Letter to Andrew Jackson from John Howe et al.

Boston 28th. Feby. 1815.

    The Republicans of the Senate of Massachusetts take the liberty to address you on a subject highly interesting to themselves, the United States and the world.  The conspicuous station you have lately occupied, & the important part you have acted, with so much honor to yourself and benefit to your Country, must, we are aware, have perplexed you with the grateful effusions of a people, proud of your achievements and astonished at your successes.
      Yet it is hoped, that even the “small voice” of the minority of the Senate of a state, remote from the theatre of your illustrious deeds, of little repute, in arms, and, perhaps less in patriotism, will not be unacceptable to one, who well knows how to discriminate between a temporary, dominant party, and those, who, in the midst of discouragement and, in spite of opposition, have endeavored to support the union and liberty of their Country.
    Had your last and greatest exploit stood alone, had it not been preceded by deeds of military enterprise, bravery and skill, achieved by yourself and others which shed a luster round our country, established its reputation and insured its glory, it might be apprehended that our exultations was excessive and our gratitude enthusiastic.
    But when we consider your defense of the lines near New Orleans on the 8th of January, it excites our admiration, as the most illustrious among illustrious deeds, and, like the chief of the andes, rising in majesty, above the surrounding mountains.
    We should not, at this time, have obtruded, on you, our individual feelings, had not a resolution, offered by the Hon. Mr. [John] Holmes, to this Senate, expressive of thanks & approbation, experienced an extraordinary fate. It was committed, and, after much delay and embarrassment, was reported, with a very offensive preamble, denouncing the war, as unjust, and the Government, as improvident and wicked in a stile of extreme virulence and invective, and concluding, with an expression of approbation to yourself & companions in whatever related to defensive warfare. This, after an unsuccessful attempt to strike out the offensive part, we were constrained to oppose, as containing a censure under the pretext of approbation.
    Our feelings, Sir, are unequivocal, unreserved, grateful and ardent—We look upon our naval and military officers and men, as the brave and patriotic defenders of their Countrys rights. As such we address them—as such we respect them, and as such ,permit us Sir, to tender you and your brave companions in arms, the sincere homage of our thanks and gratitude for your unparalleled victories & triumphs over a very brave and powerful enemy-- You preserved Louisiana from incalculable distress, delivered our western brethren from a powerful and predatory foe and earned for yourselves & your Country imperishable Glory.
    Our Country has terminated a glorious war by an honorable peace-- We look with pleasure and pride upon our present situation and future prospects—a situation which you have contributed so much to render happy, honorable & glorious-- Prospects which your valour and patriotism have made most interesting and flattering.
    You and your companions will soon separate and return to the bosom of your friends and your Country-- May you long enjoy the high confidence, respect and love, which your valour, skill and patriotism have so richly, earned, and the smiles of that almighty Being, who has led you to splendid deeds, and has crowned your efforts with victorys and glory.
John Howe        John Holmes
Mark Langdon Hill     Martin Kinsley
Walter Folger Jnr.    Edmund Foster
Joseph Bemis     Timothy Fuller
Saml. Hoar   Albion K. Parris
Wm. Moody     Daniel Kilham

Order to the French Citizens of New Orleans

General Orders                                                                                           Head Quarters 7th. Mil. District
Adjutant General's Office
New Orleans Feby 28th. 1815

    Daniel & Samuel Lints privates of the 1st regiment of rifle Corps by the consent of Colo [George Washington] Sevier expressed in a letter to Captain [Ferdinand Louis] Amelund, of date 14th. November 1814 is hereby transferred to said Amelung's company in the 44th. Regt. U.S. Infty.
    All french subjects having the certificate of the French Consul Countersigned by the order of the commanding General will repair to the interior not short of Baton rouge until the enemy shall have left our waters, or the restoration of peace, this measure has become indispensable from the numerious applications of this kind, and will be carried into immediate effect; notice will be taken of all such persons that may remain after the 3d. Of next month and all officers are ordered to give information of every person remaining after that period, that may come within their knowledge. By Command

Robert Butler
Adjt. General


Letter to Andrew Jackson from Citizens of Louisiana

New-Orleans, February 27, 1815

The undersigned citizens of the state of  Louisiana or residents in the country, solicit the attention of Major-general Andrew Jackson, commanding the forces of the United States, in favour of Solomon Broomfield and James Harding, of the 4th regiment of militia, condemned to death by a court-martial. They do not palliate the enormity of the crime of desertion, of which these individuals have been convicted; and they are aware that as the delinquencies of the militia in time of war may be as fatal to the state as those of the regular troops, it is often necessary to punish them with the same severity.
    The undersigned believe however that the late news leaving no doubt but that peace will put an end to the calamities of war, examp[les have become less necessary. They therefore intreat the general to consider if existing circumstances do not reclaim the clemency of the country in favour of two unfortunate men, when their condemnation has answered all the ends which could be desired.
    General, permit the undersigned to remind you that at your voice the militia of this state flew to arms; that all the inhabitants, whatever their origin, united under your standards; you found them ready to sacrifice every thing in defense of Louisiana. On men capable of such generous efforts, the clemency of their chief, rest assured, will have a much more certain effect than severity. They therefore flatter themselves that you will deem it expedient to order that the sentence of the court-martial shall not be executed

Letter to Andrew Jackson from John Lambert

Head Quarters Ile Dauphine
Febr. 27. 1815

    I have this moment received your letter dated the 20th and I have taken every step to bring the exchange to a speedy conclusion.
    On the subject of the concluding paragraph, I have only to remark that honorable & feeling conduct which has characterized every transaction in which I have had the Honor to be concerned in with you You may rely upon it, I shall take no retrospective view of the conduct of any of the men returned and shall find reasons for discountenancing and enquiry, should it be brought before me or come to my knowledge thro' any other channel.
    With regard to the negroes that have left their masters and are with this force, any proprietor or person deputed, that chooses to present himself to me, will be received & every facility afforded him to communicate with these People and I shall be very happy, if they can be persuaded all to return, but to compel them is what I cannot do--
    With respect (which I enclose) to an address form M. Genl. Villere' to the Commandant of this Force, I am at a loss to understand the Purport. The Comissary Genls.' orders, are to purchase Cattle where ever he can meet with it.  Amongst receipts in that neighborhood for beasts procured is that for those belonging to the M. Genl. I should have been glad to have known the M. genls. Sentiments previously as I certainly should not have troubled myself about his concerns or endeavored to render as little painful as I was able, not living in his House, the unavoidable circumstances attending the immediate Theatre of War towards his Son, whom he had attending the immediate Theatre of War towards his Son, whom he had left unprotected. I have the Honor to be sir your obedient Humble servant

John Lambert
M. General Com.

Letter to Andrew Jackson from Benjamin Hawkins

Camp near the confluence of Flint and Chattohoche
27 Feby. 1815

   I received from the governor of Georgia on the 19 ult a promise to send 500 mounted men to cooperate with me against the Seminolies, and other hostiles below. Since which, I have not heard form him, altho' I have written him weekly. On the 24th I determined to wait only three days to hear from him, if I did not, I should take such measures relying on my own means, as would best secure the frontiers from Indian hostility, during the pressure of the Enemy on the Southern Atlantic Seacoast. There is just below the confluence on the East side of apalatchacola a British post entrenched and picketed, with one Howitzar and one Cohorn; they had 200 troops white and Black and 400 Indians mostly seminolies and Okete'yoconne Fowltown and Che'au'hau from our Limits. I determined to surround and cut off their supplies, which were ascertained to be not more than for a few days. Part of their Blacks were from Pensacola.
    As soon as we began to descend the river from F. Mitchell, runners on the lookout, went after the Indians going towards F. negro to join Woodbine and brought them and him to their heard quarters below, which completely secured Georgia fro the time. The Indians fled before our approach into the Floridas, and we got 50 muskets and 650 flints from their houses, and have heared of more; Those chastised by you were very humble, and the others appeared under serious alarm for their safety, This country, destitute of food, in three days march not a horse hog or cow to be seen. More than 1000 of the distressed have surrendered and beged for bread. I supplied what I could, and ordered them to their towns
    On the 25th. I received express, an account of the arrival of peace on the 14th.  at the seat of Government. I immediately sent two runners with the Information to the British commandant below, they met a Lieut. Of the navy and army with a flag of truce, bring information of the same import from their admiral near Mobile, with the 9th art only which includes the Indians in the treaty. The oficers remained one night with me, in the morning I paraded the Regmt. In one line the oficers reviewed it with me, and we fired a feu de joie.
    I have ordered the Regmt. to prepare to return by detachments, in various directions, to communicate the information to all they may meet with; and I shall discharge them as soon as I hear of the ratification of the treaty.  I have for more than a month been uneasy about your situation to such a degree often as to deprive me of sleep. I saw a pressure of force and a torrent of difficulties assailing your district, on the Wings of the wind; and the aid you expected to make head against it, very slow in its movements from some quarters. Being charged by you with the protection of this frontier I knew it was my duty to act in conformity, but I have repeatedly been on the point of selecting 500 of my men and going on to your assistance, Majr. McIntosh and many of our best men would of course composed it; I was satisfied they would have been of Vital importance in their deadly attacks on the flanks of the Enemy. In this state of mind I received an account of your unparalleled victory of the 8th ult. And a few days after E'cun'chat Emaut'lau of the Hickory ground a distinguished “Red stick” came and communicated his eye view of the action to me, and has I find done justice to it; he began his narrative with “the British officers say they have beaten Jackson, and will soon take him prisoner. I saw at the fights, he beat them in every one. The British had more men than Jackson on the 8th. They said they would fight him before his men arrived, and take the town. They attacked him and after four hours fighting got back leaving the field of battle to the american breast works covered with killed and wounded, they lost three great Generals among them the head one I saw dead.” No occurrence every afforded me more real joy.
    From our success by sea and land, and the character of our negotiators, I am satisfied the treaty of peace is hnorable for us, and the after scene by you at New Orleans winds up the whole gloriously for our National character throughout Europe. You have my dear friend immortalized yourself and army. You have proved that the first and best disciplined troops in Europe flushed with and accustomed to Victory there are but secondary in America.
    Mr. [Christian] Limbaugh informed me a letter of mine and one from Genl. Pinckney to you in decr. Was burnt by accident, a runners cloths taken fire in the night, and probably an other from me had been destroyed between F. Jackson and Claiborn, the wrapord had been discovered.
    Accept for yourself and brothers in arms my congratulations on the parts you have accomplished for the destiny of our country , my sincere wishes for your health and happiness, and believe me sincerely and Truly your friend And ob ser

Benjamin Hawkins


Postscript of letter from Thomas Jefferson to William Crawford

February 26, 1815

(note: this is the postscript of a letter originally written on February 11, 1815)

On the day of the date of this letter the news of peace reached Washington, and this place two days after. I am glad of it, although no provision being made against the impressment of our seamen, it is in fact but an armistice, to be terminated by the first act of impressment committed on an American citizen. It may be thought that useless blood was spilt at New Orleans, after the treaty of peace had been actually signed and ratified. I think it had many valuable uses. It proved the fidelity of the Orleanese to the United States. It proved that New Orleans can be defended both by land and water; that the western country will fly to its relief (of which ourselves had doubted before); that our militia are heroes when they have heroes to lead them on; and that, when unembarrassed by field evolutions, which they do not understand, their skill in the fire-arm, and deadly aim, give them great advantages over regulars. What nonsense for the manakin Prince Regent to talk of their conquest of the country east of the Penobscot river! Then, as in the revolutionary war, their conquests were never more than of the spot on which their army stood, never extended beyond the range of their cannon shot. If England is now wise or just enough to settle peaceably the question of impressment, the late treaty may become one of peace, and of long peace. We owe to their past follies and wrongs the incalculable advantage of being made independent of them for every material manufacture. These have taken such root, in our private families especially, that nothing now can ever extirpate them.

Source: Library of Congress


Letter to Andrew Jackson from Robert McCauland

Pass of Chef Menteur 
Feby. 24. [25] 1815

    Enclosed you have Major [Louis] Daquins report of desertions last night from his Batallion, stationed at Camp Chef Menteur; he states to me that unless some rigid steps are taken with those, he expects from the apparent disposition, in a few days to be left without a private to command. Notwithstanding my orders were given (a few days after I took command of this Post) to the Commanding Officer at the Fortification LaBertonere, to secure and send back to me every person attempting to pass from this Post towards the City, without my written permission , yet the Deserters from this place succeed in getting to Town. Since the arrival of the Guns for the Battery I have generally remained at the pass myself. Lieut. [Joseph] Bosque having on the 20th. Represented to me the lack of materials for the Battery, which could only be procured in Orleans, was permitted to proceed there to obtain them, since which I have heard nothing of him. Nothing observable from the look out, on either of the Lakes. I have the Honor to be Dr Sir your Obt Servt.

Robt. McCausland
Brigd Genl Comg.

Courtesy of the Andrew Jackson Papers

Letter to Andrew Jackson from William Charles Cole Claiborne

New Orleans 24th. February 1815.

    The undersigned, the Governor of the State of Louisiana, presents his respects to major General Jackson Commanding the 7th. Military District, and informs him, how desirable it is, that such of the militia of this State, whose services can safely be dispensed with, be early discharged.  Independent of the Convenience of such discharge to Fathers of families (for the call of the militia en masse has brought many into the field) on whose personal Labour the present year, will depend the Cultivation of their little Farms, the undersigned brings to the view of the Major General the neglected Condition of the Levees on the Mississippi, & which if not soon attended to, there will, on the rise of the River, be no security against the Inundation of the lower part of the State. The undersigned hopes that the ratification by the President & Senate of the United States, of the Treaty of Peace said to have been concluded at Ghent, (& of which Ratification we may expect advices in a few days) will do away the necessity of detaining in service any portion of the  Militia of Louisiana; But in the meantime, he persuades himself, that the several Detachments of the militia en masse, now stationed in the several Interior Parishes of the State, may immediately be dispensed with without endangering the public Security. The undersigned expresses on this occasion, the wishes of his fellow Citizens, and he knows how much their Interest, will be promoted, by the adoption of the measure, which he suggests.
    The undersigned tenders to Major General Jackson, the assurances of his high Consideration.

William C.C. Claiborne


Letter to Adm. Cockburn from Capt. John Clavell re: turning over Black Battalion

His Majesty's Ship Orlando in the Patuxent February 23rd 1815

I Have the honor of forwarding you Dispatches which I received late last Night from Mr. Baker British Minister at Washington together with a Copy of a letter from him, and another from the Secretary of the Admiralty, and to State, that I have in consequence Dispatched the Dauntless to the Brazils, and
Cape of Good Hope—Euryalus to Gibraltar—Havannah to Admiral Hotham and Bermuda, and Menelaus to you—which I hope and trust will meet your approbation—
I have requested Admiral Hotham will forward those for Halifax in order that Havannah may not be delayed.—
My intention is to remain in the Chesapeake until I receive instructions from you, Sir.
There is a Quantity of Provisions at Tangier, and a Number of Black Women and Children, independent of the Garrison—
Two Commissioners have come to me with proper Authority, to demand the private property and Slaves, agreeable to the first Article of the Treaty—Private property I have none, or [nor], are there any Slaves on Tangier, except the Wives and Children belonging to the Black Battalion, which I have refused giving up, as well as those that have Entered on Board the different Ships— but I intend writing immediately to Mr. Baker for his opinion on the subject—mine is decidedly against it, or [nor] shall I consider myself at all Justifiable in giving them up, until I receive directions from you—
That part of the first Article of the Treaty relative to Slaves is a most Melancholy thing, as I am well Convinced, that the American Government, considers that the whole of the Black Battalion, comes within it, and will be given up.
I hope you will be pleased to approve of what I have done—
I should write you more at large but am anxious that not a moment shall be lost in forwarding the different Dispatches. I have the honor to be Sir
Your most Obedient Humble Servant
John Clavell


Letter from Andrew Jackson to James Winchester

Head Quarters 7 M. District
New Orleans
22d. Feb: 1815

    It gave me great pain to learn that Ft. Bowyer had surrendered to the Enemy without being fired upon. I had calculated most confidently that that post would not have fallen but after the most gallant resistance
    Admiral Cochrane has enclosed me the copy of a Bulletin published in a London paper, announcing that a treaty of peace, had on the 24th. Decr. Last, been signed at Ghent by our commissioners & those of Grt Britain; but as it does not appear that hostilities are to cease until the treaty shall be signed by the Prince Regent & the President, it becomes us to exercise all our former vigilance & industry. I have little doubt, if he attempts Mobile, as probably he will, that I shall receive a good account of him. It will be glorious to wipe away the stain which I am fearful the American arms have sustained!
    Nothing is wanting to insure you success, but a believe inspire into your troops that they will be victorious; & such a disposition of them as I am satisfied you will make I have enclosed the Bulletin forwarded by Adml. Cochrane to Genl McIntosh with a request that he hand it you. Very respectfully--

Andrew Jackson
Major Genl. Comdg.


Letter from John Reid to Goodwin Brown Cotten

Head Quarters 7. M District
New Orleans. 21 Feb: 1815

    It is expected that you will give immediate publicity to the enclosed by printing it in handbills as you have printed that which this is meant to counteract; & also by inserting it in your next paper.

John Reid
Aid-de Camp

Head Quarters 7 M District
New Orleans 21 Feb: 1815

    The commanding general having seen a publication which issued from your press today, stating that  a “Flag had just arrived from Admiral Cochrane to Genl. Jackson officially announcing the conclusion of peace between the United States & Great Britain, & virtually requesting a suspension of arms requires that you will hasten to remove any improper impression which so unauthorized & incorrect a statement may have made.  
    No request, either direct or virtual has been made to him by the commander of either of the land or naval forces of G Britain for a suspension of arms.
    The letter of Bathurst to the Lord Mayor, which furnishes the only official information that has been communicated will not allow the supposition that a suspension of hostilities is meant or expected, until the treaty signed by the respective commissioners shall have received the ratification of the Prince Regent & of the President of the United States
    A copy of that letter had been some days before brought by Mr. Livingston from the English Fleet & published in this city.
    The commanding general again calls upon his fellow citizens & soldiers to recollect that it is yet uncertain whether the articles which have been signed at Ghent for the reestablishment of peace will be approved by those whose approbation is necessary to give efficacy to them. Until that approbation is given & properly announced he would be wanting to the important interests which have been confided to his protection if he permitted any relaxation in the army under his command
    How disgraceful as well as disastrous would it be, if by surrendering ourselves credulously & weakly to newspaper publications-- often proceeding from ignorance but more frequently from dishonest design-- we permitted an enemy whom we have so lately & so gloriously beaten to regain the advantages he has lost, & triumph over us in turn!!
    The general order issued on the 19th Inst expresses the feelings, the views & the hopes which the commanding general still entertains
    Henceforward it is expected that no publication of the nature of that here in alluded to & censured will appear in any paper of this city unless the editor shall have previously ascertained its correctness, & gained permission for its insertions from the proper source By command

John Reid
Aid-de Camp

Courtesy of the Andrew Jackson Papers


Letter to Andrew Jackson from John Adair

New Orleans March 20th. 1815

Majr Gnl Jackson,
    A sense of duty to my Country and to the Corps, with which I immediately served during the late perilous campaign under your command; has induced me to lay before you the following statement of facts which cannot be controverted-- Late on the evening of the 7th. Of Jany I received an order from the Adjt Genls Office to send 400 men from Majr Genl Thomas's Division; under a proper officer, who was directed to march them up the river to the Citty, where he would receive arms for the men; cross the river, & place himself under the command of Genl. Morgan-- This order was given to Colo Davis at 7 oclock, who immediately marched the number of men, ordered to the Citty, where about 200 of them were furnished with indifferent arms. The remainder, who could not be armed in any way returned to their Camp-- Colo Davis crossed the river in the night & reached Genl. Morgans Camp at 4 oclock in the morning of the 8th. He was immediately ordered to mrach down the river until he met the Enemy; attack him and if compelled by numbers to retreat, he was to dispute every inch of ground back to the Genls breast work-- This order was executed by Colo Davis in its fullest extent-- He met the Enemy at the distance of half or three quarters of a mile from the breast work, and altho deserted by Majr Arno's command (with whom he was to act) he formed his men in the open field; attacked the Enemy; & fired form 3 to 5 rounds, & retreated under a heavy fire, after receiving an order from the Genls aid to do so his men still returning the fire of the enemy, who pressed until he passed the breast works-- the above statement is fully proven by the testimony of Majr Brown, Aid to Genl Morgan; by Majr Tessa of the Lousiana Militia, by Majr Johnsston & Doct Hambleton No blame, no censure could possibly be attached to the Kentuckians in this affair-- Colo Davis on passing to the rear of the breast Work; was again ordered by Genl. Morgan, to form his corps (now 170 strong) on the right of the Louisiana Militia; who 500 strong and supported by the Artillery, were posted behind a breast work-- finished & extending 200 yards out at right angles from the river-- Colo Davis's command of 170 men were agreeable to the Genl's order formed or rather stretched along a Ditch from the right of the breast Work; occupying a space of 300 yards-- In this weak defenceless situation they received the Attack of the enemy in front-- the Kentuckians here again fired from 3 to 7 rounds; ( all those whose guns could fire) nor did they retreat until a part of the enemys force had turned or passed their right, and were firing on their rear longer resistance must have subjected them to inevitable capture or destruction-- for the truth of the facts here stated I refer you to the testimony of Capt. Holt, Capt. Ford & Adjt. Stevens, taken before the Court of enquiry; as likewise Colo Caldwell of Louisiana Militia, who had the ground measured-- On the right of the Kentucky line, thus scattered along a Ditch, there was still a space of open Ground, several hundred yards, undefended by any; where the Enemy might and did pass to their rear-- No attempt was made no order given to support the Kentuckians by a detachment from the breast work (where they might have been well spared) for it is in proof that the Enemys line approaching the breast work on the levy were repulsed by our artillery, and fell back nor did the advance again until the right of our line was turned and the breast work abandoned-- thus then we find 500 men of the Louisiana Milita, completely defended by a breast work in front and supported by several pieces of artiliry defended on their right by the Kentucky detachment, who altho few in number & badly armed; wereleft to beat the whole force of the Enemy, or retreat from inevitable distruction-- To the retreat of this small Corps has been attributed the disgrace of that day-- more sir, it has been represented by letters from this place; published in Tennessa & throughout the union; as the shameful, cowardly flight of a strong detachment of Kentuckians without firing a Gun-- This clumny, false & unfounded as it is, has gained credit abroad from your Excellencys official communication of the 9th Jany. To the Secretary at war-- In that you designate the Kentucky troops, with genl Morgan as a strong detachment, and again say they ingloriously fled, drawing after them the rest of the Troops-- You will not for a moment believe that I can mean any, the slightest reflection on your conduct by thus bringing into view your official letter-- I well know that communication, as well as every other from you was predicated on the reports made from different parts of the Army, under your command; but you will agree with me that those reports were not always well founded and that form Various causes, it was often difficult for you to obtain any report during the day, of the transactions that took place on the night previous-- In your letter of the 9th. Jany., you say, you received but little aditional strength, from the arival of the Kentuckians but few of that Detachment being armed-- and again in speaking of the morning of the 8th you say the Enemy was repulsed by the troops under Genls. Carrol & Coffy, & a division of the Kentucky milita This taken with other parts of that communication, in which the Kentucky troops are mentioned, has given rise to an oppinion in many parts of the unuion, that but few of the Kentucky men fought on the lines on the morning of the 8th-- your report, strictly true so far as relates to the arrival of the Kentucky troops, and to their situation on your lines on the 5th and 6th of Jany. Not more than 550 of them being armed until the evening of the 7th-- yet has a tendency to mislead as to their numbers on the 8th-- on the 7th. I received from a corps of exemps in the Citty, between 4 & 500 musketts & Bayonetts, on a loan for three days-- With this timely supply we were enabled to bring on the lines on the morning of the 8th. Fully 1000 men. This Corps, was stationed agreeable to your order some distance in the rear of the breast work;  with the sole view that they might be led, to the defense of any part of the works, where their services might be most useful & necessary-- to this wise order and arangement was it owing, that 1000 men in adition to the usual defense on the liens, was brought to meet the Enemys' stron collumn and to oppose with ranks of from 6 to 8 deep his most daring and esperate attack-- to this disposition of the Troops we may in a good degree attribute the unparrelelled destruction that took place in the Collumn of the Enemy on that day-- I thus bring to your recollection facts and circumstances, which altho they took place under your own orders, may, in the hurry and ocnfusion of the moment, have escaped your notice and the more so as no report was called for on the 8th from the officers commanding separate Corps-- The court of Enquiry ordered to investigate the affair on the west side of the river-- have by their report acquitted Colo Davis of all balme or censure and have said the retreat of they Kentuckians may be excuseable from their position, want of arms &c. The language Sir in which this oppinion is couched, to which I refer you, is not such as can satisfy the pride of a soldier, who having done his duty faithfully, has been slandered by those who have been more to blasme than himself-- At the request of my fellow soldiers from kentucky, who have had the honor of serving, and we trust of having done their duty, under your command in this last, but most glorious Campaign of the war, I have been induced to make this appeal to your Justice, for a more explicit approval of their conduct, and if the are entitled to it, for such a one as will enable them to meet their fellow soldiers in kentucky without a blush-- Finding after the retreat of the Enemy, that you had much still to occupy and perplex you, I puroposely delayed this application until you might have leisure ot attend to it-- I am Sir with the highest sentiments of respect & esteem Yours--

John Adair

Letter from Andrew Jackson to Hughes Lavergne

Head quarters 7th Military District
February 20th. 1815

    On the application you made to me, supported by the report of Capt. White in behalf of the owners of slaves taken by the British forces, I beg that you would assure those gentlemen that I have taken and will take every step which my official duty will allow, to procure a restoration of their property.
    Having received an intimation from Genl. Lambert that the negroes would be returned, I immediately authorized Capt. Henley to proceed to the fleet & receive them.
    To this application no answer was returned-- nothing but the strongest desire to procure a restoration of their property to the suffering citizens, would have induced me after this to expose myself a second time to a slight of the same nature; availing myself however of an other opening which offered I again pressed the subject and at the solicitation of the gentlemen interested, permitted Captn. White to accompany Mr. Livingston; by his report which you communicated to me it appears that fallacious promises were all that could be obtained-- In a day or two an other flag will be sent with the prisoners for exchange, I shall once more demand a categorical answer on the subject by the officer who carries it, if this is refused or evaded the planters may be persuaded that the offers & promises of the English were only made for the worst purposes.
    I be you also to state that duty will not permit me to go farther than this, that my government would have reason strongly to reprehend my conduct, should I permit any intercourse with the enemy, except through the regular channel, and that tho' I sincerely lament the losses of the gentlemen concerned I cannot take any step to gratify them which I am convinced would be incorrect-- Should the ratification of the treaty of Peace arrive, the Individual interested may then have permission to try what effect their application can have—til then it cannot be permitted. I am sir, with great consideration your most obedt. Servant

Andrew Jackson
Major Genl. Commandg


Letter to Andrew Jackson from Diego Morphy

Spanish Consulate
New Orleans Feb.17, 1,815
     In consequence of having observed that the certificates I have granted to the legitimate subjects of H. C. M. resident in this City, to exempt them from an active military service, which  they are not subject to by the civil Laws or the Law of Nature; I deem it my duty as Vice Consul, or otherwise as the only representative as I have been hitherto and am now, in this State for the affairs of my Nation, to request of you t oinform me or the Public in what place and with what justifiable Documents the subjects of H. M. my Master should present themselves to prove they are so, and consequently be exempted from said service.
     Permit me to assure you I should not molest you under actual circumstances, did I not consider the very great injustice it would be to reject the just claim which some Spanish Gentlemen have made and continue to make, on a subject of such consequence. I am led to hope from your known justice that you will dispose for the best; persuaded that I will impart the result to His Excellency Don Luis de Onis H. C. M. Minister Plenipotenciary near these United States.
     With sentiments of the highest consideration I have the honor to subscribe myself yr. very obdt. hble St.
Diego Morphy

Letter from Andrew Jackson to Robert Hays

Head quarters 7th. M District
Neworleans February 17th. 1815
9 oclock p.m.

     The mail has arived and brought me yours of the 6th. instant, and a Letter from Colo Anderson of the 14th. Natchez, advising that he and the ladies had Just reached that place, the citizens had laid an embargo on the ladies for the night, to partake of a party, and they would set out at revelie on the morning of the 15th. all in good health, I hope I shall see them tomorrow-- I have had a serious attack of disentry that reduced me very much, brought on by cold and fatigue in short I have not been clear of it for four months except tend days after my first arival at this place, until five days ago, when Doctor [David C.] Kerr Hospital Surgeon suceeded in stoppit-- and I am again recovering my strength-- in all this situation I have not indulged one day from my duty-- I have this moment recd. a letter from Mr Shields purser of the navy from Bay of St. Louis advising, that the British vessels of war were off Mobile Point and their Transports 45 in number between Horn Island and the main land near Pasgagola-- three of these vessels east of Cat Island-- a few days will develope ther views and intentions--Coffee, Hutchings, Capt Donelson and all relations here well Colo Smith has been sick but on the recovery. with my best wishes for your & your families happiness adieu--

Andrew Jackson


Letter to Andrew Jackson from James Winchester

Mobile 16th Feb 1815
     I have the mortification to inform you that the garrison of Fort Bowyer surrendered by capitulation to an overwhelming force of the enemy on Sunday last the 12th instant-- This information I have received from Major Blue who was sent with a detachment to raize the siege if possible or effect a divertion of the enemies force; He arrived within four miles of the point on monday and surprized and took one of the enemies piquets consisting of 17 men but he was 24 hours too late to releive the garrison, we havelost three of the small schooners which transported this detachment to Bon Secour and one has not been hera of which saild with supplies for the garrison. I expect Major Blues detachment has arrived on the east side of the bay opposite to this; by this time and am now sending the means of transport across to bring it over prisoners state the enemies force to be 5000 strong. General McIntosh is not arrived but daily expected, you will herewith receive a copy of his last letter to me.
     Provisions is becoming a serious subject of concern; If this precious article was transported across lake Ponchartrain would not the road from where it could be Landed be shorter and better to Mount Vernon than from the Natchez
     I have had the honor to receive your dispatch of the 20th ult. I am most respectuflly Sir Your obedient Servant

J Winchester B. Genl
com E Sec 7th M Dist

Letter to Andrew Jackson from Jesse Wharton

City of Washington
Feb. 16. 1815
Dear Sir
     I have the pleasure to inform you, that after great delay, the Creek treaty was this day ratified in the Senate by an unamous vote-- Since the news of the unparralled victory obtained by you and your brave band, over the enemy reaches this place all opposition to that treaty has subsided-- Mr. Anderson and myself availed ourselves of this favorable change, and accordingly pressed the subject on the consideration of the senate. Before the receipt of that news, it appeared to us, dangerous to submit that treaty for ratification-- great opposition seemed to exist against the treaty. We considered it all important not to urge a decision on the treaty, until it was certain it would carry. The western people were too much interested in that treaty, to hazard any thing in relation to it--
     A treaty of amity and peace between this country and England is now under ourr consideration. This treaty was signed at Ghent on the 24th. of Decr., and on the 30th. of the same month ratified by the Prince Regent--It is believed this treaty will not be dishonorable to America-- The Contest in which we have been engaged, will convince the world that we are not unworthy of the high priviledges we enjoy, and that we can, and will support them at any and all hazards. In great haste Yr. friend

J Wharton


Letter to Andrew Jackson from Juan Pablo Anaya

New Orleans 15th. of Feb. of 1815
     One of my chief objects in coming to this city , was to seek the surest means of forwarding an intercourse between my country and this, relative to political affairs, with a view of negotiating an intimate alliance between the two nations, an even so desireable on account of the relations which so closely unite us, and which I omit to mention, being persuaded that they are as well known to your Excellency, as to all my countrymen. But I have been detained here by a continued series of disappointments, which I forbear to mention particularly, the object of the letter I now have the honour to address to your Exy. being merely to express my gratitude for the favours and consideration I have received from you, thro' an effect of your goodness, not of any merit on my part; and as I have not yet a safe opportunity of returning home to render to my government an account of the manner in which I have discharged my commission, I take occasion, in the interim, to return to your Exy. the thanks I owe you.
     In terming disappointments the circumstances which have detained me here, I can allude only to those prior the 23d. of last December, for from that day forth, I have had the pleasure of attending your Excy. in your military functions, as an unequivocal proof that my countrymen acknowledge the relations, and espouse the interests of this country, without any machiavelian or selfish consideration; a truth of which I trust your Exy. is persuaded.
     Even tho' an ardent love for my country inclined me to think (which is not the case) that I had lost my time, I should reflect with pleasure on the maxim which says, that "Every evil happens for some good purpose." that is, that my detention has happily procured me the honour of enjoying the society and friendship of his Exy. General Jackson.
     The remembrance of your Exy. will to me be ever grateful and flattering, and painful is the idea of my taking leave of you, which will constantly cast a shade of melancholy on the recollection of your Exy's polite attentions to me. These I will never cease to mention with a grateful sense, when I speak, as I often shall do, of the valour and enthusiasm with which you defended your country against an invading enemy, and of the eminent private virtues of which I have had the honour to be an attentive spectator.  All this I will, with much pleasure, lay before the eyes of my countrymen, my companions in arms, and proclaim to the whole world, as a model and example in similar circumstances.
     Wherefore I request your Exy. to accept my thanks, so justly due, together with the assurance of the lasting benevolence of my heart; and to give me, for my honour and satisfaction, such commands as you may think proper. Praying God to preserve your Excellency many years, I have the honor to be Sir, Your Excelly.'s most affectionate servant

Juan Pablo Anaya