Letter from Andrew Jackson to Richard Brown

Nashville august 10th. 1815
Friend & Brother
     I have this moment recd. by the hand of Mr. McCoy your letter of the 6th. Instant--
     I am sorry any dispute should arise between you and the Creeks respecting the boundary of your land-- fearing this was the reason why I wrote you and the other chiefs to attend the treaty at Fort Jackson, in hopes your chiefs and the chiefs of the creek nation could settle upon your lines & boundaries before the signing of the treaty, that it might have been stated therein-- Colo Meiggs and yourself were verry anxious to have your boundaries settled, before the conclusion of the treaty-- Major McIntosh and the other chiefs of the creek nation would not enter into the discussion and final adjustment of the boundary with you until they had finished the treaty with me-- I was therefore that Justice might be done compelled, in the treaty with the creeks to call for the cherokee line, where it was agreed on by all to cross the coosee river at the ten Islands and then with it to the chickasaw boundary &c &c after I had concluded the treaty with the creeks you and Colo. Meiggs again attempted to have the boundaries between the cherokees and creeks settled--In which I was sorry to find, that some warmth was likely to arise between you and & Major McIntosh-- but finally you came to the conclusion stipulated in an article to which I am a witness with Colonel Hawkins Colonel Miggs & others-- a copy of which I would send you but it is in the possession of Major Jno. Reid at Franklin and Mr. McCoy says there is a copy in the hands of Colonel Lowry and another in the hands of Colonel Meiggs, which he can get with greater convenience, than to go by Franklin--Notwithstanding this agreement was entered into after the treaty with the creeks, it will be viewed by the commissioners as the evidence of the claim then set up by the cherokees, and if supported by the evidence of the old men of your nation, and the old men of the creek nation, will be confirmed by the commissioners-- It will at all times give me pleasure, to aid in procuring Justice to you and your nation, the part you & your warriors took with me against the hostile creeks will always ensure you my friendship & that of the united states-- I hope my friend Capt. Hutchings has handed you the sword I sent you by him-- you must wear it for my sake and a token of the friendship your father the President of the united states, has for you & your nation I am your friend & brother

Andrew Jackson


Letter from Andrew Jackson to Alexander James Dallas

Nashville 11 July 1815
     I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letters of the 21st. & 24th. ultimo with their enclosures.
     By my general order of the 3d. Inst. heretofore forwarded to you, & my letter to Genl Gaines of the 24th. ult. a copy of which I now send you, you will be advised of the disposition I have deemed it expedient to make of the troops within my Divission.
     By that which has been made of the 24th. & 39th. Regiments, i am persuaded the machination of Col Nichols will be defeated.
     I cannot believe that any considerable body of the Creeks have the least intention to return to hostilities; & the few who have yeilded themselves to improper influences ought, if they continue to manifest an evil disposition, to be brought, at once, to a proper sense of duty. The Seminoles, on whose friendship the least calculations are to be made, will hardly have the audacity to resort to arms, without great encouragement & support from some other power.
     I regret very much the delay of the Commissioners in runing the Creek boundary line. Upon this subject I beg leave to trasmit you a letter just received from majr Strother. To remove any apprehension or danger in the execution of their task I have sent Capt Donelson with his cmopany of rangers to serve as a guard to teh commissioners If Genl. Coffee could be made to fill the place, from which it seems Col Kershaw has retired, I am well satisfied the business would be soon adjusted. I have the Honor to be very respectfully sir Yr. mst. obt St.

Andrew Jackson
Major Genl Comdg
D. of the south--


Letter to Andrew Jackson from Daniel Bissell

St. Louis, M.T.
July 2nd. 1815
     Government having appointed Commissoners to treat with the Indians of the Mississippi and its vicinnity and have invited the different Tribes or nations to send Deputies to a council at Portage Du Souix, the 6h July it is presumed a great number will attend when I consider it an object of great moment, as do the Commissioners (see the enclosed note from there secretary) to preserve good order and to impress them at the same time with an Idea of our strength and importance as a nation. I have therefore taken the necessary steps to concentrate my force as much as circumstances will permit and to make such disposition of the means under my controle as best to effect the object and give security to the frontier. I have found it adviseable and have called on the Governors of Missourie and Illinoies Territories, for a major and two companie of militia (viz) a major and one company from Missourie and one company from Illinois, and have reduced the Garrison at Belle Fountain to a mear safe Guard, principally invaleads and with the force from that place, I have maned two of the largest Gun Boats, (the Governor Clark and Commodore Perry) which are well officered and equiped and already at the Portage. Colo Miller of the 3rd. Infantry is there with about 275 Regulars which he brought on; this officer I have ordered to make Command of the Troops at that place, and any that may arrive. Governor Clark and myself returned from the Portage last evening, having visited that place, to fix on the Encampment &c., and the Govenor has fixed on the place for his Concil House, which I have directed Colo. Miller to have prepared, the Indians already begin to come in, we found some few there, on our arrival, and about twenty canoe Loads arrived when we were there, from what little I have noticed of the deportment of the Indians since I arrived, I think they appear to attach much consequence to themselves, and hold the americans in great contempt as warriors, little better than squaws, however the circumstance of the Brittish having avacuated Prarire du Shein, and Burnt there works, has apparently changed the tone of some of them, and not unlikely all may subscribe to such a treaty as we wish, yet I do not believe we shall have peace long withthem, or that those Indians wille ver respect us as a nation, untill they are well chastised-- I am exstremly awkwardly situated, having much to do and but little to do with, I have neither Quartermaster nor funds for the Department, and know not where I am to git any; the pay master is absent in kentuckey for funds for to pay off the Troops, many of which have not been paid, for more than a year, and the few U.S. troops which I have sen are litterally naked, a part of Captn. Wilkinson Compy 24th Infty. have been about two years in service and have not drawn a particle of Clothing there is not an officer of the present peace establishment, that was in this quarter, when I arrived; I am therefore compelled to continue those on duty, who are droped from the Rolls of the Army, as also the men for during the war, as no arraingment as yet has been made by the Inspectors Dept. to my knowledge for there Discharge and settlement, in fact I fell as if every man we can put on duty at this time quite to little, my call on the Govenors would have been greater, but it is distressing at this season, to call the farmer from his fields. What we may want in numbers, I will endeavour to make up for vigilence, no confidence can as yet be placed in those treacherous beings the indians, in fact they are far from being satisfied.
     The state of Colo Russells health when i releived him was exstremely delicate, he is now at Kaskaskas exstremely ill, quite mentally derainged, his bad health prevented his giving me the necessary information respecting the situation of the District &c. &c., therefore I must report to you as I become acquainted. I find there is the remains of two companies of the 7th. Infantry which belongs to the Troops at Belle Fontain, Viz late Poses and Taylors companies, nine of those men are at Vincinnes, and in all about 50 or 55 for 5 years there are also 3 of the 5th. Infty. and about 13 of the 1st. Infantry in this District, they would all form a good company. I have the Honor to be With great respect sir your obt. servt.

Signed Dl. Bissell Br. Gen


Letter from Andrew Jackson to Ninian Edwards and William Clark

Head quarters D. of the South.
Nashville June 27th 1815

     The Indians, on your frontier still hold a menacing attitude of hostility towards the United States. Peace, tranquility and perfect security must be afforded to your frontier. I am just advised that to secure this without a resort to arms, the President of the United States has appointed commissioners to treat with those Tribes bordering on our north west.
     Confidence is not entertained that peace will result from the friendly course adopted by the President of the United States nor can it be expected untill they are made to smart by our arms, and taught to disregard the talks of bad men, agents of British mercenaries to crush these ruthless Mauraders and give peace and safety to the frontier is the present object of the President of the United States in case the proposals of Peace, now offered should be rejected by these deluded wretches. And for this purpose I am authorised to call for an auxiliary force from the Militia of the States or Territories, composing my Division; as you will see in the extract of a letter from the Department of War of date 12th. Instatn herewith enclosed. I have to request you to keep me well advised of the Disposition of the Indians on your frontier. If it should be hostile advise me immediately, and in the mean-time organise for active service the Militia of your Territory, and hold them ready to march at a moments warning. Please advise me of their strength. I have the honor to be with due respect your obt. servt.

Andrew Jackson
Majr. Genl. Comdg.
D. of the South


Letter to Andrew Jackson from Samuel Carswell

Philada. June 26 1815
in confidence
Dear Sir
    Your favor of the 12th of Sepr. 1814, is received and the contents is duly noted; I am sorry to find that you have not had it in your power to drive out of Louisiana all the adherents to the British Government, as well as those that were in arms against you, for a domestic enemy is much more injurious to the Country than foreign; The vote of thanks of the General Assembly of Louisiana, is received in Pennsylvania with disgust, But it is not expected your officers will accept of it; The reason your letter was not acknowledged before this time, was, that it was out of my power to calculate any point to meet you at. The present is to request your age which will confer a particular favor on Your ob. Hble. Sert

Saml Carswell


Letter to Andrew Jackson from John Strother

Ft. Strother June 23d. 1815

Dear General
     I am still at this place with Colo Wm. Barnett, General Seveir not yet arrived, nor no dispatches from him, nor have we heard from Colo. John Kershaw since he left this place in the strange manner he did-- Colo. Barnettt is not only very unpleasantly situated, but in my opinon, very improperly neglected by his colleagues & I am of opinions he feels it sensably but bears it with silence-- this day he sends an express to Genl. Seveir, on the return of which, he will determine on something conclusive. If Genl. Seveir does not come on with the express, or give such assureances of his being on shortly after, I am of opinon, the boundary lines will not be commenced running this season-- should this be the case it may probably take an army to guard the commissioners in running them hereafter-- indeed from every thing which I am capable of drawing correct conclusions from at this place, I am as much disposed to believe that, the principal opposition tothe running the treaty lines will be experianced from the friendly part of the creeks, who I am told states, that they think the Genl. Government are in much of a hurry to get the lands before they, on their part, have compiled with the terms of the treaty in supplying them with provisions &c. Again, I am told that Colo. Hawkins (the notorious hostile cheif) has given it as his opinon, that unless the commissioners are fully authorised to make full & ample remuneration to the Indians for all the losses they had sustained in the course of the War, that blood would be split in running the lines, but more particularly in sectioning the country-- & that he had reason to beleive, & had no doubt, but that the Indians would claim themselves as protected under the provision of the British treaty--as a proof of this latter opinion, he shewed to Colo. Kershaw, or gave him a copy of a letter from Nichols, the British agent, who stated that, the Indians were determined to clim themselves protected by that treaty & through Hawkins forwarned the United States from Interfereing with the Indian lands--as the grounds of his first opinion relative to remuneration for losses--he furnished Colo. Kershaw witha  letter which Genl. Pinkney had sent him stating the terms on which the Genl. Government would make a peace--recollect, this Letter was dated previous to your treaty with them and had no connection with it. why Colo Hawkins should at this time attempt, at this time in this oblique manner, to make impropre impressions on the minds of teh commissioners, or any of them, I leave to be solved by politicians--mathematical objects is my province here, & to that text I stick.
     I fear that Colo Kershaw has received some improper impressions form their great little man Hawkins Colo Barnett will stick close to the text of the treaty & the law-- & if he is well seconded all will be right, & nothing but coercion on the part of the Indians, that with a very formadable force will stop him.
     Genl. Gaines passed this post on the 18th. 19th. Inst. for deposit &c. he apprehends no dainger of our being interupted in running the lines-- he has promised to order on a proper supply to this post, which would be quite acceptable, as we have had nothing except forrage, since we have been here but such private supplys as I had ordered on from Huntsville on my rout out-- The evil spirits stated by the natives to reside in a deep hole in the ten islands, have surely employed all their mischevious machinations to prevent this post from being supplyed with provisions, and thereby determined to starve out all the great men ordered here by the government--surely the place must be inchated-- at least to me it is among the unlucky spots in this world where I have been doomed to see & experience little else but trouble & heartakes--
     Your orders to the officers commanding at the different posts near the lines designated in the creek treaty to furnish the comissioners with such guards as they may call for was received by Colo. Barnett a few days past-- Adieu and believe me respectfully your Obt. Hble. Servant--

John Strother


Letter from Andrew Jackson to John Reid

Nashville 13th. of June 1815

Dr. Sir,
    I had the pleasure this moment of receiving your note of yesterday and regret exceedingly your Indisposition, the complaint you are affected with is one of the most disagreable, altho not dangerous-- I am sorry I have not a register to send you-- you will find it correctly published in the national inteligencer-- I have just been gratified with a few lines from our friend Duncan-- he asks where are you, that he has not heard of, or from you-- his reply to the Legislature is not finished, he is waiting for the explosion of two of the senators-- who are about to explode and let the treason out-- he says to me he will bust the whole-- I have had a laborious siege of it, and wanted your aid verry much-- the various communications to be made has kept us verry busy-- but we are now closing for the present mail--
     I will expect to see you either here or at my house as soon as your health will permit-- with respects to your lady & best wishes for your speedy recovery adieu

Andrew Jackson


Letter from Andrew Jackson to Alexander James Dallas

Head Quarters 7th. M. District
23. May 1815

     I hasten to reply to your letter of the 12th ultimo, which I have, this moment, received.
     The express which was forwarded from the war department on the 14th. February, bore an open letter of that date from the Postmaster general stating that he was charged with dispatches relative to the peace; but when the pacquet was opened it was found to contain nothing but a letter from the sec. of war of the 13th directing me to raise 2 Regiments for the defence of the 7th District & a few copies of the Act of Congress authorising it.
     The letter of the 16th. February communicating the ratification of the Treaty, did not arrive til a considerable time afterwards-- So soon as it did arrive its instructions relative to the disposition of the troops under my command were strictly attended to.
     As explanatory of my conduct, & of the motives which influenced it during the late invasion of Louisiana, I enclose you, for the inspection of the President the Answer which I had prepared on a Rule to shew cause &c. issued from the District Court of which Mr. Hall is judge. It will be found I believe, to refer to most of the matters of which the President has received secret intelligence. I shall feel a satisfaction in going into a more particular explanation & defence of my several acts when my accusers can be known, & it shall be thought necessary.
     I persuade myself the President will have no objection to furnish me with the names of those persons who transmitted to him the communications & complaints to which you allude. I have but little doubt they will be found to belong to those who would have betrayed their Country, or skulked from its defence.
     If the peculiar circumstances under which I was compelled to act, do not justify the measure I pursued I neither deserve confidence, no am ambitious to retain it.
     The consciousness of the manner in which my exertions were directed to the performance of my duty as well as the expressions of approbation which the result of those endeavours has drawn forth from my countrymen in general & from those in particular among whom I immediately acted have indeed afforded me great gratification--such as I cannot be deprived of nor easily disturbed in. I have the Honor to be Sir with great respect yr. obt st

Andrew Jackson
Major Genl comdg.
7th. M. District--


Letter to Andrew Jackson from Joseph Saul

New Orleans 12th May 1815

Dear Sir,
    Enclosed is a letter from me as Cashier of the Bank of Orleans by which you will perceive that the Bill drawn by you in my favour for $25000, is returned under certainly a hard case on our Institution it having enjoyed so little from the deposits of the Government or any of its officers, except the Marshall, and that we have been deprived of by an order from your worthy friend Hall-- so are matters managed in new Orleans-- our Directors principally are not only devoted to the Government but to the present administration and yet we bear all the brunt of the public business against us, whilst such men as Blanque &c who are the Directors of the other Banks are reaping the benefits of the Public deposits—Claibourn sees this & frequently speaks of it to me & yet has not independence to correct it altho it has existed for upwards of three years--
    I shall...whom I have so great... who has done so much for his countrys good. I have other reasons for wishing to see you there, and could you let me know the time when you who'd probably arrive I who’d manage to meet you-- however...T...Yrs &c

Jos Saul


Letter from Andrew Jackson to John Coffee

Gibson Port April 24th. 1815

Dr. General
    I hope ere this you are with your amiable little family, enjoying health and ease, which your late Toils and labor so much deserve-- you meet with the reward in this country for your services, that the so much merit, that is full approbation—every where I halt I have the pleasure of hearing you named in the highest terms of approbation-- I have no doubt you have heard the cause of my detention-- it terminated in the very way my friends wished it, the damnation of my enemies cost me one thousand dollars I send my defence to James Jackson, offerred to the court on the rule to shew cause why an attachment should not issue, which was not permitted to be ready by the court-- the report of the case is in the press and will reach Nashville I expect before me-- In Neworleans, there was two public dinners given to me and suit-- one up the coast at which a number of the Most respectable citizens of Orleans attended with Col. Fortiers band, and every place dinners were prepared, I could not partake of the whole, at Natches Ball & Supper was given to Ms. Jackson and the next day a dining to my myself & suit at Washington, and on yesterday a dinner at Greenville and this is the first evening I have had leisure to write you-- I have given the necessary orders to Major Kavenaugh respecting the sick and will Hurry on to Nashville as fast as possible where I will be happy to meet you, to consult on certain matters and things, at present time will not permit me to enumerate-- be good enough to forward the enclosed to Capt John Hutchings, I want him to meet me in Nashville when I arrive on business of some importance-- I had like to have Lost my son yesterday-- he behaved like a soldier and Escaped with very little injury-- his horse run off with him, in the midst of three loose horses, he stuck his horse for half a mile before he fell-- he never hollowed-- give my best respects to Polly and kiss your sweet little children for me, and accept my best wishes, we are all well adieu--

Andrew Jackson


Letter from Andrew Jackson to Isaac Shelby

Natchez April 21st. 1815

    Previous to the departure of the Kentucky and Tennessee Troops from New Orleans, I issued a general order directing the commg. Officers of corps to keep their men together, and march them to their places of rendezvous to be there mustered and discharged. To enable them to accomplish this important object I directed the Qr. Mr. General to provide such transportation as the officers commanding corps should require, the Hospital surgeon was directed to furnish ample supplies of medicines and hospital stores, and the contractor, rations at all points necessary to facilitate their movement, special instructions were given to the comdg. Officers to pay the most strict regard tot he comfort of their sick, under the most positive injunction to leave an officer and surgeon at all points where it should become requisite to establish Hospitals on the march, with ample powers delegated to them to procure everything which might indue to their comfort and speedy restoration. And least the proper departments should fail to comply with my orders, I gave to the generals commanding authority to draw upon me in Nashville for any sums of  money requisite to enable them to comply with my order--
    Upon my arrival in this place to my great mortification I found about forty of the Ky. Troops left sick in the most wretched situation without either officer or surgeon to administer to their wants, and but for the humanity of Doctor Seipes & Cox and the citizens many of them must have perished for want of provisions-- This I informed is the situation of the sick at several places on the road, but I am in hopes by my exertions to alleviate their situation and restore them to their families--
    I trust sir that you will interpose your authority to bring to punishment the officers of your troops who have thus wantonly and barbarously abandoned their soldiers, and disobeyed my orders—Accept my assurances of personal Esteem, and believe me respectfully-- Yr. Obt. Servt.

Andrew Jackson
Majr. General
Comg 7 m: District


Letter to Andrew Jackson from William Henry Harrison

Northbend Ohio 20th. Apl. 1815

    At the request of Mr. Delaplaine who is a friend of mine & a connexion of my wifes I have done myself the Honor to transmit to you the enclosed letter. Whatever you may think proper to do to satisfy the wishes of Mr. D. will be very gratifying to me.
    Altho I have not had the satisfaction to be personally known to you I recollect with pleasure that we had formerly some correspondence & that at a most critical period of my life you were so frienly as to make preparations to assist & support me. How sincerely did I reciprocate this disposition in your late arduous & glorious struggle? How gladly would I have joined you & served under your command even at the Head of a Regiment? My adverse fortune did not however permit this but condemned me to a lfie of ease & retirement when my whole soul was devoted to the profession which I had been compelled to abandon
    That you may long live to enjoy the fruits of yr. Valour & conduct is the ardent wish of Dr sir yr friend & Hum Sevt.

Willm. Henry Harrison


Letter to Andrew Jackson from Alexander James Dallas

Department of War
12th. April 1815.

    As soon as the first credible account of the peace was received at Washington, a letter stating the fact was addressed to you from this Department, dated the 14th of February; and as soon as the Treaty of peace was ratified by the President and Senate, the event was communicated to you in another letter; dated the 16th of February, with instructions for the disposal of the force under your command. It is regretted that any accident should prevent the delivery of either of these letters in due course, but I presume that  both of them have long ago reached your hands; and that the instructions have been carried into effect.
    I assure you, Sir, that it is a very painful task to disturb, for a moment the enjoyment of the honorable gratification which you must derive, as well from the consciousness of the great service that you have rendered to your country, as from the expressions of approbation and applause, which the nation has bestwoed upon those services. But representations have been recently made to the President, respecting certain acts of military opposition ot the civil magistrae, that require immediate attention, not only in vindication of the just authority of the laws, but to rescue your own conduct form all unmerited reproach.
    There have been transmitted to the President copies of the letter of Mr. Reed, your aid-de-camp to the Editor of the Louisianna Courrier, dated 21st of February; of your general orders, dated the 28 of February, commanding certain French subjects to retire form New Orleans; of a publication in the Louisianna Courrier of the 3d. Of March, under the signature of “ a citizen of Louisianna of French Origin” animadverting upon the General order; of a second General Order of the 5th. Of march, inforcing the Order of the 28th. Of February ; of your letter of the 6th. Of February, announcing the unofficial intelligence of the peace; and of a third General Order of the 8th of March, suspending the execution of the order of the 28th. Of February, expcept as far as it relates to the Chevalier de Tousard.
    These documetns have been accompanied with a statement, that on the 5th. Of march, the writer of the publication of the 3d. Of March, Mr. Louallier, a member of the Legislature of the State of Louisiana, was arrested by your order, on account of the publication, and lodged in the barracks, that on the same day Mr. Hall, the Judge of the District, issued a writ of Habeas corpus in the case of Mr. Louallier; but before the writ was served the Judge himself was arrested, by your order, for issuing it, and conducted under a strong guard to the barracks; that on the 8th. Of March Mr. Dick, the Attorney of the United States , having obtained from Mr. Lewis, a State Judge, a write of Habeas Corpus in the case of Judge Hall, which was served upon you, he was arrested by your order, and lodged in the barracks; that Judge Hall was released on the 12th. Of March, but escorted to a place out of the city of New Orleans, with orders not to return, until information of peace was officially announced; and that Mr. Dick was released on the same day, and permitted to remain in town, but with orders to report himself, from day to day, until discharged.
    From these repesentations it would appear, that the Judicial power of the United States has been resisted, the liberty of the press has been suspeded, and the consul and subjects of a friendly Government have been exposed to great inconvenience, by an exercise of Military force and command. The President views the subject, in its present aspect, with surprize and solicitude: but in the absence of all information from yourself, relative to your conduct and the motives for your conduct, he abstains from any decision, or even the expression of an Opinion, upon the case, in hopes that such explanations may be afforded, as will reconcile his sense of public duty with a continuance of the confidence, which he reposes in your Judgment, discretion, and patriotism. He instructs me, therefore, to request, that you will with all possible dispatch, transmit to this Department a full report of the transactions, which have been stated. And, in the meantime, it is presumed, that every extraordinary exertion of militray authority has ceased, in consequence of the cessation of all danger, open or covert, upon the restoration of peace.
    The President instructs me to take this opportunity of requesting, that a conciliatory deportment may be observed towards the state authorities, and the citizens of New Orleans. He is persuaded, that Louisianna justly estimates the value of the talents and valour, which have been displayed for her defense and safety; and that there will be no dispostion in any part of the nation , to review, with severity, the efforts of a commander, acting in a crisis of unparalleled difficulty, upon the impulse of the purest patriotism. I have the honor to be, very respectuflly sir your most Obedt. Servant.

A.J. Dallas


Letter to Andrew Jackson from Daniel Todd Patterson

New Orleans 3rd April 1815

    In an answer to your note yesterday, I have the honor to state; that the apearance, of the Enemy's force, on this coast, and their capture of our Gun Boats; the weak state of this city and its environs; and the situation of the country generally, was such, as in my opinon, made the declartion of Martial Law indispensible. I know that the same opinion was held by the Executive of this State; and that the State Legislature thought so likewise; was fully proved, by the acts passed by them previous to the proclomation of Martial Law, authorizing the impressment of seamen and laying an Embargo measures, wholly growing out of the necessity of the case and exigencies of the times.
    I had; at the time little opportunity of knowing the opinion of the Judiciary; my personal duties occupied me wholly; but the discharge of these very duties, made me know that Mr Lewis, one of the State Judges served in the Ranks of a volunteer company of Militia, as a private soldier, and being afterwards chosen and appointed a Lieutenant he served in the same compnay until the peace.
    I do believe that the proclamation, & enforcement of Martial Law was necessary, for the defense of the Country and preservation of the City; and that by those measures, it could alone be saved; and at the time such was the universal sentiment of all good citizens.
    Under the Law of the state I did press into the naval service of the United States, a number of seamen and held them in service, until the peace took place; my impressments were made in open day in the most frequented parts of the City and were of course matter of notriety. I have the honor to be with great respect your ob sert.

Danl T. Patterson
Comg the U.S. Naval Forces
on the New Orleans Station


Letter from Andrew Jackson to Simeon Knight

March 30, 1815

    The quarter Master General Simeon Knight will pay for the powder stated in the above account agreable to the recpt of Henry Flower of the 23d. Of Decbr 1814 and the certificate of Major Genl Philamon Thomas of the 14th. of March 1815 hereto annexed, whatever was the markett price of rifle powder at the date of the delivery thereof-- and not more-- one dollar pr pound appearing to be extravagant--

Andrew Jackson
Mjor Genl comdg
7th . M. District--


Head Quarters
Isle Dauphine
March 18th 1815--

    I received with great pleasure by the hands of Major Woodruff on the evening of the 16th. About 9 oclock yours of the 13th Inst. I communicated the contents immediately to Rear Admiral Malcolm and orders were issued for the cessation of hostilities, and to all detached Posts and ships to be withdrawn in our Respective Commands. I daily expect an Official communication (similar to what you received) from Mr Baker, in the meantime every preparation is making for the embarkation of this Force, and Ships are now sent away when we are able to put sufficient Provisions on board to take them to Bermuda, Victuallers from Jamaica must be here in a very few days when everything will be put on boards as quickly as possible and should I, by that time not have received any intelligence the Admiral and myself will have no hesitation of putting to Sea directly. I have requested Major Woodruff who went up to Mobile yesterday to acquaint the Commanding Officer that I would let him know the moment we were prepared to give up the For, which would be when the Transports could get out of the Bay, the Fort would be restored in every respect as when it fell into our possession with the exception only of a Brass Mortar cast in George the 2nd reign which had been sent away the day after.
    In the fulfilling the 1st Article of the Treaty I cannot consider the Meaning of “not causing  any destruction or carrying away any Artillery, or other Public Property, originally captured in the said forts or Places, and which shall remain therein upon the exchange of the ratification of this treaty, or any Slaves or other Property” having reference to any antecedent Period to the 18th Febry. The day of the exchange of Ratifications, because it is only from that time that the Article could be fulfilled in a long War; If those Negroes (the matter now in Question) belonged to the territory or City we were actually in occupation of, I should conceive we had no right to take them away; but by their coming away, they are virtually the same as Deserters or property taken away at any time of the War. I am obliged to say so much in justification of the right, but I have from the first, done all I could to prevent, and subsequently together with Admiral Malcolm have given every facility, and used every persuasion, that they should Return to their Masters, and many have done so; but I could not reconcile it to myself to abandon any, who from false reasoning perhaps, joined us during the Period of Hostilities, and have thus acted in violation of the laws of their Country and besides become obnoxious to their masters.
    Had it been an object to take the Negroes away they could have been embarked in the first Instance, but they have been permitted to remain in the hopes, that they might Return.
    I am much obliged to you for your offer of supplies and comforts for the sick and wounded. I send a Commissary to make a few purchases, and have directed him to call Upon Mr Livingston with this letter. I have the honor to be Sir Your obedient Servant.

John Lambert
General Commd


Letter from Andrew Jackson to Jean Baptiste Plauche' et al.

March 16, 1815

Fellow Soldiers--
    Popular favor has always been with me, a secondary object. My first wish, in political life, has been to be useful to my country. Yet I am not insensible to the good opinion of my fellow citizens; I would do much to obtain it; but, I cannot, for this purpose, sacrifice my own conscience, or what I conceive to be the interests of my country.
    These principles have prepared me to receive, with just satisfaction, the address you have presented. The first wish of my heart, the safety of your country, has been accomplished, and it affords me the greatest happiness to konw that the means taken to secure this object have met the approbation of those who have had the best opportunities of judging of their propriety, and who, from their various relations, might be supposed the most ready to censure any which had been improperty resorted to. The distinction you draw, gentlemen, between those who only declaim about civil rights and those who fight to maintain them, shews how just and practical a knowledge you have of the true principles of liberty-- without such knowledge all theory is useless or mischievous.
    Whenever the invaluable rights wheich we enjoy under our own happy constitution are threatened  by invasion, privileges the most dear, and which, in ordinary times, ought to be regarded as the most sacred, may be required to be infringed for their security. At such a crisis, we have only to determine whether we will suspend, for a time, the exercise of the latter, that we may secure the permanent enjoyment of the former. Is it wise, in such a moment, to sacrifice the spirit of the laws to the letter, and by adhering too strictly to the letter, lose the substance forever, in order that we may, for an instant, preserve the shadow? It is not to be imagined that the express provisions of any written law can fully embrace emergencies which suppose and occasion the suspension of all law, but the highest and the last, that of self preservation. No right is more precious to a freeman than that of suffrage, but had your election taken place on the 8th of January, would your declaimers have advised you to abandon the defense of your country in order to exercise this inestimable privilege of the polls? Is it to be supposed that your general, if he regarded the important trust committed to his chage, would have permitted you to preserve the constitution by an act which would have involved constitution, country and honor, in one undistinguished ruin?
    What is more justly important than personal liberty; yet how can the civil enjoyment of this privilege be made to consist with the order, subordination and discipline of a camp? Let the sentinel be removed by subpoena from his post, let writs of habeas corpus carry away the officers from the lines, and the enemy may conquer your country, by only employing lawyers to defend your constitution.
    Private property is held sacred in all good governments and particularly in our own, yet, shall the fear of invading it prevent a general grom marching his army over a cornfield, or burning a house which protects the enemy?
    These and a thousand other instances might be cited to shew that laws must sometimes be silent when necessity speaks. The only question with the friend of his country will be, have these laws been, was to made to be silent wantonly and unnecessarily? If necessity dictated the measure, if a resort to it was important for the preservation of those rights which we esteem so dear, and in defense of which we had so willingly taken up arms, surely it would not have been unbecoming in the commander in chief to have shrunk form the responsibility which it involved. He did not shrink from it. In declaring martial law, his object and his only object, was to embody the whole resources of the country for its defense That law, while it existed, necessarily suspended all rights and privileges inconsistent with its provisions. It is matter of surprise, that they who boast themselves the champions of those rights and privileges inconsistent with its provisions. It is matter of suprise, that they who boast themselves the champions of those rights and privileges whould not, when they were first put in danger by the proclamation of martial law, have manifested that lively sensibility of which they have since made so ostentatious a display. So far, however, was this form being the case, that this measure not only met, then, the open support of those who when their country was invaded thought resistance a virtue, and the silent approbation of all-- but even received the particular recommendation and encouragement of many who now inveigh the most bitterly against it. It was notuntil a victory, secured by that very measure, had lessened the danger which occasioned a resort to it, that the present feeling guardians of our rights discoered that the commanding general ought to have suffered his posts to be abandoned through the interference of a foreign agent-- his ranks to be thinned by desertion, and his whole army to be broken to pieces by mutiny; while yet a powerful force of the enemy remained on your coast and within a few hours sail of your city.
    I thought and acted differently. It was not until discovered that the civil power stood no longer in need of the military for its support, that I restored to it its usual functions; and the restoration was not delayed a moment after that period had arrived.
    Under these circumstances, fellow soldiers, your resolution to let others declaim about privileges and constitutional rights, will never draw upon you the charge of being indifferent to those inestimable blessings-- your attachment to them has been proved by a stronger title-- that of having nobly fought to preserve them.  You who have thus supported them against the open pretensions of a powerful enemy will never I trust, surrender them to the underhand machinations of men who stand aloof in the hour of peril, and who, when the danger is gone, claim to be the “defenders of your constitution.”
    An honorable peace has dissolved our military connection; and, in a few days, I shall quit a country endeared to me by the most pleasing recollections. Among the most prominent of these, gentlemen, are the those I shall ever entertain of the distinguished bravery, the exact discipline, the ardent zeal and the important services of your corps. The offered friendship of each individual composing it, I receive with pleasure and sincerely reciprocate. I shall always pride myself on a fraternity with such men, created in such a cause.

Andrew Jackson
Maj. Gen. Com'dg 7th military dist.

Letter from Andrew Jackson to James Monroe

Head Quarters 7. M. District
New Orleans
16th March 1815

    I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 16th. Ulto advising me of the ratification of the Treaty of peace between Gt Britain & the United States.
    In conformity with your directions I have forwarded to the officer commanding His B. Majesty's forces in this quarter, information of that event.
    The Tennessee & Kentucky  militia will be immediately marched to their respective states & discharged, without receiving any pay beforehand. The Louisiana & Mississippi militia will be discharged & receive their payment, here. It is hoped that the necessary funds will be provided for the payment of the former, in suitable time.
    Difficulties are experienced from the want of means to procure forage & transportation on the return march-- Capt Simeon Knight having not yet arrived. On this account I have offered my Bills on the Governor of Tennessee payable in Treasury  notes at Nashville.
    I have received no intelligence from Capt. Knight except by your letter of the 7th. Ulto.
    The greater portion of the Regulars in this District, having engaged to serve, during the war, expect to be immediately discharged. As you have not mentioned them in your instructions, I shall be glad to hear from you on the subject as soon as possible.
    So soon as I get the troops mustered out of service, here, it is my intention to remove my Head Quarters to Nashville; at which place I shall expect to receive the orders of my government. Major General Gaines will be left in the immediate command of this section of the District, & I am happy to commit it to one in whom the Government has such high & deserved confidence. I have the honor to be sr yr. Very obt st.

Andrew Jackson
Major Genl. Comdg.

P.S. I enclose you a copy of my general order discharging the militia.
A. J.