use every exertion to arm your troops in Tennessee, Your route over land to Natchez, keeping me advised of the particular time you will be at the Tennessee River, at Browns, & at the Chicasaw Agency; that your route may be changed, or not as circumstances may require. Your best exertions are calculated on, and I know I will not be disappointed in your rapid movement. On it in a great measure may depend, the safety of New Orleans and the adjacent Country--recollect the march we made from the Country--& reallise it, on your march to the enemy--you must have transportation for your Baggage and bread stuff. The Beeves drove on foot. As soon as a Battalion is mustered have them pushed forward across the Tennessee that no delay may take place at the river. In haste I am Respectfully your Most Obd. Servt.

                                                                                              Andrew Jackson
                                                                                              Major Genl Commanding

Letter from John Russel to Andrew Jackson

Camp Stewart three miles in advance of Fort Strother
31st. Octr 1814--

His Excellency Major Genl. Andrew Jackson

               On my knees in midst of wood have time only to say that my health is not as could wish but no doubt according to Pope--as good as it ought to be--I wish to put on an hickory face and instead of Pewter Iron feet and meet you as soon as our shanks can carry us--Genl. Taylor is the most anxious man I ever saw to press on and accelerate our march but the difficulties presenting themselves in our way not anticipated must plead our excuse if charged with tardy marches--The meazles--Pleurisy and flux has affected about one third of our men. We have buried several here among whom Lt. Colo. Anderson and officer universally beloved--Two men are dead last night and to be buried to day--We immediately take up our line of march The contractors ought to be (at least) politically D---d. The flour we draw is sour and full of insects Most Respectfully Your Obt. Servt.

                                                                       Jno. Russell


British naval raiding party looted and vandalized St. Inigoes chapel in St. Mary's county

30 October 1814

British loot and vandalize chapel in St. Mary’s County Maryland

Letter from Brother Joseph Mobberly to Farther Grassi of Georgetown College reporting on what happened at the St. Inigoes chapel:

“I ran to the Chapel, saw  4 or 5 ruffians at work, ran back and begged the Captain to interfere. He ran with me and ordered them out. But OH! Painful to relate. The sacred vestments thrown and dragged here and there, the Vessels consecrated to the service of God profaned, the holy altar cloth stripped naked, the tabernacle carried off and the most adorable Sacrament of the altar borne away in the hands of the wicked. Great God what were my feelings. 

I entreated the officer over and over again to protect the Church and have all things restored. He promised he would. He instantly ran with me to the barge – he stormed and swore if they did not restore the sacred vessels, the Sacrament and vestments, he would have all their plunder thrown on shore and deprive them of it. Seeing the Chalice I pointed it out to him and observed it was sacred. He ordered it to be restored – I received it from the hands of a villain and turning to the Captain observed: “What an indignity to the church.” …. After a short pause (the officer) replied:”Sir, the truth is I did not come on shore to plunder – I came for stock; but I cannot command these men. They are nothing but real ruffians”…. I begged him to restore the sacred vessels, etc. He promised he would, seated himself in the barge and ordered his men to move off without taking any more notice of us…. This is certainly the most outrageous attack that has been witnessed on our shores in the present war. The prophanation is distressing, our losses great….the cruets and plates were broken and scattered on the floor…..Never was there a mechanic more perfect in his trade than these villains. 

The whole was completed in about 10 or 15 minutes…Had nothing been said they would certainly have taken every article of any value that was in the House. They had no pity. They are men of no sensibility; they respect neither God nor man. Like ravenous blood hounds, they rushed forward with hellish fury, only intent on seizing their prey…..”


Letter to James Monroe from Andrew Jackson

Head Quarters 7th Military District,
Pearce's Stockade, Tensaw,
Octr. 26{3}. 1814


             I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 27th. ulto. with its enclosures.
             My several letters will have advised you of the hostile conduct of the Governor of Pensacola. By it I have been induced to determine to drive the British and Indian force from that place, possess myself of the Barancas, (which I expect to find occupied by the former) and all other points that may be calculated to prevent a British fleet from entering Pensacola Bay. This will put an end to the Indian war in the South, as it will cut off all foreign influence.
             For the above purpose, I arrived here last night to organized a competent force; being previously advised that the volunteers and militia from the western part of the State of Tennessee were near at hand. The scarcity of transportation for provisions &c. I fear will detain me a day or two after the arrival of the Infantry, whom I expect to join me here in {a few} two days. But the moment I can obtain transportation I will move; and in five days from the movement, with the smiles of Heaven, I will be able to reduce Pensacola.
            As I act without the orders of government, I deem it proper to state my reasons for it. I trust, sir, that the necessity of this act, to the safety of this section of the Union; the hostility of the Governor of Pensacola--resigning his forts to the British Commander; thus assuming the character of a British territory: his permitting them to remain there, to fit out one expeditions against the United States, return there and refit, now to be preparing another: added to his having acknowledged that he has armed the Indians, sent them into our territory, capturing our citizens and destroying their property, and this too under a British officer, will be a sufficient justification in the eyes of my government, for having undertaken this expedition. Should it not, I shall have one consolation; a consciousness of having done the only thing which can, under present circumstances, give security to this section and put down an Indian war; and the salvation of my country will be a sufficient reward for the loss of my commission.
            I enclose you the report of Major M'Intosh of the Cowetas, which will show you that this is the moment to strike the enemy in his stronghold. A successful attack will make all the Indians our friends, not from love but fear. I have about 700 choctaws with me, they have been out and have killed seven of the hostile Indians, which has animated them; and I have no doubt but through these I will make the whole nation faithful to us. The Chickasaws have not reached me; but the march of Genl. Coffee through their territory will make them turn out. I have directed to be bought for the Choctaws a blanket, flap and shirt; and I have authorised Col. Hawkins to purchase for the friendly Creeks who will take the field some clothing, which will be taken out of their pay. The Caddo chief, with the neighbouring tribes, twelve in number, had made a tender of his services to the United States. They are from 500 to 1000 strong, and well armed with rifles. I have accepted the tender,  and directed that they be organized, and placed under the superintendance of the officer commanding Fort Claiborne, Natchitoches. This measure will give security to that point for the present. I hope in a few weeks to place this quarter in perfect security both from external and internal enemies, and to be able to move to New Orleans with Genl. Coffee's mounted men.
         The Gun boats have not reached their station on the Lakes; and I have dreaded least a British force should cut off our supplies from New Orleans, before I could get a sufficient stock from Tennessee. But a letter from Commodore Patterson, just come to hand, assures me of a hearty cooperation, and I hope ere long he will be on the coast.
         Permit me to thank you for the funds sent on to Govr. Blount. Treasury Bills will answer every purpose; give me them, and I ask no other funds. The credit of the government is restored here; through the sums advanced by the Nashville and New Orleans Banks. The affair of Mobile Point of the 15th ulto. had, in this respect, a desirable effect.
        In a short time I shall be better able to judge what force will be necessary for the defence of this district: when all my surplus force shall be discharged. I have directed the troops ordered from West Tennessee, by the late requisition, direct to New Orleans; if necessary, I can change the route to any point. I hope I shall not want the requisition from Georgia.
        The Contractors on the route from Tennessee to Fort Jackson, as usual, have starved and detained my troops, with the exception of the 1st. Regt. West Tennessee militia under Col Lowrie, and a detachment of the 44th. Infy. under Capt. W.O Butler; those, having every inconvenience and difficulty, are now near me. I have the honor to be, Sir, Very respectfully, Your obt. servant,

                                                                                                  Andrew Jackson
                                                                                                  Major Genl. Comdg.

a scarcity of stationary on a frontier like this, is my apology for the appearance of this communication.


Letter to Daniel Todd Patterson from Andrew Jackson

Head Quarters 7th Military district Mobile
Oct 23d. 1814.


        Your communication of the 17th. inst by Mr. Boyd, reached me this morning.
        I regret that you Should have misconceived my construction of the relation, existing between the Navy and army--I never had an Idea that you were bound to acknowledge my Command. I know that we can together act only, by common consent; and So only can we effectually Serve our Country. Therefore I thought that a Communication of my wishes would have ensured an instantanious co operation on your Part. And I Still hope, when you receive the Letter, I had the honor to address to you on the 14th inst you will Immediately take the Steps necessary to effect the objects therein detailed.
       Our Situation had been extremely disagreable, during the absence of the Naval force from our Waters--The enemy has advanced into our Territory--but wanting the aid of a few Gun Boats to Protect this Section of my Command, I could not make even a Temporary movement to Punish his Temerity.
       Now that I hear of a Part of your flotilla, approaching this Station, I Shall leave here for a Short time. during my absence--I Shall rely confidently on the Navy, for the Preservation, of the Coast from the ravages of the enemy, and of the Communication from New Orleans to Mobile Point--without this is open, our Supplies for the Army will be very Precarious--the Cannon lent by the Navy have arrived; for the loan of them, Permit to thank you.
        It will afford me great Pleasure to See you at Head Quarters; And to ensure a good understanding with the Navy. I have the honor to be very respectfully,

                                                                                              A. Jackson,
                                                                                              Majr. Genl. Comg


Letter to Andrew Hynes from Andrew Jackson

Head quarters 7th. M District Mobile
Octobr. 21rst. 1814


         Yours of the 11th. Instant is this moment to hand The moment they Troops can be organized, you will please to direct that Those from the western Division of the state, be ordered direct to Neworleans, those from the Eastern Division, direct to Fort Claiborne by way of Forts Strother, williams & Jackson should any Troops be ordered from Kentuckey, they will from present prospects have the same direction as those from west Tennessee-         
         I am truly gratified to hear that Colo Carrol is elected Major Genl  of the 2nd. Division, he will give energy and proper tone to the militia--it is much wanted. The soldiers are the best meterials, but the militia are surely in a great measure cursed with officers--reguardless of commissions or their dates at this Crisis, the best materials must be brought into the field--I hope Carroll may command the Division--you will remark that when I address you officially I do it as the representative of the Governor--to whom you will please present my respects, and say to him time at present will not permit me to answer his letter of the 8th. instant which is Just to hand--Genl Coffee is near at hand--The Infantry not heard from, but fears are entertained that they are detained for the want of supplies--I have sent on a quartermaster, if they have failed, with orders to purchase at any price--and if they have failed, I will make their Pocketts sweat at every pore--but still this does not remedy the evill--for the want of means I have been two long stationary I am preparing for opperations as soon as the means arive--I am sir verry respectfully your. mo. ob. serv.

                                                                                                      Andrew Jackson

The Troops when organized had better be sent on by regts and Batalions, if Boats can be obtained, let them descend the river if not the must be  marched over land, dispatch is the object, and to have the Troops at their proper stations in due time all important--Present me to Genl Carroll--and if he is ordered into service let him write me--and he will without delay receive proper instructions--

Letter to Andrew Jackson from James Monroe

War Department
October 21st. 1814.


        Your letter of the 9th. ultimo covering your correspondence with the Governor of Pensacola is received; and I hasten to communicate to you, the directions of the President, that you should at present take no measures, which would involve this Government in a contest with Spain.
       A minister having lately been appointed on our part, to that Government, and our relations with it being amicable, it is deemed more proper, that a representation of the insolent and unjustifiable conduct of the Governor of Pensacola, should be made to that Government through the Ordinary channels of communication than that you should resent it by an attack on Pensacola.
       The President approves the manly tone with which you have asserted the rights of your Country in your Correspondence with the Governor of that province.
       Very important interests are committed to you, and great confidence is entertained, that you will meet the expectation, of the Government in the discharge of your duties.
       It is thought very probable that the British forces expected from Europe, under Lord Hill, will be directed against Louisiana--To enable you to meet this pressure 7,500 men have been ordered from Tennessee 2,500 from Kentucky and a like number from Georgia, and it is expected that the Warriors of all the friendly tribes of Indians, will be secured by you on our side. One hundred thousand Dollars have been placed, subject to your Order, in the hands of the Governor of Tennessee, for the public service; and blankets and other articles will be forwarded without delay for the use of the Indians. I have the honor to be with great respect Your Obedient Servt.

                                                                                                 Jas. Monroe


Letter to John Coffee from Andrew Jackson

Octr. 20th 1814

Dr Genl,

       I have been making every exertion to destroy the Hotbed of the war, and the asylum of our enemies My feeble means before reinforced, was not competant to effect this object, as soon as reinforced, a moment is not to be lost, to make the blow before they receive their reinforcements, from the place pointed out for your encampment, to Pensacola is about eighty miles--The dificulty of Transporting forage for your horses is great, and the means of this country cannot afford--There is fine pasturage in the field in the cutt off--if one regiment of your Brigade could think of  leaving there horses in this pasturage, and take it on foot, It would be a great advantage to the operation and to their horses--but this must be a delicately named--and if opposed cannot be urged--near to Pensacola there is not grass, and the place is nearly starving If any of your horsmen should be detached for the defence of Mobile in our absence, they had better leave there horses in the cutt off where they are surrounded by water and cannot Escape, a small guard will do to take care of them--I shall move the troops from here the moment I can get the supplies on the way and hear of your arrival at Mims Ferry, give your strength as early as possible--say nothing about the intended attack on P----a I shall see you shortly adieu--

                                                                                                             Andrew Jackson

P. S I have 1500 good musquets--will one of your regts. arm with them for the present movment


Letter to Rachel Jackson from Andrew Jackson

Headquarters 7th. M. District Mobile
Octr 17th. 1814

My Love

         I wrote you by last mail, a short letter and promised you a long one this--The arival of an express from Genl Coffee, which I had to answer with various communications, from other quarters all of which I was obliged to attend to, prevents it--I have the pleasure to inform you, that my health is restored--and I will be able to take the field as soon as Genl Coffee arives--and hope with the smiles of heaven, shortly to be able to place this section of the union in perfect security--and be able to visit Neworleans, at which period, I will ask you to vissit me--that you may be comfortable and not disappointed, I have wrote Capt R Rapier to know whether you and your female acquaintances who may accompany you can get a passage in his fine new Boat I am told she has an elegant cabbin--and whether he can freight such articles as you may order--he will answer me by return mail--
        I have the pleasure to say to you that Jackey & William Donelson reached me last evening--be pleased to give this information to Genl Daniel Smith & Captain John Donelson--they are fine boys, and will make good soldiers--
        The patriotism of the volunteers of Tennessee--headed by Genl Coffee, has immortalized the state in which they live, and has given a fit example to [her sister states, if followed, will make the Tyrant of England shudder, and shortly sue for peace--She will soon see that Canady will fall, and she will be expelled from the continant of america
         I have directed the quarter master to purchase a large quantity if corn--should my crop be as large as represented, please to say to Mr John Hutchings to sell him what he thinks can be spared from the farm--advise me whether the Bills of sale of Sampson & his family & the other negroes Bought has reached you--
        Say to Colo. Hays I had the pleasure of receiving his letter from Fayetteville--but have not time to write him, my respects to the family--& say all friends are well--say to Mrs. Caffery I heard from Jackey last evening he enjoys good health present me affectionately to her and family--Having a pleasing hope that I shall see you and & my little son shortly--I shall bid you adieu, imploring heavens kindest blessing for you--your affectionate Husband

                                                                                                         Andrew Jackson
P.S. give my compliments to Mr Fields, say to him to have the cotton secured and Bailed as soon as possible, and advise me, of the quantity of cotton & corn raised--and the situation of the stock--]

Letter from William Charles Cole Claiborne to Andrew Jackson

New Orleans
October 17th. 1814


         Your letter of the 27th. of September, with its inclosures, did not reach me until the evening of the 15th. Instant. By some mistake, this letter was sent to Natchez, and from that place it descended to New Orleans, & in this way arose the delay. I regret it, because your address to the Louisianians is calculated to produce the Greatest Good, and I should have been happy to have laid it earlier before the people; But it shall be printed on this day, & I will take care to give it circulation; the General order respecting the Glorious defence of Fort Boyer, has already been printed in all the papers here, and a republication is unnecessary. The Publication of your address to the free people of Colour, is delayed a few days; an unfortunate misunderstanding between the officers of the Battalion of Colour, which excites much Interest, is the subject of investigation before a court of Enquiry now Sitting; the difficulties will I hope be soon arranged, & in the mean time I have deemed it best to postpone giving publicity to your address. I must not disguise from you the fact, that many excellent citizens will disapprove the policy, you wish to observe towards the free people of Colour; The Battalion already organized, limited as it is, excites much distrust, and I should not be surprised, if at the insuing legislature, an attempt should be made to put it down; I must confess however, that for myself, I have no cause to lament the confidence, which the local Government has placed in these men; their General Deportment has been correct and they have done nothing to create in my mind, any doubt as to their fidelity. It does appear to me; that at the present crisis these men ought to be attended to; that is it not probable, they will remain careless and disinterested spectators of the Present Contest, and more particularly if the war (as is apprehended) should be brought into the bosom of Louisiana. But on the contrary, that their feelings & best wishes would be enlisted in some way, and that if we distrusted their fidelity the Enemy might with the more ease, acquire their confidence. But Sir, this mode of reasoning, makes no impression upon some respectable citizens here; they think, that in putting arms into the hands of men of Colour, we only add to the force of the Enemy, and that nothing short of placing them in every respect upon a footing with white citizens (which our constitution forbids) could conciliate their affections. To two Gentlemen of Influence (members of the committee of defence) with whom I conversed on last evening, your policy of raising a Regiment was suggested, and that by removing it from the state, the Jealousy & distrust of the citizens would surely cease; they however, seemed to think, that the measure was only advisable, provided there could be a guaranty, against the return of the Regiment; But thus if at the close of the war, the Individuals were to settle in to Louisiana, with a Knowledge of the use of arms, & that pride of Distinction, which a soldiers pursuits so naturally inspires, they would prove dangerous. Such are the Sentiments of men, well informed, and well disposed, and I transmit them for your perusal. My impression is, that several companies composed of men of Colour may be raised upon the plan you suggest; But I cannot say to what number; such as are natives of Louisiana, are much attached to their families & Homes, and I am inclined to think would not inlist during the war; But such as have emigrated, from St. Domingo & Cuba, may most probably be desirous to Join the army. I am sir, with the greatest Respect Your mst obt svt

                                                                                     William C. C. Claiborne

Letter to John Williams from Andrew Jackson

Head Quarters 7th M. District Mobile
Octbr 17th 1814


          By express from Genl. Taylor, I have recd a copy of a correspondance between him and yourself, relative to the arms required of you. For what purpose this communication is forwarded I cannot say; no charges or specifications have accompanied it. It may be intended by the genl as a foundation {for the application} of your arrest.
          I regret that you did not furnish him all the arms that could be spared from the deposit in your hands. The moment he was ordered into the service of the United States, he had a right to command any officer of a lower grade. And the want of arms and the urgency of the occasion, would no doubt justify the order; there being no possibility of arming his men, after leaving Knoxville, untill they passed through the country of an enemy. The slow progress making in recruiting in Tennessee from late reports is an evidence that at most one half of these arms would have been fully adequate for the recruits of your regiment, untill a supply could have been ordered on, and reached you. Arms are scarce here and should it be true that our gunboats are blockaded the communication with new orleans can easily be cut off. these men may remain without arms in the field during their term of service, and this at a time too, when it is expected the service of every soldier that can be obtained will be wanted to defend this section of the union
      I have deemed it necessary to make this communication to you, as well to prepare you for an event which must happen, if insisted on by Genl. Taylor, as to guard you against the repetition of an act which might prove so injurious to the safety of the country. This is not at time to investigate nice military questions of rank. It is the duty of all officers even to recede a little from their own rights where a public benefit would ensue. I have the honor to be Yr. most obednt. Servt.

                                                                                                        Andrew Jackson
                                                                                                        Major Genl Commanding

Letter from Robert Butler to John Williams

Head Quarters 7th. M: District.
Adjutant Generals Office
Town of Mobile
17th. Oct. 1814


       I herewith enclose you copies of two General Orders of this date. The Major General directs that the prisoners be brought our for execution, the first order read and the two soldiers not pardoned to be executed in the presence of the others: after which event the After General Order will be read; its provisions complied with and those pardoned ordered to duty: You will notify in a proper manner J: K: Snap of his fate. By command, I am very respectfully your Mo. Obt. Sevt.

                                                                                                       Robert Butler Adj: Genl

Enclosed General Orders to Tennessee Troops contained in Letter to John Williams

                                                        ENCLOSURE I: GENERAL ORDER

Head Quarters 7th. M: District
Adjutant Generals Office.
Town of Mobile.
17th. October 1814.

General Orders,

         At a General court martial, held at Knoxville in the state of Tennessee on the 19th. and continued by adjournment 'till the 29th. September 1814. of which Majr. Francis W. Armstrong of the 24th. regiment Infantry is president was tried Jacob K. Snap Ensign of the 39th. U.S. Infantry charged with "conduct unbecoming an Officer and a Gentlemen" and with "disobedience of Orders." To which charges with the several specifications the prisoner pleaded "not guilty." The Court after an examination of the evidence, on mature deliberation find the prisoner guilty of the charges and specifications, except the first specification of the first charge, which is as follows--viz. "That the said Ensign Jacob. K. Snapp on the 13th. May 1814. at Washington in Rhea County did take Edmund Hunt a drummer in the 39th. Infantry with him to a house in Washington and became drunk or deeply intoxicated, and associated with said Hunt where he was kettling on the drum." The Court sentence Ensign Jacob K. Snapp "To be dismissed the service of the United States: and they consider him unfit ever hereafter to hold any Office of profit or honor under the government of the United States."
        The Majr. General approves the foregoing sentence, and orders that Jacob K Snap be stricken from the rolls of the Army.
        Was also tried John Haygood a private soldier of the 39th. Regiment Infantry charged with "Desertion." to which he pleaded "not guilty." The court on the testimony adduced find the prisoner guilty as charged and sentence him John Haygood of the 39th. regiment of Infantry to suffer Death by shooting--Was also tried Thomas Warren a private in the 3d regiment U:S: Rifflemen charged with "Desertion," to which the prisoner pleaded "not guilty." The court find the prisoner guilty as charged and sentence him to suffer death by shooting--Was also tried Richard Wise a private soldier of the 2nd regt. U:S: artillery charged with "Desertion" to which the prisoner pleaded "not guilty." The court find the prisoner guilty as charged and sentence him to suffer death by shooting--was also tried John D Dawes charged with "Desertion" to which he pleaded "not guilty." The court find the prisoner guilty as charged and sentence him to suffer death by shooting--Was also tried Jacob Settlemier a private of Captain Donoho's company of Artillery charged with "Destertion." to which he plead "not guilty." The court find the prisoner guilty as charged and sentence him to suffer death by shooting--Was also tried Henry McCurdy a private of the 24th. regiment Infantry charged with "Desertion" to which he pleaded "guilty." The court find him Henry McCurdy guilty as charged and sentence him to suffer death by shooting
      The Majr. General approves the foregoing sentences of death passed on John Haygood, Thomas Warren, Richard Wise, John D. Dawes, Jacob Settlemeir, and Henry McCurdy soldiers of the army of the United States and orders that their execution take place at such time as Colo. Williams or the senior officer at Knoxville Tennessee shall direct--
       To put a stop to the disorganizing and abhorrent practice of deserting is the fixed determination of the Majr. General, and to this end he calls on every officer within the district he has the honor to command, to use the most prompt and efficient means to apprehend and bring to condign punishment all such Military offenders. The number of examples already made, added to the above, carries with it this determination and he most sincerely hopes it will prove a salutary warning to the troops under his command, and prevent the recurrence of a crime which every good solder shudders at--The General Court Martial of which Majr. F.W: Armstrong is president, is hereby dissolved. From the recommendation of Majr. Woodruff. Lieut. J F Ross is appointed Regimental Quarter Master to the 3d regiment of Infantry, to take effect on the 1st. Instant--The appointment of Captain H Chotard is announced to the troops as Assistant Adjutant General subject to the approval of the President of the United States; he will report to the Adjutant General tomorrow morning. By Command.

C: Sign                                                                                                     Robert L Butler
W: Word                                                                                                 Adjutant General                      

                                         ENCLOSURE II: AFTER GENERAL ORDERS

       Thomas Warren, Richard Wise, John D. Dawes, and Jacob Settlemeir Soldiers of the army of the United States;
        You have been severally found guilty of the attrocious crime of deserting from the standard of your country--The honorable court before whom you were arraigned have deservedly passed on you the sentence of death, yet, from considerations made known by said court, they have recommended each of you as fit subjects for mercy--The Majr. General in extending this mercy, deems it of importance to inform you that it is not given because you deserve it--The man who will violate his oath of fidelity to his country cannot ask her for mercy: and to bestow life when legally forfeited, would seem to require a future devotion to her service, which no circumstances should counteract--You are severally pardoned, and severally admonishd. in the most solemn manner to deserve the existance thus granted you, in retrieving your characters by a steady and honorable attention to duty-Each of you will renew the oath of fidelity to your country and her service--You will kneel before her flag staff holding it in your left hand, with your right hand raised, when the oath will be administered. after which ceremony you will return to duty--By Command

                                                                                                        Robert L. Butler
                                                                                                        Adjutant General



Letter to Daniel Todd Patterson from Andrew Jackson

Head Quarters 7 M D Mobile
Octo 14 1814


        Information reached me last evening that Vessels with Flour are daily passing from N Orleans to Pensacola to feed our enemy contrary to my express orders and the rules of warfare. Through the same channel I am informed that the British are fitting out Barges mounting 22 and 12 pound caronades, which must be cut off our communication and supplies from New Orleans. I have therefore to request that you will without delay advise me whether I am to rely upon the employment of your Flotilla in preserving the communication through the Lakes and along the coast to pass Heron. The existance of my army and the defence of the District assigned to my command and protection may depend upon the preservation of this communication, and the safety of N Orleans greatly depends on your vigilence with the Flotilla. I must consequently request of you a prompt and decisive answer to the above enquiries. Not a moment is to be lost. The Barges fitting out at Pensacola, with proper vigilence on your part may be easily destroyed with a few Gun Boats. I have the honor to be &C

                                                                                      sigd Andw Jackson M G comdg

Letter to Andrew Jackson from William Carroll

Octr. 14th. 1814

Dear Sir,

             I have the honor to inform you that I have been elected your successor as Major General of the second division of the militia of Tennessee--
             You have no doubt been apprized of the late requisition of the war department on the Executive of this State for five thousand additional troops to be sent to your head quarters, or such point as you may please to direct--Of that detachment the Governor has given me the command; I have therefore to request your instructions as early as convenient--In the mean time I will make such arrangements as necessity as prudince may dictate--I will immediately make a requisition of the quarter master for the munitions of war and camp equipage believing it proper that those articles should always accompany the troops--Having no other orders at this time that of the Governor to march to your head quarters, I shall make a requisition on the contractor at this place for the supply of provisions to carry us on--and for the fecility of transportation, I think it prudint that we should carry only breadstuff and drive with the army beef cattle--and take the  contractors due bills for the componant  parts of the rations--
             From the scarcity of arms now in Tennessee owing to so many mens being the in the field I foresee a dificulty in arming the present detachment--I have suggested to the Governor the propriety of his applying to the commanding officers at New Port Ky. and obtaining 1500 or 2000 through that source--he appears to think that he has no authority--Your instructions on this point will be very acceptable--Music is important; will you empower me to get a good drummer & fifer at the cantonment near this place?
            As the post master is now waiting on me I have Just time to remark, that I have a full confidence, under your direction that I shall be able to make the detachment, now ordered, as useful as any militia, you have ever had in the field--Nothing shall be wanting, on my part I hope--Will I be governed in the appointment of Staff officers by your roll of last winter--or will less answer Nothing new by this mail from the North--In hast yr. sincere friend

                                                                                                  Wm Carroll


Letter from Richard Brown to Andrew Jackson

Fort Deposit
12th. october 1814

Friend & Sir,

       Some time ago I wrote to you & likewise heave sent word by Captn. Mayfield to you & now sends these lines to you again. I heave heard Two or three diffrent times from men for me & my compney to Start on to you as quick as I could. you no or heave heard our Situation at this place on account of corn or provition for we heave not made corn Enough in Each familey to bread one family one month or hardley that--and the contracters heave Stopt their hands from furnishing us on account of heaving no orders from Government--if I Start now & take all my Compeney to you I must Expect that our famileys must Suffer before we Return to them--I want for us all to move back to our old places this winter to putt our plantions in fix to plant corn next year--for the armey has burnt a great deal of our Fencings &c. it is best for people to Try & Raise corn of their own--last winter we was cap Buisey on account of the Creek war-- I think Col. Lowry Walker & others that lives above us & has made plenty of corn they Should Turn out first & help you and the Chickasaws & Choctaws aught to Turn out I Shall Start in Two or three days from this to see Col. Meigs & there Try & gett pay for my compney or clothing for them for the winter--and there make with him some arengements for my people for provitions Soon as I do that I will and my Compney will Start on to see you--but if you think you heave not men Siffishent Enaugh there--write on as quick as you can to me--for I heave had no writing from you since I saw you last--please write on to me as quick as possable when I Start I Expect to heave Two or three hundred of as good Cherokee warriors as aney. or perhaps more men then I heave Stated to you. Captn. Mayfield will tell you if my wanting to start last--I am your Sinceare Friend & Brother Solder--

                                                                                       Richard Brown

P.S. when I go I will take a man to write for me & do my Bussnes & not look to a white man as I did last winter when at the horse Shoe nor I wont be under such men onely yourself--R.B.


Letter to John Rhea from Andrew Jackson

Headquarters, 7th M. District, Mobile
Oct. 10th, 1814.


        I regret to learn the distruction of our capital and the national disgrace, but whilst I feel regret on the one hand, I rejoice that it will produce uninimity of feeling throughout the united states, and unity of action in the deliberative councils of that nation,  and without counting the cost we will be viewed in the midst of war, that requires the whole energies of the nation, and the means of carrying on this war, to an honorable termination, will be sought better without calculating the expense of the necessary means.
       The folly of an attempt of negotiation I hope is seen & felt by all, that our commissioners have been sent for, has been presumed, and peace will not again be asked for by the American nation. The whole force Britain can bring into the field, we are now contending against. It is daily increasing, hence the necessity of manfully pushing the war. Britain will ask for peace as soon as her present army is crippled, and when she asks, it will be in a different tone than she speaks at present. Then, let the means of carrying the war be sought for, and the expense calculated at the end of the war--
       We have been visitted in this quarter by Sr. Wm. Henry & Col. Nichols. Major Lawrence gave them  such a cavalier reception, that it has become doubtful whether the nobility likes the climate--Sir Wm. has lost his ship, and the Col. an eye--on their first respects to us--and have retired to Pensacola to rest, at which place they prepared the expedition--We will be better prepared to receive them on the next visit, the Fort had been dismounted. I reached Mobile in the morning of the 21st of August, the detachment sailed on that day to take position--on the 25th they effected a landing--and on the 15th of Sept. was attacked.
       I hope Congress will see the necessity of placing the militia in a state, that when called for, they can be relied on--the length of their service ought to be extended at least to one year--and a law passed declaring that any of the militia when once called into service, who leave it without a regular discharge should be apprehended, and transferred to the regular service and compelled to serve during the present war. This will alone put down the spirit of mutiny and desertion that prevade our militia--and let it be recollected that short enlistments is the greatest curse to a nation in a state of war--and such army can never be in a state to opperate. To make therefore the militia the bullwark of the nation you must extend their term of service to one or two years. I am respectfully, Yr. mo. ob. serv.

                                                                                      Andrew Jackson
P.S. I am just recovered from a severe attack of the fever--it was violent tho not long. I will be glad to hear from you.

Letter to James Monroe from Andrew Jackson

Head Quarters, 7th Military District Mobile,
Octr. 10th. 1814.


        Since the affair of the 15th ulto. at the point of Mobile, the British have remained quietly in Pensacola; awaiting, it is said, reinforcements; and, in the meanwhile, employed in drilling their Indian allies. The citizens of Pensacola have become tired of their guests; even the infatuated Governor Don Manriques, has quaralled with the British Commandant, Col. Nicholls. The latter, to convince the Governor of his power and prowess, paraded his savage force, marched it through the town, saluting his Excellency with the war whoop, and threatening to scalp all the inhabitants. Thus, as we are advised, ended the strife.
      My patroles keep the hostile Indians in close quarters. A party, seven in number, ventured out the other day; the patrole from Fort Montgomery fell in with them, killed four, and wounded three; two of whom got back to Pensacola.
      My undivided attention and all my disposeable force have been employed to place Fort Bowyer in a complete state of defence. I have sent to New Orleans for heavier guns, and hope to have them well mounted, in a few days, on the battery of the fort. Major Lawrence has succeeded in raising from the wreck of the Hermes, eleven 32 lb. carronades and one 12 lb. carronade. He expects to be able to recover the rest of her guns. This Fort when completed, together with the ship now on the stocks a Tchefuncta's (which I would recommend to be finished,) well manned and armed with long 24 and 32 pounders, would effectually protect the Bay, and of course the town of Mobile. These points being thus safe, the troops now kept here to cover them, might be disposed of for other purposes.
     I beg leave to refer to my former letters as to the necessity of having possession of Pensacola, and confidently hope to receive instructions relative thereto.
     The Citizens of New Orleans have addressed me, calling for additional defence. My whole force would not satisfy the demands they make. I take the liberty of enclosing a copy of their Communication I have the honor to be, With the greatest respect, Your most obedient servant,

                                                                                          Andrew Jackson
                                                                                          Major Genl Comdg.